To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Gutian language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

RegionZagros Mountains?
EthnicityGutian people
EraBronze Age (EBA IV)
Language codes
ISO 639-3None (mis)
Near East topographic map with toponyms 3000bc-en.svg
Near East in the 3rd millennium BCE

Gutian (/ˈɡtiən/; also Qutian) is an extinct unclassified language that was spoken by the Gutian people, who briefly ruled over Sumer as the Gutian dynasty in the 22nd century BCE (middle chronology). The Gutians lived in the territory between the Zagros Mountains and the Tigris. Nothing is known about the language except its existence and a list of names of Gutian rulers in the Sumerian King List.


Gutian is included in a list of languages spoken in the region found in the Sag B tablet, an educational text from the Middle Babylonian period possibly originating from the city of Emar.[1] This text also lists Akkadian, Amorite, Sutean, "Subarean" (Hurrian) and Elamite. There is also a mention of "an interpreter for the Gutean language" in a tablet from Adab.[2]

The Gutian king names from the Sumerian list are:[3]

Different manuscripts record different Gutian kings in different orders. Some names may be from other groups, and the transmission of the names is unreliable.[4]

Thorkild Jacobsen suggested that the recurring ending -(e)š may have had a grammatical function in Gutian, perhaps as a case marker.[5]

Tocharian theory

In a posthumously-published article, W. B. Henning suggested that the different endings of the king names resembled case endings in the Tocharian languages, a branch of Indo-European known from texts found in the Tarim Basin (in the northwest of modern China) dating from the 6th to 8th centuries CE.[6] Henning also pointed to the phonological similarity of the name Guti to Kuči, the native name of the Tocharian city of Kucha. He also stated that the Chinese name Yuezhi, referring to nomadic pastoralists living in the grasslands to the northeast of the Tarim in the 2nd century BCE, could be reconstructed as Gu(t)-t'i.[6] However, this name is usually reconstructed with an initial *ŋʷ- in Old Chinese.[7] Henning also compared the name of a country called Tukriš, listed with Gutium and other neighbouring countries in an inscription of Hammurabi, with the name twγry found in an Old Turkish manuscript from the early 9th century CE, which is thought to refer to the Tocharians.[6] Gamkrelidze and Ivanov explored Henning's suggestion as possible support for their proposal of an Indo-European Urheimat in the Near East.[8][9] However, most scholars rejected the attempt to compare languages separated by more than two millennia.[10]


  1. ^ Heimpel, Wolfgang (2003). Letters to the King of Mari. Eisenbrauns. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-57506-080-4.
  2. ^ Wilcke, Claus (2007). Early Ancient Near Eastern Law: A History of Its Beginnings : the Early Dynastic and Sargonic Periods. Eisenbrauns. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-57506-132-0.
  3. ^ "The Sumerian king list". The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature. Faculty of Oriental Studies, University of Oxford. 308–334.
  4. ^ Michalowski, Piotr (2017). "Ancient Near Eastern and European isolates". In Campbell, Lyle (ed.). Language Isolates. Routledge. pp. 19–58. ISBN 978-1-317-61091-5. p. 37.
  5. ^ Jacobsen, Thorkild (1973) [1939]. The Sumerian King List (PDF). University of Chicago Press. p. 207, n. 40. ISBN 0-226-62273-8.
  6. ^ a b c Henning, W.B. (1978). "The first Indo-Europeans in history". In Ulmen, G.L. (ed.). Society and History, Essays in Honour of Karl August Wittfogel. The Hague: Mouton. pp. 215–230. ISBN 978-90-279-7776-2.
  7. ^ Baxter, William H. (1992). A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. p. 806. ISBN 978-3-11-012324-1.
  8. ^ Gamkrelidze, T.V.; Ivanov, V.V. (1989). "Первые индоевропейцы на арене истории: прототохары в Передней Азии" [The first Indo-Europeans in history: the proto-Tocharians in the Near East]. Journal of Ancient History (1): 14–39.
  9. ^ Gamkrelidze, T.V.; Ivanov, V.V. (2013). "Индоевропейская прародина и расселение индоевропейцев: полвека исследований и обсуждений" [Indo-European homeland and migrations: half a century of studies and discussions]. Journal of Language Relationship. 9: 109–136. doi:10.31826/jlr-2013-090111. S2CID 212688321.
  10. ^ Mallory, J.P.; Mair, Victor H. (2000). The Tarim Mummies. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 281–282. ISBN 978-0-500-05101-6.

This page was last edited on 30 December 2020, at 11:52
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.