In English and related languages, several terms involving the words "great" or "gross" (possibly, from French: *grosse* thick) relate to numbers involving a multiple of exponents of twelve (dozen):

- A
**gross**refers to a group of 144 items (a dozen dozen or a square dozen, 12^{2}).^{[1]}^{[2]} - A
**great gross**refers to a group of 1728 items (a dozen gross or a cubic dozen, 12^{3}).^{[1]}^{[2]} - A
**small gross**^{[3]}or a**great hundred**^{[4]}refers to a group of 120 items (ten dozen, 10×12).

The term dates from the early 15th century, from the Old French *grosse douzaine*, "large dozen”.^{[5]} A gross may be abbreviated as "gr" or "gro".

The continued use of these numbers in measurement and counting represents a continuation of the tradition of the duodecimal number system in everyday life^{[6]} and has encouraged groups such as the Dozenal Society of America to advocate for a wider use of such a numbering system in place of decimal.^{[7]}^{[8]}

## References

- ^
^{a}^{b}Schwartzman, Steven (1996),*The Words of Mathematics: An Etymological Dictionary of Mathematical Terms Used in English*, Mathematical Association of America, pp. 100–101, ISBN 9780883855119. - ^
^{a}^{b}Darling, David (2004),*The Universal Book of Mathematics: From Abracadabra to Zeno's Paradoxes*, John Wiley & Sons, p. 140, ISBN 9780471270478. **^**Wright, Carroll Davidson (1910),*The New Century Book of Facts: A Handbook of Ready Reference*, King-Richardson Company, p. 462.**^**Wells, David (1997),*The Penguin Dictionary of Curious and Interesting Numbers*(3rd ed.), Penguin, p. 66, ISBN 9780140261493.**^**https://www.etymonline.com/word/gross**^**Gullberg, Jan (1997),*Mathematics: From the Birth of Numbers*, W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 9780393040029.**^**Dudley, Underwood (1996),*Mathematical Cranks*, Cambridge University Press, p. 22, ISBN 9780883855072.**^**Bellos, Alex (2012-12-12), "Dozenalists of the world unite! Rise up against the tyranny of ten!",*The Guardian*.