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Gulf of Tonkin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gulf of Tonkin
Gulf of Tonkin location.gif
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese北部灣
東京灣
Simplified Chinese北部湾
东京湾
Literal meaningNorthern Gulf
Gulf of Tonkin
Vietnamese name
VietnameseVịnh Bắc Bộ
Vịnh Bắc Phần
Vịnh Đông Kinh
Vịnh Bắc Việt
Hán-Nôm泳北部
泳北份
泳東京
泳北越
True color satellite image of the Gulf of Tonkin
True color satellite image of the Gulf of Tonkin

The Gulf of Tonkin is a gulf at the northwestern portion of the South China Sea, located off the coasts of Tonkin (northern Vietnam) and South China. It has a total surface area of 126,250 km2 (48,750 sq mi). It is defined in the west and northwest by the northern coastline of Vietnam down to the Hòn La Island, in the north by China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, and to the east by the Leizhou Peninsula and Hainan Island.

Etymology

The name Tonkin, written "東京" in Hán-Nôm characters and Đông Kinh in the Vietnamese alphabet, means "eastern capital", and is the former toponym for Hanoi, the present capital of Vietnam. It should not to be confused with Tokyo, which is also written "東京" and also means "eastern capital". During the French colonial era, the northern region of today’s Vietnam was called Tonkin.

Bắc Bộ is the native Vietnamese name of Tonkin. The bay's Vietnamese and Chinese names – Vịnh Bắc Bộ and Běibù Wān, respectively – both mean "Northern Bay".

1964 incident

On 4 August 1964, United States President Lyndon B. Johnson claimed that North Vietnamese forces had twice attacked American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin.[1] Known today as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, this event spawned the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution of 7 August 1964, ultimately leading to open war between North Vietnam and the United States. It furthermore foreshadowed the major escalation of the Vietnam War in South Vietnam, which began with the landing of US regular combat troops at Da Nang in 1965.

See also

References

  1. ^ Fletcher, Martin (1 December 2001). "LBJ tape 'confirms Vietnam war error'". The Times. Archived from the original on 1 December 2001.

Further reading

  • Cooke, Nola; Li, Tana; Anderson, James A., eds. (2011). The Tongking Gulf Through History. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0812243369.
  • Churchman, Catherine (2016). The People Between the Rivers: The Rise and Fall of a Bronze Drum Culture, 200–750 CE. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1442258600.


This page was last edited on 16 May 2022, at 04:53
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