To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Guru Tegh Bahadur

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Guru Tegh Bahadur
Portrait of Guru Tegh Bahadur by painter Ahsan.jpg
A mid 17th century portrait of Guru Tegh Bahadur painted by Ahsan
Personal
Born
(Baba) Tyag Mal

21 April 1621 (1621-04-21)
Died24 November 1675 (1675-11-25) (aged 54)
Delhi, Mughal Empire
(present-day India)
Cause of deathExecution by decapitation
ReligionSikhism
SpouseMata Gujri
ChildrenGuru Gobind Singh
ParentsGuru Hargobind and Mata Nanaki
Known for
Military service
Battles/warsBattle of Kartarpur
Religious career
Period in office1665–1675
PredecessorGuru Har Krishan
SuccessorGuru Gobind Singh

Guru Tegh Bahadur (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਤੇਗ਼ ਬਹਾਦਰ (Gurmukhi); Punjabi pronunciation: [gʊɾuː t̯eːɣ bəɦaːd̯ʊɾᵊ]; 1 April 1621 – 11 November 1675)[5][6] was the ninth of ten Gurus who founded the Sikh religion and the leader of Sikhs from 1665 until his beheading in 1675. He was born in Amritsar, Punjab, India in 1621 and was the youngest son of Guru Hargobind, the sixth Sikh guru. Considered a principled and fearless warrior, he was a learned spiritual scholar and a poet whose 115 hymns are included in Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the main text of Sikhism.

Guru Tegh Bahadur was executed on the orders of Aurangzeb, the sixth Mughal emperor, in Delhi, India.[3][7][8] Sikh holy premises Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib and Gurdwara Rakab Ganj Sahib in Delhi mark the places of execution and cremation of Guru Tegh Bahadur.[9] His martyrdom is remembered as the Shaheedi Divas of Guru Tegh Bahadur every year on 24 November.[10]

Biography

Early life

Guru Tegh Bahadur was the youngest son of Guru Hargobind, the sixth guru: Guru Hargobind had one daughter, Bibi Viro, and five sons: Baba Gurditta, Suraj Mal, Ani Rai, Atal Rai, and Tyaga Mal. Tyaga Mal was born in Amritsar in the early hours of 1 April 1621. He came to be known by the name Tegh Bahadur (Mighty of the Sword), given to him by Guru Hargobind after he had shown his valor in a battle against the Mughals.[11]

Amritsar at that time was the center of the Sikh faith. As the seat of the Sikh Gurus, and with its connection to Sikhs in far-flung areas of the country through the chains of Masands or missionaries, it had developed the characteristics of a State capital.

Guru Tegh Bahadur was brought up in the Sikh culture and trained in archery and horsemanship. He was also taught the old classics such as the Vedas, the Upanishads, and the Puranas. Tegh Bahadur was married on 3 February 1632 to Mata Gujri.[12][13]

Stay at Bakala

In the 1640s, nearing his death, Guru Hargobind and his wife Nanaki moved to his ancestral village of Bakala in Amritsar district, together with Tegh Bahadur and Mata Gujri. Bakala, as described in Gurbilas Dasvin Patshahi, was then a prosperous town with many beautiful pools, wells, and baolis. After Guru Hargobind's death, Tegh Bahadur continued to live in Bakala with his wife and mother.[14]

Guru journey

In March 1664, Guru Har Krishan contracted smallpox. When asked by his followers who would lead them after him, he replied Baba Bakala, meaning his successor was to be found in Bakala. Taking advantage of the ambiguity in the words of the dying Guru, many installed themselves in Bakala, claiming themselves as the new Guru. Sikhs were puzzled to see so many claimants.[15][16]

Sikh tradition has a myth concerning the manner in which Tegh Bahadur was selected as the ninth guru. A wealthy trader, Baba Makhan Shah Labana, had once prayed for his life and had promised to gift 500 gold coins to the Sikh Guru if he survived.[15] He arrived in search of the ninth Guru. He went from one claimant to the next making his obeisance and offering two gold coins to each Guru, believing that the right guru would know that his silent promise was to gift 500 coins for his safety. Every "guru" he met accepted the two gold coins and bid him farewell.[15] Then he discovered that Tegh Bahadur also lived at Bakala. Labana gifted Tegh Bahadur the usual offering of two gold coins. Tegh Bahadur gave him his blessings and remarked that his offering was considerably short of the promised five hundred. Makhan Shah Labana forthwith made good the difference and ran upstairs. He began shouting from the rooftop, "Guru ladho re, Guru ladho re" meaning "I have found the Guru, I have found the Guru".[15]

In August 1664, a Sikh Sangat arrived in Bakala and appointed Tegh Bahadur as the ninth guru of Sikhs. The Sangat was led by Diwan Durga Mal,], elder brother of Guru Tegh Bahadur, conferring Guruship on Him.[17]

As had been the custom among Sikhs after the execution of Guru Arjan by Mughal Emperor Jahangir, Guru Tegh Bahadur was surrounded by armed bodyguards.[18] He himself lived an austere life.[19]

Works

Guru Tegh Bahadur contributed many hymns to Granth Sahib including the Shloks, or couplets near the end of the Guru Granth Sahib.[19] Guru Tegh Bahadur toured various parts of the Mughal Empire and was asked by Gobind Sahali to construct several Sikh temples in Mahali. His works include 116 shabads, 15 ragas, and his bhagats are credited with 782 compositions that are part of bani in Sikhism.[20] His works are included in the Guru Granth Sahib (pages 219–1427).[21] They cover a wide range of topics, such as the nature of God, human attachments, body, mind, sorrow, dignity, service, death, and deliverance.

Journeys

Guru Tegh Bahadur traveled extensively in different parts of the country, including Dhaka and Assam, to preach the teachings of Nanak, the first Sikh guru. The places he visited and stayed in became sites of Sikh temples.[22] During his travels, Guru Tegh Bahadur spread the Sikh ideas and message, as well as started community water wells and langars (community kitchen charity for the poor).[23][24]

The Guru made three successive visits to Kiratpur. On 21 August 1664, Guru Tegh Bahadur went there to console Bibi Roop upon the death of her father, Guru Har Rai, the seventh Sikh guru, and of his brother, Guru Har Krishan. [25] The second visit was on 15 October 1664, at the death on 29 September 1664, of Bassi, the mother of Guru Har Rai. A third visit concluded a fairly extensive journey through the northwest Indian subcontinent. His son Guru Gobind Singh, who would be the tenth Sikh Guru, was born in Patna, while he was away in Dhubri, Assam in 1666, where stands the Gurdwara Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib.There he helped end the war between Raja Ram Singh of Bengal and Raja Chakardwaj of Ahom state (later Assam).[23][26] He visited the towns of Mathura, Agra, Allahabad and Varanasi.[27]

After his visit to Assam, Bengal and Bihar, the Guru visited Rani Champa of Bilaspur who offered to give the Guru a piece of land in her state. The Guru bought the site for 500 rupees. There, Guru Tegh Bahadur founded the city of Anandpur Sahib in the foothills of Himalayas.[7][28] In 1672, Tegh Bahadur traveled through Kashmir and the North-West Frontier, to meet the masses, as the persecution of non-Muslims reached new heights.[29]

Execution

The primary nucleus of Sikh narratives remain the Bachittar Natak, a memoir of Guru Gobind Singh, Guru Tegh Bahadur's son, dated between late 1680s and late 1690s.[30][31][32][a] Guru Tegh Bahadur's son and successor recalled Guru's execution:[33]

In this dark age, Tegh Bahadur performed a great act of chivalry (saka) for the sake of the frontal mark and sacred thread. He offered all he had for the holy. He gave up his head, but did not utter a sigh. He suffered martyrdom for the sake of religion. He laid down his head, but not his honor. Real men of god do not perform tricks like showmen. Having broken the pitcher on the head of the king of Delhi, he departed to the world of god. No one has ever performed a deed like him. At his departure, the whole world mourned, while the heavens hailed it as victory.

More Sikh accounts of Tegh Bahadur's execution, all claiming to be sourced from the "testimony of trustworthy Sikhs", only started emerging in around the late eighteenth century, and are thus, often conflicting.[34] Chronicler Sohan Lal Suri states that the Guru gained thousands of followers of soldiers and horsemen during his travels between 1672 and 1673 in southern Punjab and provided shelter to those who were resistant to Mughal representatives. Aurangzeb was warned about such activity, as a cause of concern which could possibly lead to rebellion.[33]


Persian sources maintain that the Guru was a bandit whose plunder and rapine of Punjab along with his rebellious activities precipitated his execution. The earliest Persian source to chronicle his execution is Siyar-ul-Mutakhkherin by Ghulam Hussain Khan c. 1782, where Tegh Bahadur's (alleged) oppression of subjects is held to have incurred Aurangzeb's wrath:[34]

Tegh Bahadur, the Ninth successor of (Guru) Nanak became a man of authority with a large number of followers. (In fact) Several thousand persons used to accompany him as he moved from place to place. His contemporary Hafiz Adam, a faqir belonging to the group of Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi's followers, had also come to have a large number of murids and followers. Both these men (Guru Tegh Bahadur and Hafiz Adam) used to move about in Punjab, adopting a habit of coercion and extortion. Tegh Bahadur used to collect money from Hindus and Hafiz Adam from Muslims. The royal waqia navis (news reporter and intelligence agent) wrote to the Emperor Alamgir [Aurangzeb] of their manner of activity, added that if their authority increased they could become even refractory.

— Ghulam Husain, Siyar-ul-Mutakhkherin

Satish Chandra however cautions against taking Hussain Khan's argument at face value.[34] He was a relative of Alivardi Khan — one of the closest confidantes of Aurangzeb — and might have been providing an "official justification".[34][35][b] There are other challenges to the above narrative. Ghulam Husain lived far away from Punjab. Also, the Guru's association with Hafiz Adam is anachronistic. Hafiz Adam died in Medina in A.D. 1643, 21 years before Tegh Bahadur attained the status of Guru. Further, it should be pointed out that according to Ghulam Husain, Tegh Bahadur was confined in Gwalior, where, under imperial orders, his body was "cut into four quarters" and hung at the four gates of the fortress while it is well known that Tegh Bahadur was executed in Delhi where the Sisganj Gurudwara is situated at present.[citation needed] The Sikh sakhis written during the eighteenth century indirectly support the narrative in the Persian sources; nothing that the Guru was in "violent opposition to the Muslim rulers of the country" in response to the dogmatic policies implemented by Aurangzeb.[36] Both Persian and Sikh sources agree that Tegh Bahadur militarily opposed the Mughal state and was therefore targeted for execution in accordance with Aurangzeb's zeal for punishing enemies of the state.[37]

Many scholars identify the narrative is as follows: A congregation of Hindu Pandits from Kashmir requested help against Aurangzeb's oppressive policies, to which Guru Tegh Bahadur decided to protect their rights.[38] Tegh Bahadur left from his base at Makhowal to confront the persecution of Kashmiri Brahmins by Mughal officials but was arrested at Ropar and put to jail in Sirhind.[39][40] Four months later, in November 1675, he was transferred to Delhi and asked to perform a miracle to prove his nearness to God or convert to Islam.[39] The Guru declined and three of his colleagues, who had been arrested with him, were tortured to death in front of him: Bhai Mati Das was sawn into pieces, Bhai Dayal Das was thrown into a cauldron of boiling water, and Bhai Sati Das was burned alive.[39] Thereafter, Tegh Bahadur was publicly beheaded in Chandni Chowk, a market square close to the Red Fort.[39][41]

Satish Chandra expresses doubt about the authenticity of these meta-narratives, centered on miracles — Aurangzeb was not a believer in them. He further expresses doubt pertaining to the narrative of the persecution of Hindus in Kashmir within Sikh accounts, remarking that no contemporary sources mentioned the persecution of Hindus there.[36][34][42] Louis Fenech refuses to pass any judgement, in light of the paucity of primary sources; however, he notes that these Sikh accounts had coded martyrdom into the events, with an aim to elicit pride than trauma in readers. He further argues that Tegh Bahadur had sacrificed himself for the sake of his own faith; the janju and tilak in the passage in the Bachittar Natak referring to his own.[30][43][44]

Remarkably, in contrast to this dominating theme in Sikh literature, some pre-modern Sikh accounts had laid the blame on an acrimonious succession dispute: Ram Rai, elder brother of Guru Har Krishan, was held to have instigated Aurangzeb against Tegh Bahadur by suggesting that he prove his spiritual greatness by performing miracles at the Court.[34][c] Sohan Lal Suri, the court historian of Ranjit Singh, in his magisterial Umdat ut Tawarikh (c. 1805) chose to reiterate Hussain Khan's argument at large: Tegh Bahadur had provided refuge to all classes of rebels and commanded a huge nomadic army across Punjab; so he was put down at the earliest, lest he declare an insurrection in near future.[34]

Legacy and memorials

Guru Har Gobind was Guru Tegh Bahadur's father. He was originally named Tyag Mal (Punjabi: ਤਿਆਗ ਮਲ) but was later renamed Tegh Bahadur after his gallantry and bravery in the wars against the Mughal forces. He built the city of Anandpur Sahib and was responsible for saving a faction of Kashmiri Pandits, who were being persecuted by the Mughals.[1]

After the execution of Tegh Bahadur by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, a number of Sikh temples were built in his and his associates' memory. The Gurdwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Chandni Chowk, Delhi, was built over where he was beheaded.[45] Gurdwara Rakab Ganj Sahib, also in Delhi, is built on the site of the residence of a disciple of Tegh Bahadur, who burned his house to cremate his master's body.[9]

Gurdwara Sisganj Sahib in Punjab marks the site where in November 1675, the head of the martyred Guru Tegh Bahadar which was brought by Bhai Jaita (renamed Bhai Jiwan Singh according to Sikh rites) in defiance of the Mughal authority of Aurangzeb was cremated here.[46] During his journey to Anandpur Sahib Bhai Jaita Singh reach a village near Delhi in Sonipat and the Mughal army also reach that village.[47] Bhai Jaita demand for help to villagers so the villagers hideout Bhai Jaita with Guru' head.[48] A villager named Kushal Singh Dahiya came ahead and offers his own head in the place of Guru's head to Mughal army.[49] After beheading Kushal Singh Dahiya the villagers shuffle the heads and give the head of Kushal Singh Dahiya to Mughal army.[50]

Tegh Bahadur has been remembered for giving up his life for freedom of religion, reminding Sikhs and non-Muslims in India to follow and practice their beliefs.[3][1] Guru Tegh Bahadur was martyred, along with fellow devotees Bhai Mati Dass, Bhai Sati Das and Bhai Dayala.[7] 24 November, the date of his martyrdom, is observed in certain parts of India as a public holiday.[51][52][53]

The execution hardened the resolve of Sikhs against Muslim rule and the persecution. Pashaura Singh states that, "if the martyrdom of Guru Arjan had helped bring the Sikh Panth together, Guru Tegh Bahadur's martyrdom helped to make the protection of human rights central to its Sikh identity".[3] Wilfred Smith[54] stated "the attempt to forcibly convert the ninth Guru to an externalized, impersonal Islam clearly made an indelible impression on the martyr's nine-year-old son, Gobind, who reacted slowly but deliberately by eventually organizing the Sikh group into a distinct, formal, symbol-patterned community". It inaugurated the Khalsa identity.[54]

Notes

  1. ^ The authorship is disputed. While W. H. McLeod considered the work to be Guru Gobind Singh's, Gurinder Singh Mann and Purnima Dhavan concluded it to be the work of multiple court poets; there is a rough consensus to date the text.[31]
  2. ^ Chandra points out a factual error to justify his caution: Adam had died much earlier.
  3. ^ Ghulam Muhiuddin Bute Shah in his Tarikh- i-Punjab reiterates this narrative.

References

  1. ^ a b c Pashaura Singh and Louis Fenech (2014). The Oxford handbook of Sikh studies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 236–245, 444–446, Quote: "this second martyrdom helped to make 'human rights and freedom of conscience' central to its identity." Quote: "This is the reputed place where several Kashmiri Pandits came seeking protection from Aurangzeb's army.". ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  2. ^ Gill, Sarjit S., and Charanjit Kaur (2008), "Gurdwara and its politics: Current debate on Sikh identity in Malaysia", SARI: Journal Alam dan Tamadun Melayu, Vol. 26 (2008), pages 243–255, Quote: "Guru Tegh Bahadur died in order to protect the freedom of India from invading Mughals ."
  3. ^ a b c d Seiple, Chris (2013). The Routledge handbook of religion and security. New York: Routledge. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-415-66744-9.
  4. ^ Gandhi, Surjit (2007). History of Sikh gurus retold. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 653–91. ISBN 978-81-269-0858-5.
  5. ^ W. H. McLeod (1984). Textual Sources for the Study of Sikhism. Manchester University Press. pp. 31–33. ISBN 9780719010637. Archived from the original on 18 February 2020. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  6. ^ "The Ninth Master Guru Tegh Bahadur (1621–1675)". sikhs.org. Archived from the original on 7 January 2019. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
  7. ^ a b c "Religions – Sikhism: Guru Tegh Bahadur". BBC. Archived from the original on 14 April 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  8. ^ Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 236–238. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8. Archived from the original on 4 May 2019. Retrieved 12 June 2017.;
    Fenech, Louis E. (2001). "Martyrdom and the Execution of Guru Arjan in Early Sikh Sources". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 121 (1): 20–31. doi:10.2307/606726. JSTOR 606726.;
    Fenech, Louis E. (1997). "Martyrdom and the Sikh Tradition". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 117 (4): 623–642. doi:10.2307/606445. JSTOR 606445.;
    McLeod, Hew (1999). "Sikhs and Muslims in the Punjab". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. Taylor & Francis. 22 (sup001): 155–165. doi:10.1080/00856408708723379. ISSN 0085-6401.
  9. ^ a b H. S. Singha (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism (over 1000 Entries). Hemkunt Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-81-7010-301-1. Archived from the original on 20 September 2020. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  10. ^ Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: a Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 6, 122–123. ISBN 978-0-19-874557-0. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  11. ^ William Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4. Archived from the original on 28 May 2020. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  12. ^ Smith, Bonnie (2008). The Oxford encyclopedia of women in world history, Volume 2. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 410. ISBN 978-0-19-514890-9.
  13. ^ H.S. Singha (2005). Sikh Studies. Hemkunt Press. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-81-7010-245-8. Archived from the original on 4 May 2019. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  14. ^ Gandhi, Surjit (2007). History of Sikh gurus retold. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 621–22. ISBN 978-81-269-0858-5.
  15. ^ a b c d Kohli, Mohindar (1992). Guru Tegh Bahadur: testimony of conscience. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 13–15. ISBN 978-81-7201-234-2.
  16. ^ Singha, H.S. (2000). The encyclopedia of Sikhism. Hemkunt Publishers. p. 85. ISBN 978-81-7010-301-1.
  17. ^ Talib, Gurbachan Singh. Guru Tegh Bahadur: Martyr and Teacher. Punjabi University. p. 22.
  18. ^ H.R. Gupta (1994). History of the Sikhs: The Sikh Gurus, 1469–1708. Vol. 1. p. 188. ISBN 9788121502764.
  19. ^ a b Kohli, Mohindar (1992). Guru Tegh Bahadur : testimony of conscience. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 37–41. ISBN 978-81-7201-234-2.
  20. ^ Singh, Prithi (2006). The history of Sikh gurus. Lotus Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-81-8382-075-2.
  21. ^ Tegh Bahadur (Translated by Gopal Singh) (2005). Mahalla nawan: compositions of Guru Tegh Bahādur-the ninth guru (from Sri Guru Granth Sahib): Bāṇī Gurū Tega Bahādara. Allied Publishers. pp. xxviii–xxxiii, 15–27. ISBN 978-81-7764-897-3.
  22. ^ Singha, H.S. (2000). The encyclopedia of Sikhism. Hemkunt Publishers. pp. 139–40. ISBN 978-81-7010-301-1.
  23. ^ a b Singh, Prithi (2006). The history of Sikh gurus. Lotus Press. pp. 187–89. ISBN 978-81-8382-075-2.
  24. ^ Pruthi, Raj (2004). Sikhism and Indian civilization. p. 88. ISBN 978-81-7141-879-4.
  25. ^ "Sikhism - Guru Har Rai | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
  26. ^ Kohli, Mohindar (1992). Guru Tegh Bahadur: testimony of conscience. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 25–27. ISBN 978-81-7201-234-2.
  27. ^ Gobind Singh (Translated by Navtej Sarna) (2011). Zafarnama. Penguin Books. pp. xviii–xix. ISBN 978-0-670-08556-9.
  28. ^ Singha, H.S. (2000). The encyclopedia of Sikhism. Hemkunt Publishers. p. 21. ISBN 978-81-7010-301-1.
  29. ^ Singh, Prithi (2006). The history of Sikh gurus. Lotus Press. pp. 121–24. ISBN 978-81-8382-075-2.
  30. ^ a b Fenech, Louis E. (1997). "Martyrdom and the Sikh Tradition". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 117 (4): 623–642. doi:10.2307/606445. ISSN 0003-0279. JSTOR 606445. Archived from the original on 6 October 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2017.
  31. ^ a b Grewal, J. S. (2020). "New Perspectives and Sources". Guru Gobind Singh (1666–1708): Master of the White Hawk. Oxford University Press. pp. 9–10. ISBN 9780199494941.
  32. ^ Doniger, Wendy; Nussbaum, Martha Craven (2015). Pluralism and Democracy in India: Debating the Hindu Right. Oxford University Press. p. 261. ISBN 978-0-19-539553-2.
  33. ^ a b Singh, Surinder (2022). Medieval Panjab in Transition Authority, Resistance and Spirituality C.1500 – C.1700. p. 384. ISBN 9781000609448.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g Chandra, Satish. "Guru Tegh Bahadur's martyrdom". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 28 February 2002. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  35. ^ "Siyar-ul-Mutakhkherin – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Archived from the original on 18 September 2021. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  36. ^ a b Chandra, Satish (2005). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals Part - II. Har-Anand Publications. p. 296. ISBN 978-81-241-1066-9.
  37. ^ Truschke, Audrey (16 May 2017). Aurangzeb: The Life and Legacy of India's Most Controversial King. Stanford University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-5036-0259-5.
  38. ^ Jerryson, Michael (2020). Religious Violence Today: Faith and Conflict in the Modern World [2 Volumes]. p. 684. ISBN 9781440859915.
  39. ^ a b c d J. S. Grewal (1998). The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. pp. 71–73. ISBN 978-0-521-63764-0.
  40. ^ Purnima Dhavan (2011). When Sparrows Became Hawks: The Making of the Sikh Warrior Tradition, 1699–1799. Oxford University Press. pp. 33, 36–37. ISBN 978-0-19-987717-1. Archived from the original on 4 May 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  41. ^ Pashaura Singh (2014). Louis E. Fenech (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 236–238. ISBN 978-0-19-100411-7. Archived from the original on 4 May 2019. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  42. ^ Mir, Farina (2010). The social space of language vernacular culture in British colonial Punjab. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 207–37. ISBN 978-0-520-26269-0.
  43. ^ Fenech, Louis E. (2013). "The Historiography of the Ẓafar-nāmah". The Sikh Ẓafar-nāmah of Guru Gobind Singh: A Discursive Blade in the Heart of the Mughal Empire. Oxford University Press. p. 108. ISBN 9780199931439.
  44. ^ Grewal, J. S. (2020). "New Perspectives and Sources". Guru Gobind Singh (1666–1708): Master of the White Hawk. Oxford University Press. pp. 9–10. ISBN 9780199494941. Fenech argues that the twentieth-century Tat Khalsa wrongly treated the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur as a sacrifice to save Hinduism. In his view, the tilak and janju in the passage under consideration refer to the frontal mark and the sacred thread of Guru Tegh Bahadur himself. In other words, Guru Tegh Bahadur sacrificed his life for the sake of his own faith.
  45. ^ SK Chatterji (1975), Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur and the Sis Ganj Gurdwara, Sikh Review, 23(264): 100–09
  46. ^ Harbans Singh (1992), "History of Gurdwara Sis Ganj Sahib", in Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Volume 1, pg. 547
  47. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 5 January 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  48. ^ "Pratilipi | Read Stories, Poems and Books". hindi.pratilipi.com (in Hindi). Archived from the original on 26 September 2021. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  49. ^ "कुशाल सिंह दहिया की प्रतिमा का सीएम ने किया अनावरण". khas khabar (in Hindi). 9 November 2017. Archived from the original on 27 November 2018. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  50. ^ Pioneer, The. "CM unveils statue of Kushal Singh Dahiya". The Pioneer. Archived from the original on 21 December 2019. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  51. ^ "Letter from Administration of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, U.T." (PDF). Dnh.nic.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  52. ^ "LIST OF RESTRICTED HOLIDAYS 2016". Arunachalipr.gov.in. Archived from the original on 8 November 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  53. ^ "HP Government – Holidays – Government of Himachal Pradesh, India". Himachal.nic.in. 13 June 2016. Archived from the original on 1 November 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  54. ^ a b Wilfred Smith (1981). On Understanding Islam: Selected Studies. Walter De Gruyter. p. 191. ISBN 978-9027934482.

External links

Peer reviewed publications on Guru Tegh Bahadur
Preceded by Sikh Guru
20 March 1665 – 24 November 1675
Succeeded by

This page was last edited on 25 July 2022, at 09:23
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.