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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hallel (Hebrew: הלל, "Praise") is a Jewish prayer, a verbatim recitation from Psalms 113–118 which is recited by observant Jews on Jewish holidays as an act of praise and thanksgiving.

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  • ✪ What is the Hallel? Jewish Prayer of Praise
  • ✪ The Hallel (Psalms 113-118) by Jewish Publication Society of America (FULL Audiobook)
  • ✪ Hallel Hallelujah de Leonard Cohen in Hebrew
  • ✪ Seder Melodies 8: Hallel Songs
  • ✪ Psalm 114 - Learn to Sing the Hallel in English

Transcription

when's the last time you were so happy you sang a song with someone else you might have done it today or yesterday but on the whole it feels like we have fewer and fewer opportunities for group singing which is a bummer because group singing is awesome like literally awesome it can help us experience aww and gratitude things we need more of in our lives Hallel is the Jewish people's musical number to celebrate profound moments of communal happiness even if you've never heard of Hallel you've heard the word hallelujah and you know what it means thank God and that's what Hallel is our way to express profound collective gratitude to God lordy Lordy hallelujah it started on the shores of the Red Sea as the ancient Israelites looked on while the sea closed on their Egyptian oppressors they erupted in song filled gratitude to God as they experienced freedom for the first time it was the first Hallel in history every year since we've included Hallel in our Passover seders and on other holidays commemorating communal salvation and since Jewish prayer isn't something that only commemorates the past many communities also sing Hallel to celebrate modern day events like the rebirth of the State of Israel or the reunification of Jerusalem the themes of the Psalms in Hallel are not identical but all of them evoke images of transition, evolution and growth. the first Psalm focuses on God's power as creator when we experience the Creator intervening in the world on our behalf that's an incredible moment of grace as our anxiety gives way to exultation The second Psalm evokes the historical experiences of the Exodus and it's world altering power it wasn't just that we were taken out of Egypt but that the sea was split and the physical contours of the world were altered. By the third Psalm we encounter a shift as the words center on the debt we owe the divine for saving us we owe it to God to offer blessing and praise as well as acts of sacrifice importantly we don't do them simply out of subservience but because they express the tremendous joy, appreciation and humility we feel by the last Psalm, the themes shift yet again weaving together gratitude memory and request unlike the earlier Psalms this final Psalm is recited primarily responsively with the leader calling out one verse and the congregation answering another When it's done well, Hallel is one of the most powerful experiences we can have a good leader can pick tunes and tempos that enable us to experience all of these different feelings: exuberant joy, gratitude, longing and, heartfelt petition and we do it not as individuals but as a community sharing melodies harmonizing, feeling the sounds resonating and reverberating in the air and in our hearts in a world that cries out for more gratitude, more awe and group singing, Hallel is the best 15 minutes in shul.

Contents

Etymology

The Proto-Sinaitic and Proto-Canaanite letters h are reconstructed to have been called hillul "jubilation", and were based on the hieroglyph:

A28

It was replaced by a predecessor of the Hebrew letter He ה.

The same word is used in Arabic: هَلِّلْ‎, romanizedhallil, lit. 'praise!' (or تَهْلِيل, tahlīl, 'praising').[1]

Holy days

Hallel consists of six Psalms (113–118), which are recited as a unit, on joyous occasions [2] including the three pilgrim festivals mentioned in the Torah, Pesach (Passover), Shavuot, and Sukkot (the "bigger" Jewish holy days), as well as at Hanukkah and Rosh Chodesh (beginning of the new month). Many Jewish communities, especially those which identify with religious Zionism, recite Hallel on Yom Ha'atzmaut (Israeli Independence Day) and some also recite it on Yom Yerushalayim (the day commemorating the reunification of Jerusalem in 1967). On those occasions, Hallel is usually chanted aloud as part of Shacharit (the morning prayer service) following the Shacharit's Shemoneh Esreh ("The Eighteen", the main prayer). Some LGBT synagogues, like New York City's Congregation Beit Simchat Torah, recite Hallel on the Shabbat that precedes their city's LGBT Pride parade.[3][4]

Hallel is recited during the evening prayers on the first (and, outside Israel, second) night of Pesach, except by Lithuanian and German Jews, and by all communities during the Pesach Seder service. According to the Talmud,[5] there was a dispute between the school of Hillel and the school of Shammai regarding the reading of Hallel on Pesach. According to the school of Shammai, only the first psalm (Ps. 113) should be read before the meal, whereas the school of Hillel advocated reading the first two psalms (Ps. 113 and 114). The remaining Psalms would be said after the Grace After Meals (as is usually the case, the halacha follows the school of Hillel).[6]

Although Hallel generally refers only to the aforementioned psalms, the Talmud also refers to Psalm 136 as "the Great Hallel". Each verse of Psalm 136 concludes with the refrain "for his mercy endures forever" and it contains mention of twenty-six acts of Divine kindness and sustenance for the world.[7] It is recited at the Pesach Seder after the standard Hallel is completed. It is also said in the expanded Pesukei dezimra on the morning of Shabbat and festivals. In the Talmudic era, if rain fell on the morning of a fast day that was declared in response to a drought, this was seen as a sign of Divine favor, in which case "the Great Hallel" was added in the afternoon prayers.[8] There is mention in some references that this Psalm may also be used antiphonally in Temple worship.[9]

On Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, Hallel is not said at all, because as the Talmud states (Arachin 10b): "Is it seemly for the king to be sitting on His Throne of Judgment, with the Books of Life and Death open before Him, and for the people to sing joyful praises to Him?"

Pesach, like Sukkot, has the structure of "main holiday", followed by "Intermediate Days" (Chol HaMoed), followed by "main holiday". Since Pesach involved only a partial redemption of the Jews and the destruction of Egypt, and as the same sacrifice was offered in the Temple on every day of the holiday (as opposed to Sukkot), only "Half" (or Partial) Hallel is recited on all of the last six days of Pesach. Full Hallel is recited for the entirety of Sukkot.

Partial Hallel is recited on Rosh Chodesh because it was introduced at a much later time than the major holidays.

No Hallel, neither "Full" nor "Partial", is recited on Purim, despite the fact that there was a miraculous salvation, for several reasons:

Full Hallel

Full Hallel (Hebrew: הלל שלם‎, romanizedHallel shalem, lit. 'complete Hallel') consists of all six Psalms of the Hallel, in their entirety. It is a Jewish prayer recited on the first two nights and days of Pesach (only the first night and day in Israel), on Shavuot, all seven days of Sukkot, on Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah, and on the eight days of Hanukkah. The sages have provided a "siman" (a way to remember) the days when full Hallel is recited. It is called "BeBeTaCh".[10]

Full Hallel consists of Psalm 113, Psalm 114, Psalm 115:1–11,12–18, Psalm 116:1–11,12–19, Psalm 117, Psalm 118.

Psalm 136 was most probably used antiphonally in Temple worship. In Jewish liturgy, the Great Hallel is recited at the Pesach Seder after the Lesser Hallel. All through the refrain is a repeated reference to the Lord's steadfast love (see Hosea 2:19). This psalm is a hymn that opens with a call to praise God because of God's great deeds in nature and God's gracious historical actions in the history of Israel. It continues expressing God's mercy toward all and ends with another call to praise God.[11]

A blessing is recited at the beginning and end of Full Hallel.

Partial Hallel

Partial Hallel (Hebrew: חצי הלל‎, romanizedchatzi Hallel, lit. 'half Hallel') omits parts of the Full Hallel: The first eleven verses of Psalms 115 and 116 are omitted. It is recited on the last six days of Pesach and on Rosh Chodesh.

While Ashkenazi Jews recite a blessing at the beginning and end of Partial Hallel, some Sephardi Jews do not, particularly if the blessing they recite at the beginning of Full Hallel is ligmor et hahallel (to complete the Hallel) instead of likro et hahallel (to read the Hallel) as recited by Ashkenazi Jews.

New Testament

The New Testament accounts of the Last Supper state that Jesus and his disciples "sang a psalm" or "hymn" after the meal before leaving for the Mount of Olives (Matthew 26:30, Mark 14:26), which was probably the Hallel. The Last Supper was almost certainly a celebration of the Passover[12] and Jesus like any other Jew in the first century, would have known how to chant the Psalms in Hebrew, especially the famous Hallel psalms which were an integral part of the Passover. [13]

Musical settings

In the Jewish tradition, there are well established and various melodies for the singing of Hallel. Some of the psalms are sung while others are recited silently or under the breath.

In the classical tradition, psalms from the Hallel have been set to music many times, notably:

American composer and conductor Michael Isaacson has composed a full Hallel for SATB chorus, entitled An American Hallel, with interpolations of expressions of praise and gratitude by past and present Americans. It was premiered by the Carolina Master Chorale under the directorship of Tim Koch in the autumn of 2009.

Composer/performer Sam Glaser has also set the Psalms on his CD Hallel.

Other Hallel sequences

The name "Hallel" is normally applied to Psalms 113–118. For greater specificity this is sometimes called the Egyptian Hallel (Hallel Miẓri).[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Hallel - "Praise of G-d" - OU.ORG
  3. ^ https://www.jta.org/2013/07/01/news-opinion/the-telegraph/a-historic-pride-shabbat
  4. ^ https://www.ritualwell.org/blog/heart-pride-be-who-you-are
  5. ^ Pesachim 116b
  6. ^ Shmuel Safrai and Ze'ev Safrai, Haggadah of the Sages (trans. Miriam Schlüsselberg; Jerusalem: Carta, 2009), 212. According to the Tosefta (Pes. 10:9[6])
  7. ^ e.g., Berachot 4b, Pesachim 118a
  8. ^ Taanit 19a
  9. ^ Ryrie Study Bible-page 955
  10. ^ Liadi, Zalman Siddur, "Seder Hallel"
  11. ^ Ryrie Study Bible page 955
  12. ^ Ross, Anthems for a Dying Lamb, pp. 5-10[2]
  13. ^ http://www.thesacredpage.com/2009/04/what-did-jesus-sing-at-last-supper.html
  14. ^ "Hallel". Encyclopaedia Judaica. The Gale Group. 2008.

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 4 September 2019, at 00:27
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