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Great Lakes region

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The states and provinces shown in red all have shorelines on at least one of the Great Lakes.
The states and provinces shown in red all have shorelines on at least one of the Great Lakes.

The Great Lakes region of North America is a bi-national Canada-American region that includes portions of the eight U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin as well as the Canadian province of Ontario. The region centers on the Great Lakes and forms a distinctive historical, economic, and cultural identity. A portion of the region also encompasses the Great Lakes Megalopolis.

The Great Lakes Commission, authorized by the region's American states and Province of Ontario, and the additional Canadian Province of Quebec, comprises a bi-national authority with specified powers to protect and preserve the water and environmental resources of the Great Lakes and surrounding waterways and aquifers. The Commission's authorities are confirmed by the Canadian and American federal governments, and by its constituent states and provinces. The states and provinces are represented in the Conference of Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Governors and Premiers.

The Great Lakes region takes its name from the corresponding geological formation of the Great Lakes Basin, a narrow watershed encompassing The Great Lakes, bounded by watersheds to the region's north (Hudson Bay), west (Mississippi), east and south (Ohio). To the east, the rivers of St. Lawrence, Richelieu, Hudson, Mohawk and Susquehanna form an arc of watersheds east to The Atlantic.

The Great Lakes region, as distinct from the Great Lakes Basin, defines a unit of sub-national political entities defined by the U.S. states and the Canadian Province of Ontario encompassing the Great Lakes watershed, and the states and Province bordering one or more of the Great Lakes.

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Transcription

What's so great about the Great Lakes? They're known as America's inland seas. The North American Great Lakes Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior are so massive that they border eight states and contain 23 quadrillion liters of water. That's enough to cover the land area of the contiguous United States three meters deep. These vast bodies of water span forest, grassland, and wetland habitats, supporting a region that's home to over 3,500 species. But how did such a vast and unique geological feature come to be? The story begins near the end of the last ice age over 10,000 years ago, a time when the climate was warming and the glaciers that cloaked the Earth's surface began their slow retreat. These immense ice sheets carved out a series of basins. Those basins filled with water as the ice began to melt, creating the world's largest area of freshwater lakes. Over time, channels developed between these basins, and water began to flow in an ongoing exchange that persists to this day. In fact, today, the interconnected Great Lakes contain almost 20% of the world's supply of fresh surface water. The water's journey begins in the far north of Lake Superior, which is the deepest, coldest, and clearest of the lakes, containing half the system's water. Lake Superior sinks to depths of 406 meters, creating a unique and diverse ecosystem that includes more that 80 fish species. A given drop of water spends on average 200 years in this lake before flowing into Lake Michigan or Lake Huron. Linked by the Straits of Mackinac, these two lakes are technically one. To the west lies Lake Michigan, the third largest of the lakes by surface area. Water slowly moves through its cul-de-sac shape and encounters the world's largest freshwater dunes, many wildlife species, and unique fossilized coral. To the east is Lake Huron, which has the longest shoreline. It's sparsely populated, but heavily forested, including 7,000-year-old petrified trees. Below them, water continues to flow southeastwards from Lake Huron into Lake Erie. This lake's status as the warmest and shallowest of the five has ensured an abundance of animal life, including millions of migrating birds. Finally, the water reaches its last stop by dramatically plunging more than 50 meters down the thundering Niagara Falls into Lake Ontario, the smallest lake by surface area. >From there, some of this well-traveled water enters the St. Lawrence River, eventually reaching the Atlantic Ocean. In addition to being a natural wonder, the perpetually flowing Great Lakes bring us multiple benefits. They provide natural water filtration, flood control, and nutrients cycling. By moving water across more than 3,200 kilometers, the Great Lakes also provide drinking water for upward of 40 million people and 212 billion liters a day for the industries and farms that line their banks. But our dependence on the system is having a range of negative impacts, too. The Great Lakes coastal habitats are being degraded and increasingly populated, exposing the once pristine waters to industrial, urban, and agricultural pollutants. Because less than 1% of the water leaves the Lake's system annually, decades-old pollutants still lurk in its waters. That creates dead zones in some regions where no plants or animals can survive. Humans have also inadvertently introduced more than 100 non-native and invasive species into the lakes, such as zebra and quagga mussels, and sea lampreys that have decimated some indigenous fish populations. On a larger scale, climate change is causing the waters to warm, thus reducing water levels and changing the distribution of aquatic life. Luckily, in recent years, governments have started to recognize the immense value of this natural resource. Partnerships between the United States and Canada are underway to reduce pollution, protect coastal habitats, and halt the spread of invasive species. Protecting something as massive as the Great Lakes system will require the collaboration of many organizations, but the effort is critical if we can preserve the wonder of this flowing inland sea.

Contents

History

Prior to European settlement, Iroquoian people lived around Lakes Erie and Ontario, Algonquian peoples around most of the rest, and a variety of other indigenous nation-peoples including the Lakotan, Ojibwa, Illinois, Pottawatmie, Huron, Shawnee, Erie, Fox, Miami, Crow and Ho-Chunk (Winnebago). With the first permanent European settlements in the early seventeenth century, all these nation-peoples developed an extensive fur trade with French, Dutch, and English merchants in the St. Lawrence, Hudson and Mohawk Valleys, and Hudson's Bay, respectively.

The prospects of fur monopolies and discovery of a fabled Northwest Passage to Asia generated sporadic but intense competition among the three most powerful northwest Europe imperial nations to control the territory. A century and a half of naval and land wars among France, The Netherlands and Britain resulted finally in British control of the region, from the Ohio River to the Arctic, and from the Atlantic to the Mississippi. Beyond the region, North American claims remained disputed among Britain, France, Spain and Russia.

Britain defeated France decisively at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham near Quebec City in 1759, and the Treaty of Paris (1763) that ended The Seven Years' War, known in America as the French and Indian War ceded the entire region to the victor. Britain's claims were intensely disputed by a confederation of Indians during Pontiac's Rebellion, which induced major concessions to still sovereign Indian nations; and by the Iroquois Confederacy, whose six member nations-Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca and Tuscarora-never conceded sovereignty to either Britain or, later, The United States.[1]

During the American Revolution, the region was contested between Britain and rebellious American colonies. Hoping for favorable claims of territorial control in an eventual peace treaty with Britain, American adventurers led by Kentucky militia leader George Rogers Clark briefly occupied village settlements, including Cahokia, Kaskaskia and Vincennes unopposed, with passive support from Francophone inhabitants. In the Peace of Paris (1784) Britain ceded what became known as The Northwest Territory, the area bounded by Great Lakes, Mississippi and Ohio rivers, and the eastern colonies of New York and Pennsylvania, to the fledgling United States. Britain, which may have entertained ambitions to repossess the area if America failed to govern it, retained control over its forts and licensed fur trade for fifteen years.

During the Confederacy Period of 1781–1789, the Continental Congress passed three ordinances whose authority was unclear regarding the region's governance on the American side. The Land Ordinance of 1784 established the broad outlines of future governance. The territory would be divided into six states, which would be given broad powers of constitutional instituting, and admitted to the nation as equal members. The Land Ordinance of 1785 specified the manner in which land would be distributed in the Territory, favoring sale in small parcels to settlers who would work their own farms.

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 defined the political protocols by which American states south of the lakes would enter the union as political equals with the original thirteen colonies. The ordinance, adopted in its final form just before the writing of the United States Constitution, was a sweeping, visionary proposal to create what was at the time a radical experiment in democratic governance and economy. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 prohibited slavery, restricted primogeniture, mandated universal public education, provided for affordable farm land to people who settled and improved it, and required peaceful, lawful treatment of the Indian population. The ordinance prohibited the establishment of state religion and established civic rights that foreshadowed the United States Bill of Rights. Civil rights included freedom from cruel and unusual punishment, trial by jury, and exemption from unreasonable search and seizure. States were authorized to organize constitutional conventions and petition for admission as states equal to the original thirteen. Five states evolved from its provisions: Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, and Wisconsin. The northeastern section of Minnesota, from the Mississippi to St. Croix River, also fell under ordinance jurisdiction and extended the constitution and culture of the Old Northwest to the Dakotas. The surge of settlement generated tension culminating in the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794.

Britain, fearing that fast American settlement could lead to annexation of its western provinces, countered with The Constitution Act of 1791, granting limited self-government to Canadian provinces, and creating two new provinces out of Canada: Lower Canada (today's Quebec) and Upper Canada (Ontario).

Settlement and economic expansion on both sides accelerated after the 1825 opening of The Erie Canal, an astonishingly successful public venture that effectively integrated markets and commerce between the Atlantic seaboard and the region. The region on both sides of the border became a vast research and design laboratory for agricultural machinery and techniques. Owner-operator family farms transformed both demographics and ecology into a vast terrain of farmlands, producing primarily wheat and corn. In western New York and northeast Ohio, the St. Lawrence, Mohawk, and Hudson rivers provided outlets for commercial corn and wheat, while The Ohio River let agricultural products from western Pennsylvania and southern Ohio, Indiana and Illinois journey downstream to New Orleans. Mining, primarily soft metals of copper, zinc, and lead; and timber to supply rapidly expanding sawmills that supplied lumber for new settlements.

Agricultural and industrial production generated distinctive political and social cultures of independent republican producers, who consolidated an ideology of personal liberty, free markets, and great social visions, often expressed in religious terms and enthusiasms. The region's alliance of antislavery with free soil movements contributed troops and agricultural goods that proved critical in the Union's victory. The Homestead and Morrill Acts, donating federal land to extend the agrarian economic franchise, and support state universities, modeled western expansion and education for all future states.

The British-Canadian London Conference of 1866, and subsequent Constitution Act of 1867 analogously derived from political, and some military, turmoil in the former jurisdiction of Upper Canada, which was renamed and organized in the new dominion as the Province of Ontario. Like the provisions of the ordinance, Ontario prohibited slavery, made provisions for land distribution to farmers who owned their own land, and mandated universal public education.

Ford's River Rouge assembly plant 1941
Ford's River Rouge assembly plant 1941

Industrial production, organization, and technology have made the region among the world's most productive manufacturing centers. Nineteenth-century proto-monopolies such as International Harvester, Standard Oil, and United States Steel established the pattern of American centralized industrial consolidation and eventual global dominance. The region hosted the world's greatest concentrations of production for oil, coal, steel, automobiles, synthetic rubber, agricultural machinery, and heavy transport equipment. Agronomy industrialized as well, in meat processing, packaged cereal products, and processed dairy products. In response to disruptions and imbalances of power resulting from so vast a concentration of economic power, industrial workers organized the Congress of Industrial Organizations, a coherent agricultural cooperative movement, and the Progressive politics led by Wisconsin's Governor and Senator Robert M. La Follette Sr.. State universities, professional social work, and unemployment and workers' compensation were some of the region's permanent contributions to American social policy.

The Great Lakes region has produced globally influential breakthroughs in agricultural technology, transportation and building construction. Cyrus McCormick's reaper, John Deere's steel plow, Joseph Dart (Dart's Elevator), and George Washington Snow's balloon-frame construction are some of innovations that made significant, global impact. The University of Chicago and Case Western Reserve University figured prominently in developing nuclear power. Automobile manufacture developed simultaneously in Ohio and Indiana and became centered in the Detroit area of Michigan. Henry Ford's movable assembly line drew on regional experience in meat processing, agricultural machinery manufacture, and the industrial engineering of steel in revolutionizing the modern era of mass production manufacturing. Chicago-based Montgomery Ward and Sears Roebuck companies complemented mass manufactures with mass retail distribution.

Chicago and Detroit carry important roles in the field of architecture. Chicago pioneered the world's first skyscraper, the Home Insurance Building designed by William LeBaron Jenney. Engineering innovation established Chicago from that time on to become one of the world's most influential epicenters of contemporary urban and commercial architecture. Equally influential was the 1832 invention of balloon-framing in Chicago which replaced heavy timber construction requiring massive beams and great woodworking skill with pre-cut timber. This new lumber could be nailed together by farmers and settlers who used it to build homes and barns throughout the western prairies and plains. Wisconsin-born, Chicago-trained Sullivan apprentice Frank Lloyd Wright designed prototypes for architectural designs from the commercial skylight atrium to suburban ranch house.

German-born Pennsylvania immigrant John A. Roebling invented steel wire rope, a pivotal part of suspension bridges he designed and whose construction he supervised in Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and Buffalo, based on earlier successful canal aqueducts. His most famous project was the Brooklyn Bridge.

Contributions to modern transportation include the Wright brothers' early airplanes, designed and perfected in their Dayton, Ohio mechanics' workshops; distinctive Great Lakes freighters, and railroad beds constructed of wooden ties and steel rails. The early nineteenth century Erie Canal and mid-twentieth century St. Lawrence Seaway expanded the scale and capacity of massive water-born freight.

Agricultural associations joined the nineteenth century Grange, which in turn generated the agricultural cooperatives that defined much of rural political economy and culture throughout the region. Fraternal, ethnic, and civic organizations extended cooperatives and supported local ventures from insurance companies to orphanages and hospitals. The region was the political base, and provided much leadership political parties in the region.

The region's greatest institutional contributions were major corporate, labor, educational and cooperative organizations. It hosted some of the most influential national and international corporations of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century monopoly age, including John Deere Plow, McCormack Reaper, New York Central and Erie railroads, Carnegie Steel, U.S. Steel, International Harvester and Standard Oil. In part to balance democratic representation against the economic and political power of these corporations, the region hosted industrial labor organization, consolidated agricultural cooperatives and state educational systems. The Big Ten Conference memorializes the nation's first region in which every state sponsored major research, technical-agricultural, and teacher-training colleges and universities. The Congress of Industrial Organizations grew out of the region's coal and iron mines; steel, automobile and rubber industries; and breakthrough strikes and contracts of Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan.

During World War II, the region became the global epicenter of motorized land vehicles, including cars, trucks and jeeps, as well as a major supplier of engine, transmission, and electrical components to the wartime aeronautics industry. Despite extreme labor shortages, the region increased mechanization, and absorbed large numbers of women and immigrant labor, to increase its food production.

Economy

Great Lakes region
State or Province
2008 GDP
millions
of USD
%
New York (state) New York 1,141,088 25.2
Illinois Illinois 633,697 14.0
 Ontario 584,460 12.9
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 553,301 12.2
Ohio Ohio 471,508 10.4
Michigan Michigan 382,544 8.4
Minnesota Minnesota 262,847 5.8
Indiana Indiana 254,861 5.6
Wisconsin Wisconsin 240,429 5.3
United States Canada TOTAL 4,528,128 100.00

Navigable terrain, waterways, and ports spurred an unprecedented construction of transportation infrastructure throughout the region. The region is a global leader in advanced manufacturing and research and development, with significant innovations in both production processes and business organization. John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil set precedents for centralized pricing, uniform distribution, and controlled product standards through Standard Oil, which started as a consolidated refinery in Cleveland. Cyrus McCormick's Reaper and other manufacturers of agricultural machinery consolidated into International Harvester in Chicago. Andrew Carnegie's steel production integrated large-scale open-hearth and Bessemer processes into the world's most efficient and profitable mills. The largest, most comprehensive monopoly in the world, United States Steel, consolidated steel production throughout the region. Many of the world's largest employers began in the Great Lakes region.

Mass marketing in the modern sense was born in the region. Two competing Chicago retailers—Montgomery Ward and Sears Roebuck—developed mass marketing and sales through catalogues, mail-order distribution, and the establishment of their brand names as purveyors of consumer goods. The region's natural features, cultural institutions, and resorts make it a popular destination for tourism.

Advantages of accessible waterways, highly developed transportation infrastructure, finance, and a prosperous market base make the region the global leader in automobile production and a global business location. Henry Ford's movable assembly line and integrated production set the model and standard for major car manufactures. The Detroit area emerged as the world's automotive center, with facilities throughout the region. Akron, Ohio became the global leader in rubber production, driven by the demand for tires. Over 200 million tons of cargo are shipped annually through the Great Lakes.[2][3][4]

According to the Brookings Institution, if it stood alone as a country, the Great Lakes economy would be one of the largest economic units on Earth (with a $4.5-trillion gross regional product). This region also contains what area urban planners call the Great Lakes Megalopolis, which has an estimated 59 million people. Chicago is emerging as the third megacity in the United States, after the New York City and Los Angeles metropolitan areas, with a metro population approaching ten million. Cities along the Great Lakes have access to the Atlantic Ocean through the St. Lawrence Seaway, making them international ports.

Population centers

Rank Area State/
Province
Image CSA/CMA
2009 population
Projected[5][6][7]
2025 population
Projected increase
2009–2025
1 Chicago IL-IN-WI
2009-09-18 3060x2040 chicago skyline.jpg
9,804,845 10,935,100 1,130,255
2 Toronto ON
Skyline of Toronto viewed from Harbour.jpg
5,741,400 7,408,000 1,666,600
3 Detroit MI
DowntownDetroit.jpg
5,327,764 6,191,000 863,236
4 Cleveland OH
ClevelandSkyline.jpg
3,515,646 3,795,658 280,012
5 Milwaukee WI
Milwaukee skyline.jpg
1,760,268 1,913,000 157,732
6 Ottawa – Gatineau ON-QC
Downtown ottawa night.jpg
1,451,415 1,596,556 145,141
7 Grand Rapids MI
Grdowntown.jpg
1,327,366 1,530,000 202,634
8 Buffalo NY
BuffaloSkyline.jpg
1,203,493 1,040,400 -163,093
9 Rochester NY
Skyline Rochester, NY.jpg
1,149,653 1,248,600 98,947
10 Hamilton ON
HamiltonOntarioSkylineC.JPG
740,200 954,858 214,658
11 Toledo OH
ToledoMorning.JPG
672,220 672,220 0
12 Kalamazoo MI 524,030 540,000 15,970
13 Lansing MI
Lansing skyline brobb 11 2009.jpg
523,609 547,325 23,716
14 Kitchener – Cambridge – Waterloo ON
Arial photo of downtown Kitchener Ontario.JPG
492,400 635,196 142,796
15 London ON
London, Ontario, Canada- The Forest City from above.jpg
492,200 634,938 142,738
16 Fort Wayne IN
Reservoir Park Skyline.JPG
414,315 455,623 39,366
17 St. Catharines – Niagara ON
SkylineNiagaraFalls.jpg
404,400 521,676 117,276
18 Windsor ON
Windsor Ontario skyline.jpg
330,900 426,861 95,961
19 South Bend-Mishawaka IN
South-bend-indiana.jpg
319,224
20 Erie PA
Flagship-Niagara-Dobbins-Landing-Erie-July4-2009.jpg
280,985 N/A N/A

Geography

The Palaeozoic strata, are but parts of a great area of similar strata hundreds of feet in thickness. These strata decline gently southward from the great upland of the Laurentian Highlands of eastern Canada. The visible upland area of today was but a small part of the primeval continent with the remainder of it still buried under a Palaeozoic cover. The visible part was the last part of the primeval continent to sink under the advancing Palaeozoic seas. When the upland and its overlap of stratified deposits were elevated again, the overlapping strata must have had the appearance of a coastal plain. Of course that was long ago; since then the strata have eroded substantially and today possess neither the area nor the smooth form of their initial extent. This district may be considered an ancient coastal plain. As is always the case in the broad denudation of the gently inclined strata of such plains, the weaker layers are worn down in sub-parallel belts of lower land between the upland and the belts of more resistant strata, which rise in uplands.

Niagara Escarpment (in red)
Niagara Escarpment (in red)

Few better illustrations of this type of forms are to be found than that presented in the district of the Great Lakes. The chief upland belt or escarpment is formed by the firm Niagara limestone/dolostone, which takes its name from the gorge and falls cut through the upland by the Niagara River. As in all such forms, the Niagara Escarpment has a relatively strong slope or infacing escarpment on the side towards the upland, and a long gentle slope on the other side. Its relief is seldom more than 200 or 300 feet (91 m) and is generally small. Its continuity and its contrast with the associated lowlands on the underlying and overlying weak strata suffice to make it an important feature. The escarpment would lie straight east-west if the slant of the strata were uniformly to the south. However, the strata are somewhat warped and so the escarpment's course is strongly convex to the north in the middle, gently convex to the south at either end.

The escarpment begins where its determining limestone/dolostone begins, in west-central New York. There, it separates the lowlands that contain Lake Ontario from Lake Erie. It curves to the northwest through the Ontario province to the island belt that divides the Georgian Bay from Lake Huron. From there, it heads westward through the land-arm between Lake Superior and Lake Michigan and southwestward into the narrow points dividing Green Bay from Lake Michigan. Finally, it fades away with the thinning out of the limestone and is hardly traceable across the Mississippi River.

The arrangement of the Great Lakes closely matches the course of the lowlands worn on the two belts of weaker strata on either side of the Niagara escarpment. Lake Ontario, Georgian Bay and Green Bay occupy depressions in the lowland on the inner side of the escarpment. Lake Erie, Lake Huron and Lake Michigan lie in depressions in the lowland on the outer side. When the two lowlands are traced eastward, they become confluent after the Niagara limestone has faded away in central New York, and the single lowland is continued under the name of the Mohawk Valley. This is an east-west longitudinal depression that has been eroded on a belt of relatively weak strata between the resistant crystalline rocks of the Adirondacks on the north and the northern escarpment of the Appalachian plateau (Catskills-Helderbergs) on the south. Early in U.S. history, this provided a vital economic route between the Atlantic seaports and the U.S. interior.

In Wisconsin, the inner lowland has an interesting feature. It is a knob of resistant quartzites, known as Baraboo Ridge, rising from the buried upland floor through the partly denuded cover of lower Palaeozoic strata. This knob or ridge can be thought of as an ancient physiographic fossil, as it is an ancient monadnock having been preserved from destructive attacks of weather by burial under sea-floor deposits. It has been recently re-exposed through the erosion of its cover.

The occurrence of the lake basins in the lowland belts on either side of the Niagara escarpment is an abnormal feature. Ordinary erosion does not explain it. Glacial erosion has formed them through the glacial drift obstructing the normal outlet valleys and to crustal warping in connection with or independent of the glacial sheet.

Lake Superior is unlike the other lakes. The greater part of its basin occupies a depression in the upland area, independent of the overlap of Palaeozoic strata. The western half of the basin occupies a trough of synclinal structure. The Great Lakes are peculiar in receiving the drainage of but a small peripheral land area, enclosed by an ill-defined water-parting from the rivers that run to Hudson Bay or the Gulf of Saint Lawrence on the north and to the Gulf of Mexico on the south.

An upbound lake freighter passing the Detroit riverfront including the Renaissance Center.
An upbound lake freighter passing the Detroit riverfront including the Renaissance Center.

The three lakes of the middle group stand at practically the same level:

  • Lake Michigan
  • Lake Huron
  • Lake Erie

Lake Michigan and Lake Huron are connected by the Straits of Mackinac with the Mackinac Bridge spanning the straits. Lake Huron and Lake Erie are connected by the St. Clair River and Detroit River, with the small Lake St. Clair between them. The land northeast of the rivers is undergoing a slow elevation. The Niagara River connecting Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, with a fall of 326 feet (99 m) (160 feet (49 m) at the cataract) in 30 miles (48 km), is of very recent origin, as an older river would have a mature valley. The original valley that is thought to have connected the two depressions through the Niagara Escarpment is thought to have been at the present route of the Welland Canal, and to have been completely filled with glacial drift. The same is true for the St. Lawrence, where there may not have been an original valley. The Ontarian River that was a precursor to Lake Ontario is thought to have drained westward, and the St. Lawrence drainage to have been created by subsidence due to the weight of the ice sheet.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Middle Ground: Empires, Indians and Republics in The Great Lakes Region 1603–1815, Richard White, 1991 Cambridge University Press
  2. ^ "About Our Great Lakes -Great Lakes Basin Facts- NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab (GLERL)". Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2016. 
  3. ^ "Economy of the Great Lakes Region". Retrieved 7 May 2016. 
  4. ^ U.S Army Corps of Engineers (January 2009).Great Lakes Navigation System: Economic Strength to the Nation Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on July 27, 2010.
  5. ^ "Home - Federation for American Immigration Reform". Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2016. 
  6. ^ "Ontario Population Projections". Retrieved 7 May 2016. 
  7. ^ Institut de la statistique Quebec Archived 2003-12-07 at the Wayback Machine.

References

  • Cronon, William (1988). Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West, W.W. Norton. pp. 333–340.
  • Onuf, Peter S (1987). A History of the Northwest Ordinance, Indiana University Press.
  • Taylor, Alan (2010) "The Civil War of 1812: American Citizens, British Subjects, Irish Rebels and Indian Allies", Knopf
  • White, Richard (1991), The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires and Republics in The Great Lakes Region 1965-1815, Cambridge University Press

Further reading

  • Chandler, Alfred D. and Hikino, Takashi (1994), Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism, Harvard University Press.
  • Chandler, Alfred D., (1977) The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business, Harvard University Press.
  • Cronon, William (1991). Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West, W.W. Norton.
  • Foner, Eric (1970). Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War, Oxford University Press
  • Reese, T (2001). Soft Gold: A History of the Fur Trade in the Great Lakes Region and Its Impact on Native American Culture, Heritage Press.
  • Shannon, Fred (1945). The Farmer's Last Frontier: Agriculture, 1860–1897, Farrar & Rineheart.
  • Taylor, Alan (2007), The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution, Vintage Books.

External links

This page was last edited on 19 July 2018, at 03:51
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