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Hakkâri (city)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hakkâri
View of Hakkâri
View of Hakkâri
Hakkâri is located in Turkey
Hakkâri
Hakkâri
Coordinates: 37°34′35″N 43°44′12″E / 37.57639°N 43.73667°E / 37.57639; 43.73667
CountryTurkey
ProvinceHakkâri
Government
 • Elected MayorDilek Hatipoğlu (deposed) (BDP)
 • Acting Mayor (Governor of Hakkâri Province)İdris Akbıyık
Area
 • District2,237.19 km2 (863.78 sq mi)
Elevation
1,720 m (5,640 ft)
Population
 (2012)[2]
 • Urban
58,584
 • District
81,549
 • District density36/km2 (94/sq mi)

Hakkâri (Syriac: ܗܟܐܪܝ‎; Kurdish: Colemêrg‎),[3] formerly known as Julamerk,[4] is a city and the capital of the Hakkâri Province of Turkey. It is located a few kilometres away from the Iraq–Turkey border. The population of the city at the 2010 census was 57,844.[1]

Etymology

The city's name originates from the Akkadian word of "akkare"[5] (Syriac:[6] ܐܲܟܵܪܹܐ), which translates to plowmen or farmer.[5][6]

History

Hubushkia

Hubushkia was an Iron Age kingdom located between the Urartian and Assyrian sphere of influence. The exact location of Hubushkia is unknown, but scholars suggests that the kingdom of Hubushkia was centred on the headwaters of the Great Zap River, in what is now Hakkâri Province in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey.[7][8] In its long history, the region has come under the rule of the Kardukh, Gutian, Kassite, Hurrian, Mitanni, Nairi, Assyrian, Urartian, Armenian, Median, and Persian civilizations.[9][better source needed]

Hakkari kurgan stelae

Thirteen Kurgan stelae, never before seen in Anatolia or the Near East, were found in 1998 in their original location at the centre of Hakkari. The stelae were carved on upright flagstone-like slabs measuring between 0.7 m to 3.10 m in height. The stones contain only one cut surface, upon which human figures are chiseled. The theme of each stele reveals the foreview of an upper human body. The legs are not represented. Eleven of the stelae depict naked warriors with daggers, spears, and axes—masculine symbols of war. They always hold a drinking vessel made of skin in both hands. Two stelae contain female figures without arms. The stelae may have been carved by different craftsmen using different techniques. Stylistic differences shift from bas relief to a more systematic linearity. The earliest stelae are in the style of bas relief while the latest ones are in a linear style. They were made during a period from the fifteenth century BC to the eleventh century BC in Hakkari. Stelae with this type of relief are not common in the ancient Near East however there are many close parallels between these and those produced by a variety of peoples from the Eurasian steppes between the third millennium BC and the eleventh century AD.[10]

Climate

Hakkâri has a hot dry-summer continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dsa, Trewartha climate classification: Dca). The winters are cold and snowy with an average of −5 °C (23 °F), while summers are hot and dry. The lowest recorded temperature was −22.7 °C (−8.86 °F) on 7 February 1997. The summer are hot and dry with an average of 25 °C (76 °F). The highest recorded temperature was 37 °C (98.6 °F) on 2 August 1991.

Climate data for Hakkâri (1991–2020, extremes 1961–2020)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.8
(53.2)
12.9
(55.2)
19.7
(67.5)
25.0
(77.0)
28.7
(83.7)
34.4
(93.9)
38.8
(101.8)
38.0
(100.4)
37.1
(98.8)
29.3
(84.7)
20.8
(69.4)
17.5
(63.5)
38.8
(101.8)
Average high °C (°F) −0.5
(31.1)
1.3
(34.3)
7.0
(44.6)
13.2
(55.8)
19.6
(67.3)
26.3
(79.3)
31.1
(88.0)
31.5
(88.7)
26.7
(80.1)
19.0
(66.2)
10.0
(50.0)
2.5
(36.5)
15.6
(60.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.1
(24.6)
−2.6
(27.3)
2.7
(36.9)
8.6
(47.5)
14.4
(57.9)
20.5
(68.9)
25.0
(77.0)
25.2
(77.4)
20.7
(69.3)
13.6
(56.5)
5.5
(41.9)
−1.2
(29.8)
10.7
(51.3)
Average low °C (°F) −7.5
(18.5)
−6.2
(20.8)
−1.2
(29.8)
4.2
(39.6)
9.6
(49.3)
14.7
(58.5)
18.7
(65.7)
18.8
(65.8)
14.5
(58.1)
8.3
(46.9)
1.3
(34.3)
−4.6
(23.7)
5.9
(42.6)
Record low °C (°F) −23.4
(−10.1)
−22.7
(−8.9)
−19.0
(−2.2)
−8.3
(17.1)
−0.8
(30.6)
5.0
(41.0)
10.0
(50.0)
9.7
(49.5)
4.3
(39.7)
−5.8
(21.6)
−15.0
(5.0)
−21.3
(−6.3)
−23.4
(−10.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 90.8
(3.57)
102.3
(4.03)
119.2
(4.69)
119.0
(4.69)
68.9
(2.71)
14.5
(0.57)
9.3
(0.37)
5.4
(0.21)
10.9
(0.43)
56.2
(2.21)
77.8
(3.06)
102.7
(4.04)
777.0
(30.59)
Average precipitation days 10.27 10.13 12.83 13.03 12.60 4.27 2.00 1.27 2.40 8.70 8.63 10.40 96.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 120.9 146.9 179.8 198.0 266.6 345.0 368.9 347.2 294.0 223.2 159.0 114.7 2,764.2
Mean daily sunshine hours 3.9 5.2 5.8 6.6 8.6 11.5 11.9 11.2 9.8 7.2 5.3 3.7 7.6
Source: Turkish State Meteorological Service[11]

Sport

The women's football club Hakkarigücü Spor was promoted to the Women's First League to take part in the 2018–19 season after finishing the 2017–18 Second League season as runners-up.[12]

Notable people

Diya al-din ‘Isa al-Hakkâri (12th century), an Ayyubid general present at the Siege of Acre[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. ^ adem Avcıkıran (2009). Kürtçe Anamnez Anamneza bi Kurmancî (PDF) (in Turkish and Kurdish). p. 55. Retrieved 17 December 2019.
  4. ^ https://gedsh.bethmardutho.org/entry/Hakkari?fq=;fq-Browse:Browse;Z;. Retrieved 28 June 2021. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ a b Berzinjy, Dana (2013). The silent escape through the nights of the Kurdish regions : based on a true story. Xlibris Corp. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-4797-0869-7. OCLC 828486268.
  6. ^ a b Smith, Payne R. (1903). A compendious Syriac dictionary : founded upon the Thesarus Syriacus of R. Payne Smith. p. 17. OCLC 474561102.
  7. ^ Veli Sevin, Mystery Stelae, Archaeology, Volume 53 Number 4, (July/August 2000).
  8. ^ Oscar White Muscarella (7 June 2013). Archaeology, Artifacts and Antiquities of the Ancient Near East: Sites, Cultures, and Proveniences. BRILL. pp. 385–. ISBN 978-90-04-23669-1.
  9. ^ "Turkish News - Latest News from Turkey".
  10. ^ Mystery Stelae. Archaeology.org. Retrieved on 2011-02-11.
  11. ^ "Resmi İstatistikler: İllerimize Ait Mevism Normalleri (1991–2020)" (in Turkish). Turkish State Meteorological Service. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  12. ^ "Hakkarigücü Spor Kadın Futbol takımı sena hazırlanıyor". Habertürk (in Turkish). 20 August 2018. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  13. ^ Prehistory Of Saladina.

External links

This page was last edited on 25 August 2021, at 06:51
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