To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Hallmark Cards

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hallmark Cards, Inc.
Private
IndustryRetail, greeting card, television
FoundedKansas City, Missouri, United States (January 10, 1910; 109 years ago (1910-01-10))
FounderJoyce Hall
Headquarters2501 McGee Street, ,
United States
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Donald J. Hall Sr.
(Chairman)
Donald J. Hall Jr.
(CEO)
David E. Hall
(President)
Products
  • Greeting Cards
  • Gift Wrap
  • Party Goods
  • Giftware
  • Stationery
  • Electronic Greetings
  • Keepsake Ornaments
  • Media/Entertainment
Brands
RevenueIncrease US $4.0 billion (2016)[1]
OwnerHall family
Number of employees
16,000
Subsidiaries
Websitehallmark.com

Hallmark Cards, Inc. is a private, family-owned U.S. company based in Kansas City, Missouri. Founded in 1910 by Joyce Hall, Hallmark is the oldest and largest manufacturer of greeting cards in the United States.[2] In 1985, the company was awarded the National Medal of Arts.[3]

In addition to greeting cards, Hallmark also manufactures such products as party goods, gift wrap, and stationery. Hallmark acquired Binney & Smith in 1987, and would later change its name to Crayola, LLC after its well-known Crayola brand of crayons, markers and colored pencils. The company is also involved in television, having produced the long-running Hallmark Hall of Fame series since 1951, and launching the Hallmark Channel 50 years later (replacing an earlier joint venture with The Jim Henson Company, Odyssey Network).

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/2
    Views:
    206 609
    2 015
  • ✪ Hallmark - Bigger Than You Know
  • ✪ Documentary: Hallmark Cards (People's Choice Winner - 2010 Telly Awards)

Transcription

Welcome to Episode 6 of Bigger Than You Know, the series where I feature companies that turn out to be much bigger than most people realize. Today, it's Hallmark. You probably know them for their greeting cards, but there's so much more to this company. I even think the greeting card part of the business tends to get overlooked. They help shape that entire industry, and you can even say they helped create it. And today, no one in that industry is bigger. The man responsible for starting Hallmark is J.C. Hall. It was back in 1910, and he was only 18 years old. It started off as a very small post card company, post cards were a big thing at the time. He started getting a little traction, and after about a year, his brother joined him and they named the company Hall Brothers. They were successful in selling postcards, but they viewed it as more of a fad. They figured if they wanted to establish a more sustainable business, they would have to expand into something else. That's when they started producing greeting cards. They were doing well in selling both postcards and greeting cards, until 1915, when they had a major setback. It was a fire that destroyed their office and their entire inventory about a month before Valentine's Day. Let me explain. Back then, basically the only time someone would send greeting cards were Christmas and Valentine's Day. So, losing their entire inventory of greeting cards a month before Valentine's Day was, as I said, a major setback. Such a setback, where that's where you have to sit down and evaluate whether or not it's worth it to continue. I'm sure we've all had moments like this. So, there's a little inspiration we could all pull from J.C. Hall. He had only five years invested into a small business, he was still only 23 years old, and he experienced such a setback that it left him not far from where he started. It would have been so easy for him to just walk away and start focusing on something else, but he chose to continue. And, look what its led to. He had a vision of what he wanted to do, and a plan of how to make it happen. He abandoned the postcards, and went all in with the greeting cards. He took out a loan, and bought a local engraving firm with a printing press, and started printing his own cards, and it was a big success. Now, obviously, they'd like to sell cards outside of those two holidays. So they just started doing it. Why not? First, they offered an everyday card, it would say "thanks for being such a great friend," or something like that. It soon expanded to birthdays, and anniversaries. Today, you can buy a card from Hallmark for just about any occasion, and there's a term called Hallmark Holiday. There's holidays like Grandparents Day and Sweetest Day, people even accuse Hallmark of inventing these holidays, just to sell cards. I found a page on their website where they deny it, and of course, they didn't invent any of them, but they sure do benefit from them. If there's a holiday or occasion where people can potentially exchange cards, Hallmark will offer them. So, the fact that there's now a holiday practically every month where we go out and buy cards for it, that's because of Hallmark. Aside from starting the tradition of exchanging cards for all these holidays, Hallmark also invented gift wrap, and it was an accident. People used to conceal their gifts by just using colorful tissue paper, and in the Christmas season of 1917, Hallmark ran out of it. They did have some fancy French paper they would use for the envelope linings, so they decided to sell it as a way to wrap your gift. Everyone loved it, and it inspired them to produce their own gift wrap. So, the fact that we now wrap all our gifts in this fancy patterned gift wrap, that's because of Hallmark. There's a lot of innovations that Hallmark is responsible for, but let's skip ahead and take a look at Hallmark today. Their sales were around $4 billion last year, and even though their greeting cards sell for like, $5 each, they would still have to sell a crazy amount of them to reach $4 billion. Their greeting card segment is actually only one of six segments. Everything we've discussed so far, falls into this first segment. They're produced in more than 30 languages, over a hundred countries, they have an estimated 51% market share in the greeting card market, well ahead of their closest competitor, enough so where I think you could use the word "dominant" to describe them. The segment consists of multiple product lines, you've got Signature, Studio Ink, Shoebox, that's their funnier stuff. They all offer something different. Hallmark made greeting cards what they are today. They've been successfully selling them for more than a hundred years, and still, no one else even compares. Now, let's take a look at the other five segments. This is a chain of two thousand Hallmark Gold Crown stores. They're in Canada, England, Ireland, Scotland, and of course, the United States. It's basically a store where you can buy all the stuff that Hallmark offers. The next segment, As the name says it's their selection of decorations and gifts. They make vases, picture frames, candles, calendars, bags, wallets, glassware, just a bunch of things like that. If you're looking for a simple gift or some decorations for your home, that's a good place to look. The fourth segment, and maybe the most shocking, You know, like the crayons. Crayola, since 1984, owned by Hallmark, and Crayola itself can be qualified as being bigger than you know, I'm not sure how they're measuring it, but according to Hallmark, Crayola is the third largest toy brand today. They sell all the stuff you would associate with them, crayons, colored pencils, markers, paints, coloring books, they also sell some other brands you might be familiar with, like Silly Putty. But it's the kits, all these kits, the craft sets and do-it-yourself products. They're never-ending. DIY Spring Pencil Topper Craft Kit, DIY Stained Glass Kit, Decoupage Frame, rock painting, egg decorating, Mason jar, I'll stop. And then there's grant programs, and, just go check out the Crayola website. There's an Air Marker Sprayer, Emoji Marker Maker, Trolls Light Up Tracing Pad. Yeah, yeah, I'll stop. I'll go to their fifth segment, it's one that you may have already known going in. But, again, even if you did it's probably bigger than you know, which has six parts to it. The Hallmark Channel, which is a basic cable network that airs family friendly programming. Hallmark Movies & Mysteries, which is another cable network that focuses more on movies and mysteries. Hallmark Drama, which you can guess what that is. Hallmark Publishing, which sounds a little odd to me, but, it creates novelizations of previously aired movies from those other channels. Hallmark Movies Now, which is a monthly subscription service where you could stream stuff mostly from the other channels, on demand, basically the Hallmark version of Netflix. And finally, Hallmark Hall of Fame. The older viewers should know what this is. It started in the early 50s, and it's been going on ever since. sixty-three seasons, over two hundred and fifty episodes, and eighty-one Emmy Awards. It's aired on multiple networks including CBS, NBC, ABC. I won't go much deeper into it, but it was a big deal in its time and, revolutionary in itself. The younger generations probably won't know much about this, so I recommend you go and ask someone who's a little older. But aside from Hallmark Hall of Fame, most of what Hallmark puts out on these channels doesn't get much respect. It has a reputation of being low quality, low effort stuff that's made for your grandparents. They put out thirty-three new Christmas movies last year, and I guess they're going to top it with thirty-four this year, and they all tend to be similar and predictable. Saturday Night Live even made fun of them for those exact reasons. But you might be surprised to hear that they're killing it in the ratings. The Hallmark Channel is one of the most improved networks of the past few years, and it's not just Christmas anymore either, just the same as when they started capitalizing on all the holidays with their greeting cards, they're doing it again with movies. What they do is they spend a couple million dollars producing a movie, which is really cheap, then they make a killing on them when they're aired on their network, and add to the profits by offering them on their streaming service. People love these cheesy movies. They're all nostalgic and heartwarming. So, despite lacking in many areas, they still offer something to the audience, something that doesn't cost much to deliver. I would like to talk more about their unique way of profiting from these movies, but, for now, let's just respect what they've done. In a time where people are ending their cable and satellite services, and many networks are suffering, Hallmark is doing better than ever. And, finally, the sixth segment of their business, It's their real estate development business, consists of 85 acres of hotels and offices around their headquarters in Kansas City, Missouri. It's where their visitor center is located, five million people visit it each year. Not much to say about it. If this video was especially intriguing to you, maybe make that your next vacation. I don't know. That was all six segments and I'm sorry to say, I didn't give any of them justice. They're much bigger and complex than I could express in a brief video like this. But let's try doing a quick summary right here, and maybe it will all sound bigger when it's said together: Hallmark helped make greeting cards what they are today, and remain unrivaled in the industry. They operate two thousand retail stores across five different countries. They make numerous decorations and gifts. They own Crayola. Let's not get started with that one again. They have three successful television networks, a video streaming service, in addition to sponsoring a sixty-seven-year long-running honored television program, and that odd publishing thing. And don't forget about their real estate development business. Now, there's no way you knew all of that and that's why Hallmark is bigger than you know. Let me know in the comments, what do you think about Hallmark? I know this video mostly shows them in a positive light, but a good part of the public looks at them differently. Hallmark does their best to promote how much they care and want to be a part of your celebrations, like in their famous slogan, "When you care enough to send the very best." But is it all just an act? Does Hallmark really care and want to bring people together, or do they just want you to think they care, when in reality, all they want to do is capitalize off these holidays, and sell you a meaningless card that you don't really need. There's so much more to look at with this topic, I feel like I touched on twenty different topics and failed to go too deep into any of them. Let me know if you'd be interested in hearing more about any of these in the future, I'd like to hear what you have to say. Really quick, if you wanted to know where the name Hallmark comes from, it's defined as an official mark stamped on gold and silver articles in England to attest their purity. It's a way to show that a metal is, quality. If Hallmark represents quality, then that's a good thing to put on your product. Also, the founder's name was J.C. Hall and he ran it with his brother. It was called the Hall Brothers. So, they figured it was a good name. In the 1920s, they started writing it on all the cards, and in the 1950s, the name of the company changed from Hall Brothers to Hallmark. In my opinion, a positive change. Thank you for watching. (Subtitles by CHICHI7. Go subscribe to him.)

Contents

History

Hallmark corporate headquarters entrance.
Hallmark corporate headquarters entrance.
Hallmark corporate offices.
Hallmark corporate offices.
A Hallmark Store in Markville Shopping Centre.
A Hallmark Store in Markville Shopping Centre.

Driven by an early 20th-century postcard craze, Joyce Clyde Hall and his older brothers, William and Rollie, began the Norfolk Post Card Company in 1907, initially headquartered in the Norfolk, Nebraska bookstore at which they worked. The next year, Rollie bought out the store's non-family business partner and it became "Hall Brothers", doing business as the Hall Book Store. The postcard business soon outgrew the store's resources, and Joyce moved it to Kansas City in 1910. By 1912, the postcard craze had faded and the company had begun selling "Christmas letters" and greeting cards, shortening its name a few years later to the Norfolk Card Company.[4]

In 1917, Hall and his brother Rollie "invented" modern wrapping paper when they ran out of traditional colored tissue paper at the stationery store and substituted fancy French envelope lining paper. After selling the lining paper again the next year, the Hall Brothers started printing their own specifically designed wrapping paper.[5] In 1922, the company expanded throughout the country.[6] The staff grew from 4 to 120 people, and the line increased from holiday cards to include everyday greeting cards.

In 1928, the company introduced the brand name Hallmark, after the hallmark symbol used by goldsmiths in London in the 14th century, and began printing the name on the back of every card. That same year, the company became the first in the greeting card industry to advertise their product nationally. Their first advertisement appeared in Ladies' Home Journal and was written by J.C. Hall himself.[6] In 1931, the Canadian William E. Coutts Company, Ltd., a major card maker, became an affiliate of Hall Brothers – their first international business venture.

In 1944, it adopted its current slogan, "When you care enough to send the very best." It was created by C. E. Goodman, a Hallmark marketing and sales executive, and written on a 3x5 card.[7] The card is on display at the company headquarters. In 1951, Hall sponsored a television program for NBC that gave rise to the Hallmark Hall of Fame, which has won 80 Emmy Awards.[8] Hallmark now has its own cable television channel, the Hallmark Channel which was established in 2001. For a period of about 15 years, Hallmark owned a stake in the Spanish language network Univision.

In 1954, the company name was changed from Hall Brothers to Hallmark.[9] In 1958, William E. Coutts Company, Ltd. was acquired by Hallmark. Until the 1990s, Hallmark's Canadian branch was known as Coutts Hallmark.

In 1973, Hallmark Cards started manufacturing Christmas ornaments. The first collection included 18 ornaments, including six glass ball ornaments.[10] The Hallmark Keepsake Ornament collection is dated and available for just one year. By 1998, 11 million American households collected Hallmark ornaments, and 250,000 people were members of the Keepsake Ornament Collector's Club.[11] The Collector's Club was launched nationally on June 1, 1987.[12] One noted Christmas ornament authority is Clara Johnson Scroggins who has written extensively about Keepsake Ornaments and has one of the largest private collections of Christmas ornaments.[13]

In 1980, Hallmark Cards acquired Valentine & Sons of Dundee, Scotland, one of the world's oldest publishers of picture postcards.[14]

In 1998, Hallmark made a number of acquisitions, including Britain-based Creative Publishing (a recent spinoff of Fine Art Developments), and U.S.-based InterArt.[15][16]

Employees

Worldwide, Hallmark has over 27,000 employees; 20,000 of them work in the United States, about 5,600 of whom are full-time employees. About 2,700 Hallmarkers work at the Kansas City headquarters.[1]

Management

Donald J. Hall Sr. serves as chairman. Donald J. Hall Jr. serves as CEO. David E. Hall is the company president.[1]

Creative resources

Hallmark's creative staff consists of around 900 artists, designers, stylists, writers, editors, and photographers. Together, they generate more than 19,000 new and redesigned greeting cards and related products per year. The company offers more than 48,000 products in its model line at any one time.

Products and services

Hallmark offers or has offered the following products and services:

Greeting cards

Hallmark Cards feature several brands and licenses. Shoebox, the company's line of humorous cards, evolved from studio cards. Maxine (by John Wagner), was introduced in 1986 when she appeared on several Shoebox cards the year the alternative card line was launched. hoops&yoyo, were characters created by Bob Holt and Mike Adair. Revilo is another popular line, by artist Oliver Christianson ("Revilo" is "Oliver" spelled backwards). Forever Friends was purchased in 1994 from English entrepreneur Andrew Brownsword, who for four years subsequently was Chief Executive of Hallmark Europe. Image Craft was acquired by the William E. Coutts Company subsidiary of Hallmark Canada in the mid-2000s.

Hallmark has provided software for creating and printing cards. This software has been known as Hallmark Card Studio, with partner Nova Development, and Microsoft Greetings Workshop in partner with Microsoft.[17]

Gift products

  • Gifts, Greeting Cards
  • Hallmark Flowers
  • Keepsake Ornaments and other Christmas ornaments
  • Road Rovers: diecast cartoon vehicles[18]
  • Books
  • Stationery
  • Sentimental Frames
  • Recordable Plush
  • Itty-Bittys
  • Happy-Go-Luckys
  • Bookmarks

Licensors

Some of the licensors for Hallmark's greeting cards, ornaments, and gift products include:

Hallmark Visitors Center

The Hallmark Visitors Center is located at the company's headquarters in Kansas City, Missouri. The Center features exhibits about the company's history including historic greeting cards and postcards, Christmas ornaments, exhibits from the company's art collection, and displays about the Hallmark Hall of Fame programs and awards.[20] There is also a movie about the company's history.

Hallmark School Store

Alvirne High School in Hudson, New Hampshire, operates the only Hallmark school store in the United States. Besides normal food and beverage items, the "Bronco Barn" store also sells Hallmark cards. The store is run by students in Marketing I and Marketing II classes, and is open to students all day and after school.[21]

Subsidiaries and assets

A Hallmark Gold Crown franchise in Evansville, Indiana.
A Hallmark Gold Crown franchise in Evansville, Indiana.
A Crayola pack of 64 crayons.
A Crayola pack of 64 crayons.

Hallmark owns:

  • Crayola LLC (formerly Binney & Smith): makers of Crayola-brand crayons
  • DaySpring Greeting Cards, is the world's largest Christian greeting card company. It was purchased in 1999 from Cook Publishing and is based in Siloam Springs, Arkansas.
  • Hallmark Business Expressions: Formed in 1996, Hallmark Business Expressions is a business-to-business subsidiary of Hallmark Cards, Inc. and is headquartered in Kansas City, MO.[22]
  • Hallmark Channel: cable television network—Hallmark Cards owns this now privately held company (Crown Media Holdings), having acquired the stake it didn't own from Liberty Media; the network launched the Hallmark Movies & Mysteries sister channel (formerly known as Hallmark Movie Channel) in January 2004
  • Hallmark Gold Crown: a chain of independently-owned card and gift stores in the United States and Canada. Certain locations are corporate operated.
  • Hallmark Business Connections: Incentives—Reward programs, recognition programs and online gift certificates;
  • Halls, an upscale department store at Kansas City's Crown Center
  • Feeln: A premium subscription video on-demand (SVOD) service that is the primary streaming provider of the Hallmark Hall of Fame library of films, along with a curated collection of Hollywood features, TV series and original productions.
  • Rainbow Brite: a franchise of children's dolls; includes the TV series produced by DIC Entertainment, but not the movie, which is owned by Warner Bros.)
  • Shirt Tales: a franchise of cards, featuring animals with shirts that read different messages; does not include the TV series created by Hanna-Barbera Productions (owned by Turner Entertainment)
  • Sunrise Greetings: Located in Bloomington, IN
  • Zoobilee Zoo: a 1986 TV show, centered around a zoo populated by animals with artistic tastes
  • Hallmark Baby: Baby clothing, toy, and decor sales website that sells exclusive Hallmark products.

In addition, Hallmark Cards is the property manager of the Crown Center commercial complex, adjacent to its headquarters, and the owner of lithographer Litho-Krome Co.

Photographic Collection

In 2006, Hallmark donated its Hallmark Photographic Collection, an extensive collection of photographs by prominent photographers including Todd Webb, to the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City.[23]

Hallmark Music

In the Philippines, singer Richard Tan sang a song about Hallmark Cards, entitled "No One Throws Away Memories". The song was featured in a commercial of the product in the 1970s.[24]

In the mid-1980s, the company started its music division, issuing compilation albums by a number of popular artists.[citation needed] In 2004, Hallmark entered into a licensing agreement with Somerset Entertainment to produce Hallmark Music CDs.[citation needed]

Former subsidiaries

Copyright lawsuits

Neil Armstrong sued Hallmark Cards in 1994 after they used his name and a recording of his quote, "That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind" in a Christmas ornament without permission. The lawsuit was settled out of court for an undisclosed amount of money which Armstrong donated to Purdue University. The case caused Armstrong and NASA to be more careful about the use of astronaut names, photographs and recordings, and to whom he had granted permission. For non-profit and government public-service announcements, he would usually give permission.[26]

On September 6, 2007, Paris Hilton filed an injunction lawsuit against Hallmark Cards Inc., titled Hilton v. Hallmark Cards, in U.S. District Court over the unlawful use of her picture and catchphrase "That's hot" on a greeting card. The card is titled "Paris's First Day as a Waitress" with a photograph of Hilton's face on a cartoon of a waitress serving a plate of food, with a Hilton's dialogue bubble, "Don't touch that, it's hot." (which had a registered trademark on February 13, 2007). Hilton's attorney Brent Blakely said that the infringement damages would be based on profits from the $2.49 greeting cards. Julie O'Dell said that Hallmark used the card as parody, protected under fair use law.[27] The Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit reviewed the case and "denied Hallmark's motion to dismiss". Hilton and Hallmark Cards Inc. later settled out of court.[28]

In April 2012, Hallmark Cards acquired SpiritClips,[29] which was renamed FeelIn in September 2014.[30]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Hallmark Corporate Information | Hallmark Facts". corporate.hallmark.com. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  2. ^ "Hallmark Cards – Joyce Hall Invented Hallmark Cards". Inventors.about.com. Retrieved November 19, 2016.
  3. ^ "Lifetime Honors: National Medal of Arts". National Endowment for the Arts. Archived from the original on May 6, 2009.
  4. ^ Puschendorf, L. Robert (2008). "The Halls of Hallmark: The Nebraska Years" (PDF). Nebraska History. Nebraska State Historical Society: 6–10. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
  5. ^ Garber, Megan (December 22, 2012). "Wrappers' Delight: A Brief History of Wrapping Paper". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
  6. ^ a b "Early Innovation 1910s–30s". Hallmark Corporate. Archived from the original on September 30, 2011. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
  7. ^ "Brand Legacy". Hallmark Corporate. Archived from the original on October 19, 2011.
  8. ^ "Hallmark Hall of Fame". Hallmark Corporate. Archived from the original on September 13, 2011.
  9. ^ "Joyce C. Hall". Encyclopædia Britannica. April 27, 2017. Retrieved June 12, 2017. the 'Hallmark' brand name, introduced in 1923, did not become part of the company's name until 1954
  10. ^ Andersen, Erin (21 December 1998). "Lincoln Journal Star at Newspapers.com". Newspapers.com. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  11. ^ Andersen, Erin (21 December 1998). "Lincoln Journal Star at Newspapers.com". Newspapers.com (page 17). Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  12. ^ Peterson, John (2007). Hallmark keepsake ornaments: inside stories from the artists who created them. Hallmark Books. p. 132. ISBN 9781595301635.
  13. ^ Lignitz, Amy (15 December 1994). "Decorating the Christmas Tree is Big Business". The Los Angeles Times. p. 10.
  14. ^ "Valentine's Co. Ltd. (Valentine & Sons)". Metropostcard.com. Metro Postcard Club. Retrieved January 24, 2018.
  15. ^ "Hallmark Cards agrees to buy British competitor". Southeast Missourian. Associated Press. July 10, 1998.
  16. ^ "Hallmark buys firm". Victoria Advocate. September 11, 1998.
  17. ^ "Microsoft and Hallmark Connections Team Up to Offer Microsoft Greetings Workshop" (Press release). Microsoft. September 11, 1996. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  18. ^ "Hallmark Road Rovers". Jubys.com. Retrieved November 19, 2016.
  19. ^ "Filstar Distributors Corporation". Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  20. ^ "Official site". Hallmark Visitors Center. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
  21. ^ "alvirnehs.org". Alvirnehs.org. Retrieved November 19, 2016.
  22. ^ Carol Krol (October 16, 2006). "Marketers find opportunities for better targeting ROI". btobonline.com. Archived from the original on July 8, 2011. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
  23. ^ Shattuck, Kathryn (February 18, 2006). "For a Dear Museum: Love, Hallmark". The New York Times. Retrieved October 10, 2010.
  24. ^ Yalong, Bobby T. (November 21, 2014). "Jose Mari Chan juggles between his music and business enterprise". Asian Journal. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  25. ^ "Facts about Hallmark's Major Subsidiaries". Archived from the original on October 13, 2007.
  26. ^ Hansen, James R. (2005). First Man: The Life of Neil A. Armstrong. Simon & Schuster. p. 628. ISBN 0-7432-5751-0.
  27. ^ "Paris Hilton Sues Over Hallmark Card". The Smoking Gun. September 7, 2007. Retrieved December 12, 2008.
  28. ^ Carter, T.; Juliet Lushbough Dee; Harvey L. Zuckman (2014) [1983]. Mass Communication Law in a Nutshell (7th ed.). St. Paul, Minnesota: West Publishing Co. ISBN 978-0-314-28063-3. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
  29. ^ Andrew Wallenstein (30 November 2012). "Hallmark enters movie streaming biz". Variety. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
  30. ^ Todd Spangler (8 September 2014). "Hallmark Cards' Family-Oriented SVOD Service SpiritClips Renamed 'Feeln'". Variety. Retrieved 25 October 2014.

External links

This page was last edited on 13 January 2019, at 21:19
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.