To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Hammadid dynasty

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hammadid dynasty
1014–1152
The Hammadid Kingdom in 1071[1]
The Hammadid Kingdom in 1071[1]
CapitalBeni Hammad (until 1090)
Béjaïa (after 1090)
Official languagesArabic, Berber
Religion
Islam
GovernmentMonarchy
Sultan 
• 1008–1028
Hammad ibn Buluggin
• 1121–1152
Yahya ibn Abd al-Aziz
History 
• Established
1014
• Disestablished
1152
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Zirid dynasty
Almohad Caliphate
Today part ofAlgeria
Morocco
Libya
Tunisia

The Hammadid dynasty or Kingdom of Hammadid (Arabic: الحمّاديون) was a branch of the Sanhaja Berber dynasty that ruled an area roughly corresponding to north-eastern modern Algeria between 1008 and 1152. Its realm was conquered by the Almohad Empire.

The Hammadid dynasty's first capital was at Qalaat Beni Hammad. It was founded in 1007, and is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. When the area was sacked by the Banu Hilal tribe, the Hammadids moved their capital to Béjaïa in 1090.

History

In 987 and 989, al-Mansur ibn Buluggin, the emir of the Berber Zirid dynasty, appointed his uncle Hammad ibn Buluggin as governor of Ashir and western Zirid lands. Hammad subsequently defended the territory against Zenata incursions and was granted additional lands by al-Mansur's successor Badis ibn Mansur. In 1007 and 1008, forces under Hammad left Ashir and built a new citadel-capital, Qalaat Beni Hammad (also called Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad), in M'Sila Province in the Hodna Mountains; a thriving city sprung up around the fortress.[2]

In 1014, Hammad declared his independence from Zirid suzerainty and switched his spiritual allegiance from the Shi'a Fatimid caliphs to the Sunni Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad. The Zirids failed to quash the rebellion and recognized Hammadid legitimacy in 1017, in a peace with al-Mu'izz, that was sealed by Hammad's son and successor, Qaid ibn Hammad.[2] Al-Mu'izz subsequently also broke with the Fatimids and changed his allegiance to the Abbasids; the Fatimids under al-Mustansir, along with their fierce Bedouin Arab allies, the Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym, subsequently launched a massive and devastating campaign in present-day Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria, culminating in al-Mu'izz's defeat in 1053 and the subsequent reduction of the Zirids to a small, insignificant territory based in Mahdia.[2] Amidst the chaos, the Hammadids reverted their allegiance to the Fatimids and managed to negotiate an alliance with the Bedouin tribes.[2]

During their reign the Hammadids extended their empire to Morocco, even capturing Fez under Buluggin ibn Muhammad.[3] They extended far east past Susa all the way to Tripoli and expanded south deep into the Sahara.[4] In 1039 the Maghrawa King submitted to the Hammadids after his defeat by the Hammadid ruler al-Qaid. [5] The Hammadids captured and held important regions such as Ouargla, Constantine, Sfax, Susa, Algiers, Tripoli and Fez, establishing their rule in every country in the Maghreb region.[6][3][4] At one point during their reign they also had possession of Sijilmasa as well as a number of oases south of Tunisia which were the termini of trans-Saharan routes.[7]

The realm of the Hammadids during the reign of Buluggin ibn Muhammad
The realm of the Hammadids during the reign of Buluggin ibn Muhammad
Territories controlled by the Hammadids during the reign of Al-Nasir ibn Alnas
Territories controlled by the Hammadids during the reign of Al-Nasir ibn Alnas

Although the Hammadids and Zirids entered into an agreement in 1077 in which Zirid ruler Tamim's daughter married into the Hammadids, this did not end the rivalry between the dynasties.[8] A common pattern was for Hammadids and Zirids to support "rival coalitions of Arab tribes to fight their proxy wars."[9] The Hammidid–Zirid rivalry also influenced the choice of which caliph to recognize; historian Amar S. Baadj writes, "It would appear that the principle which the Hammadids followed in the course of their relations with Baghdad and Cairo was that of opposing the Zirids. Whenever the Zirids recognized one of two rival caliphs, the Hammadids would declare their submission to the other."[10]

Buluggin ibn Muhammad, a subsequent Hammadid ruler, invaded Morocco and briefly took Fez, but was forced to retreat against the Almoravid forces of Yusuf ibn Tashfin. Almoravid conquests between 1062 and 1082 extended their lands across Morocco and western Algeria.[2] al-Nasir ibn Alnas assassinated his paternal cousin Buluggin and became the new emir.[11] The Hammadid empire peaked during al-Nasir's reign.[11][2] The early part of his reign (c. 1067–1072) was marked by the development of Béjaïa (formerly Bougie) from a small fishing village into a larger, fortified town. Renamed al-Nasiriya to honor the emir, Bougie developed into a sophisticated trading city; under al-Nasir and his son and successor al-Mansur ibn Nasir, large gardens, palaces, a Great Mosque, and other landmarks were constructed in the town.[2]

In the 11th century, the Hammadids came under increasing pressure from the Banu Hilal, who had settled in the Plains of Constantine and increasingly threatened Qalaat Beni Hammad.[2] While initially allied to the Bedouins, the Hammadids later became their puppets, allocating half of their harvest yields to them and buying off tribemen in order to secure the safety of trade routes. Over time, Qalaat Beni Hammad was eventually eclipsed by Bougie.[2] In 1090, with the Banu Hilal menace rising, the Hammadids moved their capital to Bougie, yielding their southern territories to the Hilalians. The Hammadids maintained control of a small but prosperous coastal territory between Ténès and La Calle (now El Kala).[2] E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam (1927) states that the Qalaat Beni Hammad "was not completely abandoned by al-Mansur and he even embellished it with a number of palaces. The Hammadid kingdom had therefore at this point two capitals joined by a royal road."[12]

An-Nasir built Bejaia into a fortified port and town between 1067 and 1072 before it became the capital in 1090.[13] An-Nasir corresponded with Pope Gregory VII and expanded commercial opportunities for Italian traders in Bejaia. The city since flourished as a trading port and a prominent intellectual centre where even Abu Madyan and the Andalusian Shaykh Abu Ali Hassan bin Ali Muhammad taught.[14] Leonardo Fibonacci had also studied in Bejaia, his father was appointed as collector of customs in Bejaia and he brought Leonardo along with him where he was taught.[15] It was in Bejaia where Fibonacci was introduced to the Arabic numerical system and computational method, he later introduced this numerical system to Europe.[16][17] He was also introduced to a book of algebra written by al-Khowarizmi.

In the early 12th century they defeated the Almoravids and took control of Tlemcen.[18] During the reign of al-Mansur's son Abd al-Aziz ibn Mansur, Bougie had about 100,000 people, and the Hammadids consolidated their power in the city. The dynasty suffered a decline after this point; efforts to develop more sea power in the Mediterranean were foiled by the Normans, who by the 12th century had conquered Sicily and had also occupied a number of settlements on the coast of Tunisia and Algeria. However, Abd al-Aziz did expel the Hilalians from Hodna and capture Jerba.[2]

The last dynastic emir was Yahya ibn Abd al-Aziz. Yahya repulsed Bedouin incursions and subdued uprisings by Berber clans, but during his reign the Genoese also raided Bougie (1136) and the Kingdom of Sicily occupied the settlement of Djidjelli and destroyed a pleasure palace that had been built there.[2] In 1144 and 1145, Yahya dispatched Hammadid forces to join the Almoravids in fighting the Berber Almohads, led by Almohad Caliph Abd al-Mu'min.[2] In 1151–52, Abd al-Mu'min conquered Tlemcen and Oran (1152) and marched against the Hammadids.[2] The Almohads took Algiers (1152) and then captured Bougie later the same year, crushing Hammadid forces at the gates of the city.[2] This marked a major military triumph for Abd al-Mu'min.[19] Yahya fled to Constantine but surrendered several months later.[11] He died in comfortable exile in Salé, Morocco, in 1163.[2][11] Abd al-Mu'min enslaved the women and children of Hammadid loyalists who had fought against him, but did not sack Bougie because the city had willingly surrendered.[19]

Some 30 years after the collapse of the Hammadids, the dynasty had a brief revival in 1184, when 'Ali ibn Ghaniya—a member of the Banu Ghaniya branch of the Almoravid dynasty, which had established a corsair kingdom in the Balearic Islands—seized control of Bougie, recruited a mixed force of "dispossessed Hammadids, Sanhajahh Berbers, and Hilalian tribes" opposed to Almohad rule, and quickly captured Algiers, Miliana, Ashir, and al Qal'a, with the goal of establishing a new Almoravid polity in the Maghreb.[2] Less than a year later, the Almohad had recaptured all the towns.[2] The Banu Ghaniya did retain, through the end of the Almohad period, some influence in Tripolitania, southern Tunisia, and the Algerian plains, where Hammadid loyalists numbered among their allies.[2]

Art and architecture

Architecture

Hammadid Minaret
Hammadid Minaret

Qal’at Beni Hammad, the dynasty's capital, was described by Al-Bakri in the 11th century as a large and powerful military stronghold and a centre of commerce that attracted caravans from all over the Maghreb, Iraq, Syria, Egypt and the Hejaz.[20] 14th-century Arab historian and philosopher Ibn Khaldun noted that the abundance of travellers was due to the wealth of resources offered to those interested in sciences, commerce and arts. The Qala attracted poets, sages and theologians. The architecture of the Hammadids even influenced that of the Normans.[21]

Hammadid emirs constructed five palaces, most of which are now destroyed. The keep of the Palace of the Fanal (Qasr al-Manar), however, survives to this day.[2] A minaret, 82 feet (25 m) in height, is the only remaining part of the ruined Great Mosque; the structure bears some resemblance to Seville's Giralda.[2] The Hammadid mosque is said to have been the largest mosque constructed in North Africa prior to the twentieth century and it features the typical Maghreb style square minaret.[22] Architecture in Qalaat Beni Hammad featured adornments of "porcelain mosaics of many-colored faience, sculpted panels and plaster, enameled terra-cotta stalactites; building and pottery ornamentation consisted of geometric designs and stylized floral motifs."[2]

Oldest fragments of muqarnas in the Western Islamic world discovered at the Hammadid site
Oldest fragments of muqarnas in the Western Islamic world discovered at the Hammadid site

In Qal’at Beni Hammad, fragments of stucco muqarnas were discovered from the Qasr al-Salam and the Qasr al-Manar, these being the oldest fragments of muqarnas in the Western Islamic world dating back to the 11th or 12th century.[23] There are no earlier examples of muqarnas in the Islamic West, and according to professor Lucien Golvin, the fragments of the muqarnas semi-dome at the Qasr al-Salam are the “earliest extant remains of a true muqarnas vault” ever documented in the entire Islamic world.[23]

Furthermore, the Qal’at buildings are considered to be documented antecedents and precursors to certain developments in Western Islamic art in the 12th century.[23] Plaster capitals that were found at the Qal’at were composed of smooth leaves recurved in their upper part are considered to be an antecedent to the common Almoravid and Almohad forms which are seen in the Great Mosque of Tlemcen or in Tinmel.[23] The framework of a marble basin and a grey marble fragment document the use of multifoil arches with spiral-form impost decoration. The use of this motif at the Qal’at subsequently spread during the times of the Almoravids and became universal in Almohad buildings.[23] The square rooms surrounded by rampant barrel vaults in the Qasr al-Manar have been compared to the Almohad minarets and the Torre Pisana in Palermo which it predates. The Hammadid palaces are also noted to contain the first or one of the first documented use of shadirwan.[24]

Art

The excavations in the Qal’at Beni Hammad also discovered the first reference corpus of Islamic ceramics.[22][verification needed] The production of ceramics in Al-Andalus during the taifa and Almoravid periods reflect a strong and direct Hammadid influence.[25] The technique of luster-painting on pottery was passed from al Qal-at to Bougie to Malaga and black painted and incised earthenware objects as well as bronze sculptures from the Zirids most likely influenced similar objects in Andalusia.[25] Ceramic architectural decorations had never played such a large role in the Islamic world up until the Hammadids and from there it subsequently spread to Al-Andalus and Morocco where it became a hallmark for the architecture of these countries and it also spread throughout Europe.[26]

Luster-painted and glazed ceramic decoration in a wide variety of shapes and forms were a feature in the Islamic architecture of Hammadid-era Bougie.[27] Al-Nasir reputedly negotiated with Pope Gregory VII for the services of Italian masons and other skilled craftsmen for the construction of Bougie.[2] Although Bougie is mostly in ruins, a large sea gate reportedly survives.[28] The Bab al-Bahr (gate of the sea) was built during an-Nasirs reign along with five other gates with the purpose of protecting the town. It is now a ruin consisted of a pointed arch constructed with solid bricks.[29] The Bab al-Bunud was also built in Bejaia during an-Nasirs reign with hexagonal towers and its two ogival-arch gates.[30]

In Bejaia drawings of a facade of two palaces with ground plans by one of the Hammadids have been preserved and provide an insight into palatial architecture of the time period of the Hammadids. The first palace consisted of a huge domed hall flanked by smaller domed towers and chambers while the second palace called al-Kukab which was said to have been located where the present day Bordj Moussa is currently situated. al-Kukab consisted of a large centred hall with a gabled roof flanked by side aisles and two small towers.[31]

The Great Mosque of Constantine was originally constructed by the Hammadids in the 12th century and was built on the ruins of a Roman temple.[citation needed]

During the excavations of the Hammadid site many ancient objects were discovered:[citation needed]

Rulers

Family tree of the Hammadid Kings
Family tree of the Hammadid Kings

Notable Battles

See also

Gallery

Notes

  1. ^ Les relations des pays d'Islam avec le monde latin: du milieu du Xe siècle au milieu du XIIIe siècle John Victor Tolan, Philippe Josserand Editions Bréal,
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Jeff Huebner, "Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad (M'sila, Algeria)" in Middle East and Africa: International Dictionary of Historic Places (Vol. 4) (eds. K.A. Berney, Trudy Ring & Noelle Watson: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1996), pp. 36-39.
  3. ^ a b Hattstein, M.; Delius, P. (2004). Islam: Art and Architecture. Könemann. p. 614. ISBN 978-3-8331-1178-5. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  4. ^ a b Ilahiane, H. (2006). Historical Dictionary of the Berbers (Imazighen). Historical Dictionaries of Peoples and Cultures. Scarecrow Press. pp. 55, 56. ISBN 978-0-8108-6490-0. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  5. ^ Idris, Hady Rodger (1962). La Berbérie Orientale sous les Zirides (tome 1) [Oriental Berberie Under the Zirids] (PDF) (in French). Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve. p. 158.
  6. ^ Baadj, A.S. (2015). Saladin, the Almohads and the Banū Ghāniya: The Contest for North Africa (12th and 13th centuries). Studies in the History and Society of the Maghrib. Brill. p. 42. ISBN 978-90-04-29857-6. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  7. ^ Lewis, A.R. (1988). Nomads and Crusaders, A.D. 1000-1368. A Midland Book. Indiana University Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-253-20652-7. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  8. ^ Amar S. Baadj, Saladin, the Almohads and the Banū Ghāniya: The Contest for North Africa (12th and 13th centuries) (Brill: 2013), p. 45.
  9. ^ Amar S. Baadj, Saladin, the Almohads and the Banū Ghāniya: The Contest for North Africa (12th and 13th centuries) (Brill: 2013), p. 34, footnote 20.
  10. ^ Amar S. Baadj, Saladin, the Almohads and the Banū Ghāniya: The Contest for North Africa (12th and 13th centuries) (Brill: 2013), p. 46.
  11. ^ a b c d Amar S. Baadj, Saladin, the Almohads and the Banū Ghāniya: The Contest for North Africa (12th and 13th centuries) (Brill: 2013), pp. 42-47.
  12. ^ Georges Marcais, "Al-Mansur, the sixth ruler of the Hammadid dynasty" in E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Vol. 5 (ed. M. Th. Houtsma et al.) (Brill 1927: reprint ed. 1993), p. 250.
  13. ^ Middle East and Africa: International Dictionary of Historic Places edited by Trudy Ring, Noelle Watson, Paul Schellinger
  14. ^ Historical Dictionary of Algeria By Phillip C. Naylor
  15. ^ Histoire des mathématiques By Jean-Pierre Escofier
  16. ^ Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers with Applications By Thomas Koshy
  17. ^ Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers Verner E. Hoggatt Houghton Mifflin,
  18. ^ Ilahiane, H. (2006). Historical Dictionary of the Berbers (Imazighen). Historical Dictionaries of Peoples and Cultures. Scarecrow Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-8108-6490-0. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  19. ^ a b Heather J. Empey, "The Mothers of the Caliph's Sons: Women as Spoils of War During the Early Almohad Period" in Concubines and Courtesans: Women and Slavery in Islamic History (eds. Matthew S. Gordon & Kathryn A. Hain: Oxford University Press, 2017), p. 151.
  20. ^ "Site of Qal'at Bani Hammad - Discover Islamic Art". Virtual Museum - islamicart.museumwnf.org. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  21. ^ L. Hadda, Zirid and Hammadid palaces in North Africa and its influence on Norman architecture in Sicily, in Word, Heritage and Knowledge, a cura di C. Gambardella, XVI Forum International di Studi-Le vie dei Mercanti, Napoli-Capri 14-16 giugno 2018, Roma 2018, pp. 323-332
  22. ^ a b Early Islamic North Africa: A New Perspective By Corisande Fenwick
  23. ^ a b c d e The Use of Muqarnas in Hammadid Art. Some Preliminary Observations. Maurizio Massaiu.
  24. ^ Constructions of Power and Piety in Medieval Aleppo By Yasser Tabbaa
  25. ^ a b The Art of Medieval Spain, A.D. 500-1200 By Jerrilynn D. Dodds, Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)
  26. ^ Islamic Art and Architecture 650-1250: 2nd Edition By Richard Ettinghausen, Oleg Grabar, Professor Emeritus of Islamic Art and Architecture Oleg Grabar, Marilyn Jenkins
  27. ^ Richard Ettinghausen, Oleg Grabar & Marilyn Jenkins, Islamic Art and Architecture 650-1250 (2d ed.: Yale University Press, 2001), pp. 276-77, 283.
  28. ^ "Algeria" in Andrew Petersen, Dictionary of Islamic Architecture (Routledge, 1996), p. 13.
  29. ^ "Bab al-Bahr (Gate of the Sea) - Discover Islamic Art". Virtual Museum - islamicart.museumwnf.org. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  30. ^ "Bab al-Bunud (Gate of the Standards) - Discover Islamic Art". Virtual Museum - islamicart.museumwnf.org. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  31. ^ Islamic Palace Architecture in the Western Mediterranean: A History Felix Arnold Oxford University Press
This page was last edited on 4 January 2022, at 16:30
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.