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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes phonology, morphology, and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics.

Speakers of a language have a set of internalized rules[1] for using that language, and these rules constitute that language's grammar. The vast majority of the information in the grammar is – at least in the case of one's native languageacquired not by conscious study or instruction, but by observing other speakers. Much of this work is done during early childhood; learning a language later in life usually involves a greater degree of explicit instruction.[2] Thus, grammar is the cognitive information underlying language use.

The term "grammar" can also be used to describe the rules that govern the linguistic behavior of a group of speakers. The term "English grammar", therefore, may have several meanings. It may refer to the whole of English grammar, that is, to the grammars of all the speakers of the language, in which case, the term encompasses a great deal of variation.[3] Alternatively, it may refer only to what is common to the grammars of all, or of the vast majority of English speakers (such as subject–verb–object word order in simple declarative sentences). Or it may refer to the rules of a particular, relatively well-defined variety of English (such as standard English for a particular region).

A specific description, study or analysis of such rules may also be referred to as a grammar. A reference book describing the grammar of a language is called a "reference grammar" or simply "a grammar" (see History of English grammars). A fully explicit grammar that exhaustively describes the grammatical constructions of a particular lect is called a descriptive grammar. This kind of linguistic description contrasts with linguistic prescription, an attempt to discourage or suppress some grammatical constructions, while codifying and promoting others, either in an absolute sense, or in reference to a standard variety. For example, preposition stranding occurs widely in Germanic languages, has a long history in English, and is generally considered standard usage. John Dryden, however, objected to it (without explanation),[4] leading other English speakers to avoid the construction and discourage its use.[5]

Outside linguistics, the term grammar is often used in a rather different sense. In some respects, it may be used more broadly, including rules of spelling and punctuation, which linguists would not typically consider to form part of grammar, but rather as a part of orthography, the set of conventions used for writing a language. In other respects, it may be used more narrowly, to refer to a set of prescriptive norms only and excluding those aspects of a language's grammar that are not subject to variation or debate on their normative acceptability. Jeremy Butterfield claimed that, for non-linguists, "Grammar is often a generic way of referring to any aspect of English that people object to."[6]

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Transcription

Hi everybody. Welcome to Beginner 1. In these videos, I hope to teach you some basic English. So these videos are for low level beginners. Okay… Now when you watch these videos, I want you to pay attention. Okay… Watch all the videos in the series. Okay… Please listen carefully and if there are any words or expressions that you don’t know, please check your dictionary. Another thing you should do is repeat after me. Repeating is a really good practice. Okay… So, I know that some of these videos are hard. But please don’t give up. If you try your best, and watch all of these videos, I know that your English will get better. Okay, well let’s get started. Hi, everybody and welcome to this video. Now in this video, I want to talk about the difference between consonants and vowels. Now, in the English alphabet, there are twenty-six letters. And in the alphabet, there are five main vowels and one special vowel. And the rest are consonants. So, let’s look at the board. Here’s the alphabet. The first letter, ‘a’, is a vowel. The next letter, ‘b’, is a consonant. ‘c’ is a consonant. ‘d’: consonant. ‘e’ is a vowel. Then, ‘f’, is a consonant. ‘g’: consonant. ‘h’: consonant. ‘e’ is another vowel. ‘j’ is a consonant. ‘k’: consonant. ‘l’, ‘m’, ‘n’ are consonants. ‘o’ is another vowel. ‘p’, ‘q’, ‘r’, ’s’ and ‘t’, these are all consonants. ‘u’ is the last main vowel. ‘v’: consonant. ‘w’: consonant. ‘x’: consonant. ‘y’ is the special vowel. And we’ll talk about that more later on. And ‘z’ is the last letter and it is a consonant. Okay, so, there are twenty-six letters in the alphabet. There are five main vowels. One special vowel. And the rest are consonant. Okay, let’s move on to the next part. Okay… Let’s look at some words. Now all English words have vowels. Maybe one or many vowels. So, let’s look at these words. The first word is “cat”. Okay, we have ‘c’ is a consonant. ‘a’ a vowel. ‘t’: consonant. “Egg”. ‘e’ is a vowel. And ‘g’, ‘g’. ‘g’ is a consonant. “Hit”. ‘h’ is a consonant. ‘i’ a vowel. And ‘t’ a consonant. “Top”. ‘t’ is a consonant. ‘o’ is a vowel. And ‘p’ a consonant. The last word is “cut”. ‘c’ is a consonant. ‘u’ a vowel. And ‘t’ a consonant. So we have the main vowels: ‘a’, ’e ’,’i’ ,’o’ ,’u’. Now, I said ‘y’ is a special vowel. That’s because sometimes it’s a vowel and sometimes it’s a consonant. So let’s look. In the word, “why”, the letter ‘y’ sounds like ‘i’. “Why”. So it is a vowel. “Bicycle”. The letter ‘y’ sounds like ‘i’. “Bicycle”. ‘i’ is the letter ‘i’ right, it sounds like the letter ‘i’. So, in this case ‘y’ is also a vowel. “Pretty”. “Pretty”. ‘y’ sounds like ‘e’. Okay… “Pretty”. So, it’s a vowel. Now, in the last two words, “you” and “yes”, the letter ‘y’ is a consonant. Usually, if ‘y’ comes at the beginning of a word, or if it makes a /u/ sound, for example, “you”, “yes”, it is a consonant. Okay… So again, five main vowels: ‘a’, ’e’, ’i’, ’o’, ’u’. And ‘y’ the special vowel. Now to help us remember vowels, we can say, “a, e, i, o, u and sometimes y.” Okay, repeat again after me. “a, e, i, o, u and sometimes y.” One more time, faster. “a, e, i, o, u and sometimes y.” Okay, and that’s the end of this video. Thank you. Hi everybody and welcome to this video. In this video, we’re going to talk about using ‘a’ or ‘an’. Okay… We use ‘a’ or ‘an’ in front of nouns. Well, what is a noun? A noun is a person, place, thing or animal. Okay, so let’s look at the board. The first noun we have is “banana”. “Banana”, starts with the consonant ‘b’. So we put “a banana”. “a banana”. Look at the next word. “Apple”. In this case, the first letter is ‘a’. ‘a’ is a vowel. Remember the vowels are a, e, i, o, u, so we have to put ‘an’. “an apple”. “cat”. Hmmm. The first letter, ‘c’, is a consonant. So, should we put, ‘a’ or ‘an’? Remember, if it’s a consonant, we have to put ‘a’. “a cat”. The next word, “boy”. Again, the word starts with a consonant: ‘b’. So we have to say, “a boy”. The next word, “egg”, has the letter ‘e’ in front. ‘e’ is a vowel. So what do we put? We put ‘an’. If we read it, it sounds like “an egg.” “an egg”. Okay, and the last word is “ant”. “ant” starts with the vowel ‘a’. So again, we must put……”an ant”. “an ant”. Now, let’s go through these words together. “a banana”. “a banana”. “an apple”. “an apple”. Keep in mind that when you have ‘an’ in front, it has to sound like almost one word. “an apple”. “an apple”. “a cat”. “a cat”. “a boy”. “a boy”. “an egg”. “an egg”. “an egg”. “an egg”. “an ant”. “an ant”. “an ant”. Okay… Let’s move on the next part. Okay, let’s do some extra practice. Ahhh, I have some nouns on the board. Remember, a noun is a person, place, thing or animal. So let’s go through them one by one. “A book”, “book” is a thing. It’s a thing that we read. “Park”, is a place. It’s a place we go. “Umbrella” is a thing. Right… Umbrella is a thing that we use when it’s raining. “Elephant”. “Elephant” is an animal. “Doctor”. “Doctor” is a person. And “orange”. Orange is a thing that we eat. Okay… Now, I’m going to say ‘a’ or ‘an’ in front of the nouns. I want you to listen and see if you can hear the difference. Okay… We have “book”. In that case we say, “a book”. “a book”. We have to say, “a book”. Okay… The next one is “park”. We say, “a park”. “a park”. Remember, we put ‘a’ in front of words that begin with consonants. ‘b’ and ‘p’ are consonants. That’s why we say, “a book”, “a park”. Okay… How about the next word? “an umbrella”. “an umbrella”. Could you here the difference? “an umbrella”. We say ‘an’ because umbrella starts with a vowel: ‘u’. “an umbrella”. Okay… “elephant”. We should we say? “elephant”. “elephant”. Again, elephant starts with a vowel. “a doctor”. “a doctor”. “a doctor”. And the last word, “an orange”. “an orange”. Again, we have to say, “an orange” because ‘o’ is a vowel. So, let’s go through each word one more time. “a book”. “a book”. Okay… “a park”. “a park”. “an umbrella”. “an umbrella”. Notice it sounds like one word. “an umbrella”. “an elephant”. “an elephant”. “a doctor”. “a doctor”. And the last one. “an orange”. “an orange”. Okay… So that’s the end of this video. I hope you can remember when to use ‘a’ and ‘an’. Okay, thank you. Bye. Hi, everybody and welcome to this video. Now, in this lesson I’m going to talk about singular and plural nouns. Okay… Singular means one. And plural means more than one or many. Okay… So let’s look at the board. This part is showing singular nouns. Okay, remember, singular means one. Okay… So when the noun is singular, we put ‘a’ or ‘an’. So let’s look. “a ring”. That means one ring. “a ring”. “a dog”. Again, one dog. “a dog”. “a teacher”. One teacher. “a teacher”. “an apple”. “an apple”. One apple. “an egg”. “an egg”. One egg. So again, one….noun is singular. Okay… Now over here, we have plural nouns. Plural means more than one. Two, three, four, and so on. So, many. Okay… So, when we have a plural noun we have to, don’t forget, we have to put ‘s’ or ‘es’. Again, if there’s more than one, if the noun is plural, you have to put ‘s’ or ‘es’. Now the nouns here, you just have to add an ‘s’. Okay, and we’re going to go through them right now. “two rings”. Okay, we had one ring. “a ring”. Now we have “two rings.” With an ‘s’. Okay… We had “a dog”. The plural is “three dogs”. Again, ‘s’. “three dogs”. “a teacher”. One teacher. “four teachers”. “four teachers”. Don’t forget the ‘s’. Okay, you must not forget that. “an apple”. That’s one apple. Then we have plural. “five apples”. “five apples”. Okay… And the last one. “an egg”. One egg. “six eggs”. Don’t forget ‘s’. “six eggs”. Okay… I really need you to remember that. “two rings”. “three dogs”. “four teachers”. “five apples”. and “six eggs”. Okay, let’s move on to the next part. Okay, now we have some more nouns. These nouns are a little bit different. Uhhh, when they’re singular it’s the same. You put ‘a’ or ‘an’ in front. But when you want to make them plural, you have to add ‘es’. Remember, I said, you can add ‘s’ or ‘es’ to make a noun plural…more than one. So again, these nouns you have to add ‘es’. So let’s go through them one more time. Okay… So we have “a bus”. “a bus”. Again, that means one bus. “a box”. “a box”. “a watch”. “a watch”. Okay, one. “a kiss”. “a kiss”. And “an ax”. “an ax”. One. “an ax”. Okay… Now, we’re going to move on to the plural. Remember, again, to make the plural, or more than one, here, we add ‘es’. Okay… “a bus”. One. “two buses”. “two buses”. “a box”. “three boxes”. . “three boxes” “a watch”. “four watches”. ‘es’ right. “four watches”. “a kiss”. One. “five kisses”. “five kisses”. Add the ‘es’. And the last one. “an ax”. “an ax”. Okay, we have “six axes”. “six axes”. Don’t forget. We have to put ‘es’ to make these nouns plural. Okay, let’s move on to the next part. So, how do we know if we should put ‘s’ or ‘es’ to make the noun plural? Well, for most nouns, you just have to put ‘s’. Okay, for most of them. But, for some, you have to put ‘es’. And how do we know? Well… let’s look at the board. We have some nouns. The first one is “church”. Okay… “Church” ends in ‘ch’. So if the noun ends in ‘ch’, you have to put ‘es’. Okay… So it becomes “churches”. So again, if the noun ends in ‘ch’, add ‘es’ at the end to make it plural. The same goes for the next word “brush”. You’ll notice “brush” ends in ‘sh’. Okay… So if it ends in ‘sh’, same thing, we add ‘es’ at the end to make it plural. Okay… The next word is fox. We have the letter ‘x’ at the end. Okay… All nouns that end in ‘x’, we have to put ‘es’ to make it plural. Okay, so, ‘ch’, ‘sh’, ‘x’. If the noun ends with these, put ‘es’. And the last one is “dress”. Okay, we have ‘ss’ at the end. Same thing. Put ‘es’ at the end to make it plural. Okay… “Dresses”. Again, if it ends in ‘ss’ put ‘es’. Okay, so please, don’t forget ‘ch’, ‘sh’, ‘x’, ‘ss’, we must put ‘es’ at the end. Most of the other nouns we just add ‘s’. Okay… Now we have some special nouns on this side. “Potato, tomato, volcano”. Now, most nouns that end in ‘o’, like “photo”, all we have to do is add an ‘s’ to make it plural. “Photos”. Okay… But these are special because we actually have to put ‘es’ at the end… to make them…plural. Okay… So we have “potatoes, tomatoes, volcanoes”. Again, these are a little bit special. For most nouns that end in ‘o’, we just add ‘s’. Okay, and, uhhh, let’s go to the final part. Okay, let’s do some extra practice. On the board, I have some nouns. Some are singular and some are plural. We have to decide together if we should put ‘s’ or ‘es’ or make them singular. Okay… So you have to listen carefully and remember what we learned in this video. Okay… “Two books”. Right, this is plural. There are two. “Two books”. We have to put an ‘s’. “Two books”. Okay… The next one. “Three class”. Hmmmm. “Class” ends with an ‘s’. So what do we put? “Three classes”. “Three classes”. Okay… So again the plural is “three classes”. Okay… “A lion”. “A lion”. Do we have to put anything? No. No ‘s’ or ‘es’ because this is singular. There’s just one lion. “A lion”. “Six hats”. “Six hats”. We have to put an ‘s’. “Six hats”. Okay… The next noun is “seven match”. What do we out? Well, we have a ‘ch’. So we have to put “matches”. “Seven matches”. “Seven matches”. Okay… And the last one is “one bat”. “One bat”. We do not put an ‘s’ or ‘es’ because again, it’s just one. We don’t have to put anything after ‘bat’. Okay, this is singular. Okay, so, in this video, we learned how to make a noun singular. Okay… And how to make a noun plural. Remember, singular means one. Plural means more than one. And remember, don’t forget, we have to put ‘s’ or ‘es’. Okay… And thanks for joining. That’s the end of this video. Bye. Hi everybody and welcome to this video. In this video, we’re going to talk about subjective pronouns. So, let’s take a look at the board. Here they are. The subjective pronouns. Please take a careful look. They’re very important in English. Okay… So, the first subjective pronoun is ‘I’. “I” means me. “I’m Esther”. “I”. “He”. Now, “he” is only used for boys or men. Okay… “He”. So another boy or man is “he”. “She” is used for girls or women. Okay… “She”. “It”. “It” is used for a place like a school, an animal like a dog, or a thing like a chair. Okay… “It”. The next one is “you”. “You” means you. Okay…”you”. “We”. “We” means other people and me. For example, “I sing”, “you sing”, then “we sing”. Okay…”we”. And the last one is “they”. “They” means many people, places, animals or things. Okay… So, more than one. If there’s more than one, we use the subjective pronoun ‘they’. Okay, let’s move on to the next part. Okay, so let’s practice together with subjective pronouns. The first sentence on the board says, “Jenny sings”. Now Jenny is one girl. So we can say, “She sings”. “Jack sings”. Jack is one boy. So we have to say, “he sings”. The last sentence says, “Jenny and Jack sing”. Now Jenny and Jack are two people. So we have to say, “they sing”. Okay, let’s move on to the next part. Okay, let’s do some more practice. The first sentence on the board says, “The cat runs”. ‘The cat’ is an animal, so we have to say, “It runs”. The next sentence says, “The dog and cat run”. Now, ‘the dog and cat’, they are two animals. So anytime you have two or more things, we say, “They run”. ‘They’. Okay, now, for the last sentence, I’m going to talk about my cat, Ongee. Ongee is a cat. He’s an animal. But, he has a name. He’s a boy cat. Okay and I love him. And he’s like family So, “Ongee runs”. I can say “He runs”. Okay… Let’s move on to the next part. Okay, here are some more examples. But, this time, you have to figure out the subjective pronoun together with me. Okay… So, “My students study”. What should we use? Well, ‘My students’, there’s an ‘s’. Right… They’re people and there’s more than one. Many people. So we have to use the subjective pronoun, ‘they’. “They study”. The next example. “John is handsome”. Okay, ‘John’, that’s a person. There’s only one. Right… And it’s a boy, ‘John’. So what should we use? We have to use the subjective pronoun, ‘he’. One boy. We say, “he”. “He is handsome”. Okay, the last one. “Pizza is delicious”. ‘Pizza’ is a thing. And there’s only one. Right… There’s no ‘s’. One pizza. We say, “it”. “It is delicious”. Okay… Let’s move on to some more examples. Okay, the first example says, “Seoul is a city”. Now, ‘Seoul’ is a place. Okay… So we have to use the subjective pronoun, ‘it’. “It is a city”. The next example says, “My parents love Ongee”. Now, ‘Ongee’ is my cat. “My parents love Ongee”. Well, ‘my parents’, they are two people. My mom and my dad. So, what do I use? I have to say, “they”. “They love Ongee”. The last example is very similar to the second one. “My parents and I love Ongee”. Okay… The difference is… it says, “and I”. So this is ‘my parents’ with ‘me’. So I have to say, “we”. “We love Ongee”. Okay… All of us. Okay, so, in this video we learned about subjective pronouns. I hope you guys have a good understanding of ‘when’ and ‘how’ to use them. Thank you for watching and I’ll see you guys next time. Bye. Hi, everybody. Welcome to this video. Now, in this video, we’re going to talk about subjective pronouns, ‘be’ verbs, and also, contractions. So let’s take a look at the board. Okay… First, we have the subjective pronouns. And we have the ‘be’ verbs: am, is and are. Okay… So let’s look at the first one. “I am”. “I am Esther”. The contraction for ‘I am’ is ‘I’m’. “I’m”. Now, a contraction is a more common way of saying subjective pronouns and their ‘be’ verb. It’s faster and quicker and shorter. Okay, it’s more common. I want you to use contractions. Okay… So, “I am” becomes “I’m”. “He is”…”he’s”. “She is”…”she’s”. “It is”…”it’s”. Okay, let’s move on to the bottom. “You are” becomes “you’re”. “You’re”. “We are”…”we’re”. “We’re”. and “They are”. The contraction is “they’re”. “They’re”. Okay, let’s move on to the next part. Okay… We’re going to take a look at some sentences using the ‘be’ verbs. Now, notice on the board, I only used contractions. Okay… For example, instead of “I am”, I’m going to say “I’m”. So, the first sentence. “I’m a student”. Okay… This means one. So we have to say “a student”. “a”. Now many people make the mistake of saying, “I’m student”, but that’s wrong. Okay… You have to put ‘a’. Before I read it, you have to listen carefully. ‘I’m a’ sounds like one word. “I’m a…” “I’m a…” “I’m a student”. Okay… Please repeat after me. “I’m a student”. “I’m a student”. Okay, the next one, again, sounds like one word. “He’s a…”. “He’s a…”. Okay…so… “He’s a student”. Please repeat. “He’s a student”. “He’s a student”. Same thing. “She’s a student”. Please repeat. “She’s a student”. “She’s a student”. The next sentence has ‘it’. Now remember, ‘it’ is only used for a place, a thing or an animal. So we can’t have those things be a student. So we have to say, “It’s a dog”. Okay, please repeat. “It’s a dog”. “It’s a dog”. Okay, the next one. “You’re a student”. Please repeat. “You’re a student”. “You’re a student”. Okay… Now let’s look at ‘we’re’. “We’re students”. Okay… We took out the ‘a’ and we put an ‘s’ because ‘we’re’ means many people. Not one student, but many students. So, we have to say, “we’re students”. Please repeat. “We’re students”. “We’re students”. The same thing goes for ‘they’. Again, ‘they’ means many people…or many things. Here, we put ‘s’. And we took out the ‘a’. So, “they’re students”. Please repeat. “They’re students”. “They’re students”. Okay, we’re going to look at some more examples. Please listen and repeat carefully. Let’s start with the first one: “I’m”. “I’m a boy”. “I’m a boy”. “I’m a girl”. “I’m a girl”. “He’s”. “He’s a man”. “He’s a man”. “He’s a boy”. “He’s a boy”. “She’s”. “She’s a woman”. “She’s a woman”. “She’s a girl”. “She’s a girl”. “It’s”. “It’s a chair”. “It’s a chair”. “It’s a cat”. “It’s a cat”. “You’re”. “You’re a singer”. “You’re a singer”. “You’re a friend”. “You’re a friend”. “We’re”. “We’re sisters”. “We’re sisters”. “We’re brothers”. “We’re brothers”. “They’re”. “They’re people”. “They’re people”. “They’re cars”. “They’re cars”. Okay… Well I hope that this video helped you understand how to use subjective pronouns, their ‘be’ verbs, and also contractions. Now, before we go, I wanted to share a little bit about myself using the lesson. So, first, remember, “I’m a…”. “I’m a girl”. Also, “I’m a teacher”. “I’m an American”. Now, the word ‘American’ starts with the vowel ‘a’, so we have to say ‘an’. “I’m an American”. And “I’m an animal lover”. Again, same thing. ‘Animal’ starts with the vowel ‘a’, so we have to put ‘an’. “I’m an animal lover”. And that means someone who loves animals. I love dogs and cats and other animals. So, “I’m an animal lover”. Okay… Well, that’s it and thank you for watching. And I’ll see you guys next time. Bye. Hi, everybody. In this video, we’re going to talk about subjective pronouns, ‘be’ verbs, and how to use them with the word ‘not’. Okay… So, let’s look at the board to help us out. Now the first sentence says, “I’m not a student”. ‘Not’ means it’s not true. No. So remember, “I’m a student” means ‘yes’. “I’m a student”. I go to school and I learn. “I’m not a student” means ‘no’. “I’m a teacher” or “No, I’m not a student”. Okay… Now, notice, we first have the subjective pronoun and the ‘be’ verb. Then, we put ‘not’. Okay… ‘Not’ comes after. And then we have the noun. Okay… “I’m not a student”. Okay… Now, also, listen carefully. “Not a…” sounds like one word. “I’m not a student”. “Not a…”. “I’m not a student”. Okay, let’s look at the next one. “He’s not a student”. “He’s not a student”. “She’s not a student”. “She’s not a student”. “It’s not a dog”. Remember, ‘it’ is used for place, thing or animal. So, “It’s not a dog”. Okay… “You’re not a student”. “You’re not a student”. Okay, the next one is a little bit different. We have ‘we are’. “We’re”. Now, remember, ‘we’ means more than one. Many. Okay… So we say “students”. We put an ‘s’ and we don’t put an ‘a’ in front. “We’re not students”. “We’re not students”. Okay…and ‘they’re’ is the same thing. It means more than one. So, “They’re not students”. “They’re not students”. Okay, we’re going to look at some more examples. I want you to listen carefully and repeat after the examples. Let’s start with the first one. “I’m not”. “I’m not a boy”. “I’m not a boy”. “I’m not a girl”. “I’m not a girl”. “He’s not”. “He’s not a man”. “He’s not a man”. “He’s not a boy”. “He’s not a boy”. “She’s not”. “She’s not a woman”. “She’s not a woman”. “She’s not a girl”. “She’s not a girl”. “It’s not”. “It’s not a chair”. “It’s not a chair”. “It’s not a cat”. “It’s not a cat”. “You’re not”. “You’re not a singer” “You’re not a singer”. “You’re not a friend”. “You’re not a friend”. “We’re not”. “We’re not sisters”. “We’re not sisters”. “We’re not brothers”. “We’re not brothers”. “They’re not”. “They’re not people”. “They’re not people”. “They’re not cars”. “They’re not cars”. Okay, so in this video, we learned how to use subjective pronouns with the ‘be’ verb and how to use them with the word ‘not’. Okay… So, I wrote some sentences about myself using what we learned. So remember, “I’m not a…”. Okay… “I’m not a boy”. “I’m not a boy”. “I’m not a student”. “I’m not a student”. “I’m not a Canadian”. “I’m not a Canadian”. And the last one. “I’m not a loser”. “I’m not a loser”. Okay… So that was a little bit about me. Thanks for watching and I’ll see you guys next time. Bye. Hi, everybody. In this video, I’m going to talk about how to make questions using subjective pronouns and ‘be’ verbs. Okay… So, let’s take a look at the board. So, this example sentence says. “I’m a student”. Okay… Remember, “I’m” is just a contraction for “I am”. Okay… So, “I’m a student”. “I am a student”. They mean the same thing. Now when we want to make a question, we just have to make a simple change. It’s very easy. All you have to do is put the ‘be’ verb in the front. Okay… So, “Am I a student?”. “Am I a student?”. The ‘be’ verb comes in the front. Okay… I also want you to listen to my intonation. When I say it in a sentence, “I’m a student”. “I’m a student”. Okay, then when I say it in a question. “Am I a student?”. “Am I a student?”. Notice my intonation goes up for the question. Okay, now there are two possible answers for this question. “Am I a student?”. The answers you can say are: “Yes, I am”. “Yes, I am”. Okay… And, “No, I’m not”. “No, I’m not”. Okay… We’re going to look at some more examples. Please make sure you repeat after each example. Let’s look at the first one. “Am I…?”. “Am I a girl?”. “Yes, I am”. “Am I a boy?”. “No, I’m not”. “Am I a singer?”. “Yes, I am”. “Am I a friend?”. “No, I’m not”. Okay… Now, we’re going to talk about “he is” and “she is” and how to use them in questions. So let’s look at the sentence on the board. “He’s a doctor”. Or… “She’s a doctor”. Remember, “he’s” and “she’s” are contractions for “he is” and “she is”. The ‘be’ verb there is ‘is’. So, when we make a question, we have to move the ‘be’ verb to the front. Okay… So we put ‘is’ in the front. “Is he a doctor?”. “Is she a doctor?”. Okay… Very easy. Just put the ‘be’ verb in the front. Now I want you to listen to the intonation again. “He’s a doctor”. Okay… The intonation is going down. “Is he a doctor?”. In the question, again, the intonation goes up. Okay… Now when you answer, they are several possible answers you can give. So… “Yes, he is”. Or… “Yes, she is”. Okay… That’s easy. When you come to know, this is where it gets a little tricky, but you can do it. “No, he isn’t”. Okay, “isn’t” is a contraction for “is not”. Okay… “No, he isn’t”. Or… “No, she isn’t”. Okay, so you can use “she isn’t”, “he isn’t”. Another answer you can give is “No, he’s not”. Or… “No, she’s not”. You already know this is a contraction for ‘he is’ and ‘she is’. So, “No, he’s not”. “No, she’s not”. Okay… So these are both common. And they’re both ok to use. Okay… So, remember, we can give two different answers for ‘no’. Alright, now we’re going to look at some more examples. Please make sure you repeat after each example. “Is he…?”, “Is she…?”. “Is he a man?” “Yes, he is”. “Is he a cowboy?”. “No, he isn’t.” “Is she a woman?” “Yes, she is”. “Is she a cowgirl?”. “No, she’s not. Okay… Now, we’re going to move on to ‘it is’. Okay… And how to use that in a question. So, let’s look at the board. “It’s a dog”. Okay, we have the contraction “it’s”. Remember, “it’s” is a contraction for “it is”. The ‘be’ verb is ‘is’. When we make a question, remember, we have to put the ‘be’ verb in the front. “Is it a dog?” “Is it a dog?” Okay… The intonation goes up for the question. “Is it a dog?” Okay… Now, there are several answer you can give. The first one is “Yes, it is”. “Yes, it is”. Okay… When you say “no”, you can give two answers. “No, it isn’t”. “No, it isn’t”. Remember, “isn’t” is a contraction for “is not”. Okay… We can also say “No, it’s not”. “No, it’s not”. “It’s” is a contraction for “it is”. Okay… So again, remember, we have these two answers for ‘no’, but they’re both common and they’re both ok to use when you say “no”. Okay… We’re going to look at some more examples. Please make sure you follow and repeat after each one. “Is it…?”. “Is it a book?”. “Yes, it is”. “Is it a chair?”. “No, it isn’t”. “Is it a shoe?”. “Yes, it is”. “Is it a car?”. “No, it’s not”. Okay… Now, we’re going to move on to “you are” and put that in a question. Okay… On the board the sentence says. “You’re a boy”. Remember, “you’re” is a contraction for “you are”. The ‘be’ verb is ‘are’. So we have to put that in the front of the question. “Are you a boy?” “Are you a boy?” Okay… When we answer, it’s very simple. We can say, “Yes, I am” or “No, I’m not”. Okay… We’re going to look at some more examples. Please follow and repeat after each one. “Are you…?”. “Are you a Korean?”. “Yes, I am” “Are you a clown?”. “No, I’m not”. “Are you a nurse?”. “Yes, I am” “Are you a dancer?”. “No, I’m not”. Okay… Now, let’s talk about “we are” and how to use that in a question. Okay… So the sentence here says, “We’re teachers”. Okay… “We’re” is a contraction fro “we are”. So the ‘be’ verb ‘are’ goes in the front. “Are we teachers?” “Are we teachers?” Okay… When we answer, we can say several things. “Yes, we are”. “Yes, we are”. Or… “No, we aren’t”. Listen…”aren’t”. “No, we aren’t”. “Aren’t” is a contraction for “are not”. Or we can say, “No, we’re not”. “No, we’re not”. And you know “We’re” is a contraction for “we are”. Okay… We’re going to look at some more examples. Please repeat after each one. “Are we…?”. “Are we boys?”. “Yes, we are”. “Are we girls?”. “No, we aren’t”. “Are we friends?”. “Yes, we are”. “Are we pro-gamers?”. “No, we aren’t”. Okay… Now, we’re moving on to ‘they are’ in a question. The sentence on the board says, “They’re friends”. Remember, ‘They’re’ is a contraction for ‘they are’. The ‘b’ verb ‘are’ goes in the front of the question. “Are they friends?” “Are they friends?” Okay… Now when we answer, we can say, “Yes, they are”. “Yes, they are”. Or, we can say, “No, they aren’t”. “No, they aren’t”. ‘Aren’t’ is a contraction for ‘are not’. The last thing we can say is “No, they’re not”. “No, they’re not”. ‘They’re’ is a contraction for ‘they are’. These two answers for ‘no’ are both correct. And they’re both common. So you can say either one. Okay… We’re going to look at some more examples now. Please repeat after each example. “Are they…?” “Are they tourists?” “Yes, they are.” “Are they dogs?” “No, they aren’t.” “Are they computers?” “Yes, they are.” “Are they birds?” “No, they’re not.” Okay… In this lesson, we learned how to change a subjective pronoun and a ‘b’ verb into a question. Remember, when you’re making a question, you have to put the ‘b’ verb in the beginning. Okay… Alright, that’s the end of this video. Thanks for watching. Bye. Okay, so this is a review video. We learned about subjective pronouns and ‘be’ verbs. We also learned how to use them in a negative sentence and in a question. So, let’s look at the board for review. “I am a teacher.” Remember, ‘am’ is the ‘b’ verb. “I am a teacher.” Okay, we also learned contractions: “I’m”. “I’m a teacher.” “I’m a teacher.” Okay, this is a negative sentence. “I’m not a teacher.” “I’m not a teacher.” Remember, ‘not’ goes after the ‘b’ verb. Okay… And here’s a question. “Am I a teacher?” “Am I a teacher?” Remember, the ‘be’ verb comes in the front for a question. Okay… We’re going to listen to some more examples. I want you to repeat after each one. Okay… Let’s look at some examples. “He is a king.” “He is a king.” “He’s a king.” “He’s a king.” “He’s not a king.” “He’s not a king.” “Is he a king?” “Is he a king?” Next. “She is a queen.” “She is a queen.” “She’s a queen.” “She’s a queen.” “She’s not a queen.” “She’s not a queen.” “Is she a queen?” “Is she a queen?” Next. “It is a monkey.” “It is a monkey.” “It’s a monkey.” “It’s a monkey.” “It’s not a monkey.” “It’s not a monkey.” “Is it a monkey?” “Is it a monkey?” Next. “You are a cook.” “You are a cook.” “You’re a cook.” “You’re a cook.” “You’re not a cook.” “You’re not a cook.” “Are you a cook?” “Are you a cook?” Next. “We are friends.” “We are friends.” “We’re friends.” “We’re friends.” “We’re not friends.” “We’re not friends.” “Are we friends?” “Are we friends?” And last. “They are monkeys.” “They are monkeys.” “They’re monkeys.” “They’re monkeys.” “They’re not monkeys.” “They’re not monkeys.” “Are they monkeys?” “Are they monkeys?” Okay… So that was our review of subjective pronouns, ‘be’ verbs, how to use them with ‘not’, and how to use them in questions. I really hope that you repeated each example that I gave because pronunciation is very important. Now, if you didn’t, you should go back and watch it again and repeat. Okay… Well that’s all. Thank you. Bye. Okay… This is a checkup for subjective pronouns and ‘be’ verbs. Let’s take a look at the board. The first sentence. “___, are bags.” Now, bags are things. So we can’t say “he” or “she” or, you know, any of those. We have to use “it” or “they”. Now, we have “are….bags”. With an ‘s’. So that means more than one. We have to use ‘they’. “They are bags.” Okay… The next sentence we have an animal. “____ is a dog.” Okay… But, just one. Right? ’a’ dog. So this time we use ‘it’. “It is a dog.” Now let’s look at these two. “The girl is an artist.” We have ‘the girl’. What is the subjective pronoun for one girl? “She.” “She is an artist.” The two sentences have the same meaning. They’re the same. Okay, and on the bottom, we have a question. When we ask a question, we have to put the ‘be’ verb first. “Are ___ pandas?” “Are ___ pandas?” With an ‘s’. That means more than one. So, we say, “they”. “Are they pandas?” “Yes, ____ are.” Again plural. So we just use the same. “They.” “Yes, they are.” Okay, let’s move on to the next part. Okay, now we’re going to focus on negatives and questions. Okay, the first sentence says, “I’m a student”. Okay, “I am…I’m a student”. Okay… What if I’m a teacher? Okay, it’s not true. I need ‘not’. Right… Remember, ‘not’ goes after the ‘be’ verb. “I am…am not.” And then the noun. “…a student.” “I’m not a student.” Okay… “They are teachers.” Okay… And now we have some other people…and that’s not true. “They are not teachers.” Again, after the ‘be’ verb ‘are’ and before the noun ‘teachers’. “They are not teachers.” Okay… Now, I’m going to ask you a question. And you have to answer. “Are you a student?” “Are you a student?” Well, you’re taking my class, you’re learning English. So, “Yes, I am.” Okay, you should say, “Yes, I am.” But how about this one? “Are you a monkey?” “Are you a monkey?” Of course the answer is “No, I’m not”. “No, I’m not”. Okay, let’s move on to the last part. Okay… Now for this last part, we’re going to look at some sentences, but there’s something wrong in all of these sentences. So you have to find the mistakes. The first sentence says, “I’m student”. Okay, look, “student”. There’s no ‘s’. That means just one. Just one. So remember, if there’s just one, we have to put ‘a’. “I’m a student.” Let’s look at the next one. “They are student”. Okay… This one says “They are”. This means there is more than one. More than one student. So, what do we have to do? We have to say “They are….students”. We have to put an ‘s’ to show there’s more than one student. “She aren’t a baby.” “She.” That’s one person. One girl or woman. “…a baby.” That’s one person. But we put “aren’t”. Now that’s wrong. We have to say….”isn’t”. “She isn’t a baby”. “You isn’t a cat”. Now, for the subjective pronoun ‘you’, we have to have the ‘be’ verb ‘are’. So not “You isn’t a cat”, but “You aren’t….a cat”. “You aren’t a cat.” Okay… “Are it a cat?” Okay… “…a cat.” That’s one animal. So, do we need ‘are’? No, we need the ‘be’ verb ‘is’. “Is it a cat?” Okay, so that was the checkup for subjective pronouns and ‘be’ verbs. I hope you guys understood and I’ll see you in the next video. Bye. Hi, everybody. In this video, we’re going to learn how to make questions using ‘what’ and ‘be’ verbs. Okay… Now when we have one thing, we have to use the ‘be’ verb ‘is’. “What is it?” “What is it?” “It is a watch.” “It is a watch.” It’s one thing, so I have to say ‘a’. “a watch.” I can also use the contraction for ‘it is’, “it’s”. Okay, now listen. “It’s a ….” “It’s a ….” “It’s a watch.” “It’s a watch.” “What is it?” “What is it?” “It’s a marker.” “It’s a marker.” Okay… Now, there are two highlighters. Okay, two. We use ‘are’. “What are they?” “What are they?” “They are highlighters.” “They are highlighters.” We have more than one, so we have to say “are”. And we have to put an ‘s’ at the end. Again, we can use a contraction for ‘they are’: “they’re”. “They’re highlighters.” “They’re highlighters.” “What are they?” “What are they?” “They’re markers.” “They’re markers.” Okay… We’re going to look at some examples and I’m going to ask some questions. We please try to answer them. Listen carefully and answer with “It’s a” or “They’re”. Let’s look at the first one. “What is it?” “What is it?” “It’s a key.” “It’s a key.” “What are they?” “What are they?” “They’re keys.” “They’re keys.” “What is it?” “What is it?” “It’s a chair.” “It’s a chair.” “What are they?” “What are they?” “They’re chairs.” “They’re chairs.” “What is it?” “What is it?” “It’s a cat.” “It’s a cat.” “What are they?” “What are they?” “They’re cats.” “They’re cats.” “What is it?” “What is it?” “It’s a house.” “It’s a house.” “What are they?” “What are they?” “They’re houses.” “They’re houses.” Okay… Now let’s focus on pronunciation and saying these fast. Okay… English speakers speak very quickly, so you have to practice as well. Okay… “What is it?” Okay, let’s try it faster three times “What is it?” “What is it?” “What is it?” It sounds like one word. Okay, and the answer is also very fast. “It’s a…” “It’s a…” “It’s a…” “It’s a pencil.” “It’s a chair.” “It’s a marker.” Okay… When we have more than one, we say, “What are they?”. Let’s do it fast three times. “What are they?” “What are they?” “What are they?” Okay… And when you answer. “They’re…” “They’re pencils” “They’re chairs” “They’re markers” Okay, so this video was ‘what’ and ‘be’ verbs. I hope you understood and I’ll see you in the next video. Bye. Hi, everybody, and welcome. In this video, we’re going to talk about ‘this’ and ‘that’. Now ‘this’ and ‘that’ are used to talk about nouns that are close to us, near or far away. Okay… So let’s look at the board. “This is a flower.” Okay, we use ‘this’ to talk about one noun, “a flower”, that is close. Okay… “This is a flower.” It’s not far. It’s close. “That is a flower.” Okay, we use ‘that’ to talk about one noun that’s far away. So, “That….that is a flower”. Okay… For another example… “This is a marker.” It’s close to me. But, “That….that is a marker”. It’s far away. Okay, let’s move on to the next part. Okay, so we know… “This is a flower.” Okay… And “That is a flower….that”. Now, “Is this a flower”? “What is it?” “It’s a chair.” So we have to use the negative. “This isn’t a flower.” It’s close by, but it isn’t a flower. ‘isn’t’ is a contraction for ‘is not’. Okay… “This isn’t a flower.” “This is a chair.” “That isn’t a flower.” It’s far away, so we say “that”. Again, we have ‘isn’t’, ‘a flower’. “That’s a chair.” And let’s take another example. “This isn’t a pencil.” “This is a marker.” And… “That isn’t a pencil.” “That is a marker.” Okay, let’s move on to the next part. Okay, now we’re going to learn how to use ‘this’ and ‘that’ in a question. Okay… So we know “This is a flower”. When we make a question, we have to switch. We put the ‘be’ verb first. So it becomes, “Is this a flower?”. Okay, it’s close by. So the answer is, “Yes, it is”. Okay… “Is that a flower?” It’s far away. The answer is, “Yes, it is”. Okay, but how about this? “This isn’t a flower.” “Is this a flower?”. The answer is “No, it isn’t”. “Is that a flower?” “No, it isn’t.” Okay, here. “Is this a marker?”. “Yes, it is.” “Is that a marker?”. “Yes, it is.” “Is this a pencil?”. “No, it isn’t.” “Is that a pencil?”. “No, it isn’t.” Okay, so we learned ‘this’ and ‘that’ in this video. I hope you guys understand and I’ll see you in the next video. Bye. Hi, everybody and welcome to this video. We’re going to talk about how to use ‘these’ and ‘those’. Okay… Uhhh, just like we learned with ‘this’ and ‘that’, we use ‘these’ and ‘those’ to talk about nouns that are close to us or far from us. Okay… So, let’s take a look at the board. Now, we know if there is just one, and it’s close to us, we say, “This is a flower”. Okay… But there’s more than one. It’s plural. So we have to say, “These”. “These are flowers.” Again, more than one. Now, I change the ‘be’ verb to ‘are’ and I added an ‘s’ at the end of ‘flower’. So, “These are flowers.” Okay… Now, there’s one that’s far away. We say, “That is a flower.” But, again, there’s more than one. “There are two flowers” So, in that case, we use, “Those are flowers.” “Those are flowers.” They’re far away. “Those are flowers.” Let’s look at these. “This is a marker.” “These are markers.” “That is a marker.” “Those are markers.” Okay… Let’s move on to the next part. Okay, so we know “These are flowers”. They’re close by. And for the flowers that are far away, we say, “Those are flowers”. Okay… But over here we have ‘chairs’. So, we have to use the negative. Okay… We use the contraction ‘aren’t’ which is short for ‘are not’. “These aren’t flowers.” “These aren’t flowers.” Okay, and for the chairs that are far away, we say, “Those aren’t flowers”. “Those aren’t flowers.” Okay, and let’s try with the markers. “These aren’t pens.” “These aren’t pens.” Okay, and far away. “Those aren’t pens.” “Those aren’t pens.” Okay, let’s move on to the next part. Okay, now we’re going to make some questions. We know, “These are flowers”. When you want to make a question, you have to change ‘these are’ and put the ‘be’ verb first. So, it becomes, “Are these flowers?”. “Are these flowers?” And the answer is “Yes, they are.” Okay, now the flowers are far away. So we say, “Are those flowers?”. “Are those flowers?” And again, the answer is “Yes, they are.” Okay… Now here, we have chairs. “Are these flowers?” The answer is “No, they aren’t.” Okay, now they’re far away. “Are those flowers?” And again, the answer is “No, they aren’t.” How about these? “Are these markers?” “Yes, they are.” “Are those markers?” “Yes, they are.” “Are these pens?” “No, they aren’t.” “Are those pens?” “No, they aren’t.” Okay, so in this video, we learned how to use ‘these’ and ‘those’. I hope you guys understand and I’ll see you in the next video. Bye. Okay, let’s do some practice with ‘this’, ‘that’, ‘these’, and ‘those’. First, I have this pen. I have to say, “This is a pen.” “This is a pen.” Okay… Over there, “That is a pen.” “That is a pen.” Now, I have two pens. “These are pens.” “These are pens.” Okay, I’m going to move them far away. “Those are pens.” “Those are pens.” Okay, let’s move on to questions. I have one pen. “Is this a pen?” “Yes, it is.” “Is this a cookie?” “No, it isn’t.” “Is that a pen?” “Yes, it is.” “Is that a cookie?” “No, it isn’t.” Okay, two pens. “Are these pens?” “Yes, they are.” “Are these cookies?” “No, they aren’t.” Okay, now they’re over here. “Are those pens?” Yes, they are?” “Are those cookies?” “No, they aren’t.” Okay, so that was our practice for ‘this’, ‘that’, ‘these’, and ‘those’. I hope you guys understood and I’ll see you in the next video. Bye. Hi, everybody. In this video, we’re going to learn about possessive adjectives. We use possessive adjectives to show that something belongs to me or something belongs to someone else. I own something or someone owns something. Okay… So let’s take a look at the board. Now last time we learned about subjective pronouns and here they are. ‘I’, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’, ‘you’, ‘we’, ‘they’. And here are the possessive adjectives. Okay… ‘My’. We use ‘my’ to show that something belongs to me. Okay… ‘His’. This means that something belongs to one man or one boy. ‘Her’. We use that to show something belongs to one woman or one girl. ‘Its’. We use ‘its’ to show that something belongs to an animal. We use ‘your’ to show that something belongs to you. Okay… ‘Our’. ‘Our’ means that something belongs to me and you or me and somebody else. Okay, or me and other people. Okay, and last. We use ‘their’ to show that something belongs to many people. Okay, not me, but many people. Okay, now I want you to pay attention to three special words. ‘Its’, ‘your’ and ‘their’. Now I want you to notice these words sound like other words. So you have to be careful not to get them confused. And I’m going to explain. ‘Its’ sounds like the contraction for ‘it is’; ‘it’s’. Okay, so, don’t get that confused. ‘Your’ sounds like the contraction for ‘you are’ ‘you’re’. Okay… So make sure you use this one to show possession. Okay… And the last word, ‘their’, it actually sounds like two other words. The contraction for ‘they are’ ‘they’re’ or the word t-h-e-r-e, the other word ‘there’. Okay… So please don’t get those confused. Now I know all of this sounds very hard, but if you practice with me, I’m sure you’ll understand. So let’s move on to the next part. Okay, let’s practice together. Now, here I have a marker. It belongs to me. So, I have to say, “This is my marker.” “This isn’t your marker.” “This is my marker.” Okay, let’s look at this boy. He has a hat. So, I have to say, “This is his hat.” “This is his hat.” “This isn’t my hat.” “This isn’t your hat.” Okay… And this girl has a dress. So, “This is her dress.” “This is her dress.” “This isn’t my dress.” “This isn’t your dress.” Okay, in this picture there’s an animal; a dog…and it has a ball. I have to say, “This is its ball.” “This is its ball.” “This isn’t my ball.” and “This isn’t your ball.” Now, in this picture, we have two people. Okay, and they both own this house. So, “This is their house.” “This is their house.” Okay, now a little bit farther away, we have three books. Okay… And this boy and girl have the books here. So, we have to say “those” and because we have more than one, we have to use ‘are’. Okay… “Those are their books.” “Those are their books.” “Those aren’t my books.” “Those aren’t your books.” Okay… And the last one. Here’s the county Korea. Okay, we all live here. So we say, “This is our country.” “This is our country.” Okay, let’s move on to the next part for some more practice. Okay, here are some practice sentences. We’re going to put possessive adjectives on these lines. Okay… So, let’s try together. “I put candy in ____ mouth.” Okay, this is a mouth. “I put candy in ……” What should we put? “my mouth.” Okay, next. “John.” John is one man or boy. “John lost ____ bag.” Okay, for one man or boy, we say, “his”. “John lost his bag.” Okay, “The parents…” That’s more than one person. That’s two people. So, “The parents love ____ baby.” We have to put…….”their”. “The parents love their baby.” Okay… And here, “The dog…” Okay, ‘the dog’ is an animal. So, “The dog eats ____ food.” What do we put? We have to say, “its”. “The dog eats its food.” Okay, let’s look at some more examples. Let’s continue. “_____ names are Paul and Sam.” Okay, we have two people, Paul and Sam. And the plural names. So we have to say, “Their”. “Their names are Paul and Sam.” Okay… “Can I use ____ phone?” Okay, I’m asking you. So I have to say, “Can I use…your phone?” Okay… And the next one. “_____ make-up looks good.” Whose make-up? Well, usually girls or women wear make-up. So, I’m going to say, “Her make-up looks good.” Okay, and… “_____ videos are helpful to you.” Okay, these are the videos that we make. Right? We teach English in these videos. So, the answer is “our”. “Our videos are helpful to you.” or we sure hope they are. Okay, so in this video, we learned how to use possessive adjectives. Don’t forget you have to put a noun after each one. I hope you understand and I hope to see you in the next video. Bye. Hi, everybody and welcome. In this video, we’re going to learn about possessive pronouns. Okay… And we use possessive pronouns to show that something belongs to us or something is owned by us. Okay, or someone else. So, let’s take a look at the board. Now, last time we learned about subjective pronouns. And here they are. Okay… And in another video, we talked about possessive adjectives. And here they are. Okay… And over here are the possessive pronouns that we’re going to talk about in this video. Now, possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns are the same. They show possession. Which means, I own something. Something belongs to me…or to someone else. Okay… The only difference is that they’re used a little differently. For possessive adjectives, you have to put a noun after. Okay… “My dog.” Okay… But for possessive pronouns, you don’t have to put a noun after it. Okay, you can just say “mine”. Okay… So let’s go through each one. “My. Mine.” Okay… And this is the same. “His. His.” Okay… For ‘her’, we say “hers”. We add an ‘s’. “Hers.” “Its. Its.” Again, it’s the same. “Your. Yours.” We have to put an ‘s’. “Yours.” “Our. Ours.” and “Their. Theirs.” Okay, again, I know that this can be really confusing, but let’s practice some more. Okay… And let’s move on to the next part. Okay, let’s practice together. Now, “This is my marker.” But with possessive pronouns, you do not have to put a noun after. Okay, so I can say, “This is mine.” “This isn’t yours.” “This is mine.” Okay, let’s look at the board. This boy has a hat. So we say, “This is his.” “This isn’t mine.” “This isn’t yours.” “This is his.” The girl has a dress. “This is hers.” “This isn’t mine.” “This isn’t yours.” “This is hers.” Okay… Now with ‘its’, it’s kind of different. Okay… You still have to put a noun, so you can’t say, “This is its.” You have to say, “This is its ball.” Again, “This is its ball.” “This isn’t mine.” “This isn’t yours.” “This is its ball.” Okay… Now we have two people who have a house. “This is theirs.” “This isn’t mine.” “This isn’t yours.” “This is theirs.” Okay… Now over here, we have some books and we’re going to say that they belong to these two people. Okay… So we’re going to use the plural ‘be’ verb; ‘are’. Okay… “These are theirs.” “These aren’t mine.” “These aren’t yours.” “These are theirs.” Okay… And last, we have a picture of Korea. Okay… “This is ours.” “This is ours.” Okay, let’s move on to the next part. Okay, let’s look at these examples. We have to put in some possessive pronouns. Okay… “That lipstick is _____.” Okay, well we have the noun ‘lipstick’ and usually a girl or woman wears lipstick, so we’re going to use the possessive pronoun ‘hers’. Okay… “That lipstick is hers.” Okay… The next sentence. “That sports car is _____.” Okay… Again, usually a man will drive a sports car. So, we can say, “That sports car is his.” Okay… Now, let’s look at these last two. “This money is mine, not yours.” “This money is mine, it belongs to me.” “It doesn’t belong to you.” Not yours. Okay… And the last one. “Dokdo is ours.” It’s Koreas. Right… “Not theirs.” Not Japans. “It belongs to us.” So we say, “It’s ours.” Okay, so in this video, we learned possessive pronouns. I hope you understand and I’ll see you in the next video. Bye. This is a checkup for ‘this’, ‘that’, ‘these’, ‘those’, possesive adjectives, and possessive pronouns. Okay… Now here, I want you to focus on ‘this’, ‘that’, ‘these’, and ‘those’. Okay, so here’s the first example. We have a dog. One dog. So we have to use ‘this’ or ‘that’. Okay… If it’s close, I say, “This is a dog.” If it’s far away, I say, “That is a dog.” So, I’m going to write ‘this’. Okay… The next one says, “…are balloons.” “…are balloons.” With an ‘s’. There’s more than one. So can we use ‘this’ or ‘that’? No. We have to use ‘these’ or ‘those’. So, if it’s close, I say “These are balloons.” If they are far, “Those are balloons.” Okay… So let’s write ‘those’. “Those are balloons.” Okay… Now when we ask the question “Are these pens?”, we have more than one. “These pens.” With an ‘s’. Okay… I can put two answers here. “No, ___ aren’t.” I can say “No, these aren’t.” Or… I can say “No, they aren’t.” Okay… The next one. “These ____ eyes.” We need a ‘be’ verb. Okay… There’s more than one. Right, there are two eyes. So, “These are eyes.” Okay… And here “…is a nose.” One. A nose. And it’s close. So, I have to say “This is a nose.” Okay, let’s move on to the next part. Okay… We’re going to do some more checkup. Now here I want you to focus on possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns. Let’s look at the first example. “These are my pen.” Okay… We have ‘these…are’. This means we need more than one. Right… More than one pen. So, we have to put ‘s’. “These are my pens.” Okay… Let’s look at these two together. “Those aren’t her children.” Okay… So we can also say, “Those aren’t ____.” What do we put? “… her children.” We can always say, “Those aren’t hers.” Okay… We don’t need a noun here. We do need a noun over here, though. Okay… Then, “Is it yours?” “Is it yours?” “Yes, it’s _____.” There’s no noun. We have to say…”mine”. “Is it yours?” “Yes, it’s mine.” Okay… And the last two… ” _____ these his shoes?” We need a ‘be’ verb here. ” _____ these his shoes?” We have ‘these’ and we have ‘shoes’ with an ‘s’. So we need the plural ‘be’ verb. “Are”. “Are these his shoes?” Okay… And the answer. “No, they…” Plural. “…are.” We have ‘no’. “No, they aren’t” Okay… “Are not, aren’t”. Okay… Let’s move on to the next part. Okay… For this last part, we’re going to look at these sentences. But, they’re all wrong. They all have mistakes. So you have to find the mistakes for me. Okay… So, the first one says, “That are chairs.” Hmmmm, we know that’s wrong. ‘That’ is used for singular nouns. One. But, it say “are” and it says “chairs” with an ‘s’. So, we have to change this word. We can say, “These are chairs.” or “Those are chairs.” Okay… “This book is my.” Hmm. We have the possessive pronoun ‘my’. But remember, you have to have a noun after, but there’s no noun. So, we can change this to the possessive adjective ‘mine’. Okay… You don’t need a noun if you say ‘mine’. Okay… “That is he house.” Hmm. We want to show that this house belongs to this man or boy. “That is he house.” But, this word ‘he’, does not show possession. Okay… So, we say, “This is his house.” ‘His’, then the noun ‘house’. Similarly, for the next one. “She name is Jenny.” We want to show that this name belongs to Jenny. So, we say…”her”. “Her name is Jenny.” Okay, and the last one is also similar. “It’s ours house.” Now, if we don’t have ‘house’, “It’s ours.” We can say that. But since we have a noun,… we use the possessive pronoun, “It’s ‘our’ house.” Okay… That was the checkup for possessive pronouns, possessive adjectives, ‘this’, ‘that’, ‘these’, and ‘those’. I hope you understood and I’ll see you in the next video. Bye. Hi, everybody. In this video, we’re going to talk about the articles; ‘a’, ‘an’ and ‘the’. Now this can be very confusing, so please make sure you pay careful attention. We use articles in front of nouns. Okay, so remember that and let’s look at the board. First, we use ‘a’ or ‘an’ when we’re talking about any one thing. For example, let’s say I say, “A banana is delicious.” Okay, that means all bananas. Any banana is delicious. “A banana is delicious.” Okay, let’s jump over here. If I’m talking about a specific banana…maybe I have a banana in my hand. It’s specific, not any banana, this one. I have to use ‘the’, “The banana is old.” Okay… This one. I can’t say, “A banana is old.” Then that means all bananas are old. And that’s not true. Just this one. So, I say, “The banana is old.” Okay, let’s move over here. We also use ‘a’ or ‘an’ when we’re talking about something for the first time. So, I have another example here. “I watched a movie.” Okay… I’m talking about this movie for the first time, so I have to use “…a movie”. But, if I want to talk about this movie again, for the second time, or the third time or fourth, fifth…it doesn’t matter. I have to use ‘the’. “The movie was fun.” I’m talking about this one. The specific. “The movie was fun.” I can’t say, “A movie was fun.” That means all movies are fun. That’s not true. “The movie was fun.” Okay, and I also use ‘the’ when I’m talking about a noun where there’s only one and only. Okay… For example, there’s only one sun. Okay, when I look at the sky, there’s only one sun. So, I say, “The sun.” “The sun is hot.” I cannot say, “A sun.” That’s wrong. When there’s one and only, we say, “The sun.” Okay… Let’s look at some more examples. The first example says, “A lion is dangerous.” I have to use ‘a’ because I’m talking about any one lion. Any lion is dangerous. All lions are dangerous. So, I use ‘a’. The next sentence says, “It’s a dog.” I’m talking about this dog for the first time, so I use ‘a’. Now, I’m talking about this dog for the second time. So, I say, “The dog is cute.” Okay… Here’s a similar example. “It’s an ant.” Well, I used ‘an’ because we have ‘ant’, which start with a vowel. And I’m talking about this ant for the first time. “It’s an ant.” Now, I’m talking about this ant again. “The ant is small.” “The ant…”, this one, “…is small.” Okay, and the last one. “It’s the moon.” I have to say, “the moon” because there’s only one moon. I cannot say, “a moon”. “It’s the moon. The moon…”, only one, “…is round.” Okay… Let’s look at some more examples. Okay, we have some more examples, but this time I want you to think about whether we should put ‘a’, ‘an’ or ‘the’. Okay… So, “I see ____ desk and ___ chair.” We don’t know which desk and chair. And it’s the first time I’m talking about them. So, we have to put ‘a’. “I see a desk and a chair.” The next one. “I see ____ octopus.” Okay, this is the same. It’s the first time I’m talking about this octopus. So, do I put ‘a’ or ‘an’? Well here we have the vowel ‘o’. So we have to put “‘an’ octopus”. “I see an octopus.” Okay, the next one. “It’s ___ pen.” Okay, it’s the same. It’s the first time, so I say, “a pen”. Now, I’m talking about the pen for the second time. So I say, “The pen is red.” Okay, I’m talking about this one. So I say, “the”. Okay, similarly… “She is ____ girl.” What do I say? “A girl.” We’re talking about her for the first time. Okay… And now we’re talking about this girl again, for the second time. So, I have to say, “The girl is pretty.” And the last example. “I can see ___ sky.” Now, we only have one sky. Right… So, if there’s only one and only, we have to put the article ‘the’. “I can see the sky.” Okay… So in this video, we talked about the articles ‘a’, ‘an’ and ‘the’. I hope you understand and I’ll see you in the next video. Bye. Hi, everybody. In this video, we’re going to talk about the prepositions: in, on and under. Now, we use prepositions to show ‘where’ something is. So, let’s take a look at the board. Okay, now in this picture, we have a cat. Okay, and we’re talking about this specific cat, so we have to say “the cat”. Okay… “…is in the box.” Okay… The preposition is ‘in’. “He’s ‘in’ the box.” “…’in’ the box.” Okay… And the next one. “The cat is on…” The preposition ‘on’…”the chair”. “He’s on the chair.” Okay… And the next one. “The cat is ‘under’…..’under’ the table.” “…’under’ the table.” Okay… Let’s look at the next one. Now we have plural nouns. “The apples ‘are’…” Okay… “…in the box.” Again, the apples are “…’in’ the box.” Okay… Next, “The apples are ‘on’ the chair.” And last. “The apples are ‘under’….’under’ the table.” Okay, let’s look at some more examples. Okay, let’s look at some pictures to help us understand the prepositions: in, on, and under. I’m going to ask you some questions. I want you to think about which one you should use. Okay… “Where is the dog?” “Where is the dog?” “The dog is ‘in’ the doghouse. You should use the preposition ‘in’. “The dog is ‘in’ the doghouse. “Where is the man?” “Where is the man?” “The man is ‘under’ the umbrella.” “The man is ‘under’ the umbrella.” And last. “Where are the girls?” “Where are the girls?” “The girls are ‘on’ the bridge.” “The girls are ‘on’ the bridge.” Okay… Let’s look at some more examples. Okay… Now, we’re going to practice asking and answering questions using: in, on and under. First, let’s take a look at this picture. Here we have a rabbit, a chair and one, two, three snakes. Okay… So, I will ask a question using in, on or under. I want you to think. Is the answer, “Yes, it is.” or “No, it isn’t.” Okay… Let’s start with the rabbit. “Is the rabbit under the chair?” “No, it isn’t.” “Is the rabbit in the chair?” “No, it isn’t.” “Is the rabbit on the chair?” “…on the chair?” “Yes, it is.” Okay… Now, we’re going to move on to the snakes. Now, there are…there are more than one, right, so it’s plural, so we say, “Are the snakes…” with an ‘s’. Okay… So again, think. Is the answer, “Yes, they are.” or “No, they aren’t.” “Are the snakes in the chair?” “No, they aren’t.” “Are the snakes on the chair?” “No, they aren’t.” “Are the snakes under the chair?” “Yes, they are.” Okay, how did you do? I hope you guys understand how to use the prepositions; in, on and under after watching this video. Thanks for joining and I’ll see you next time. Bye. Hi, everybody. In this video, we’re going to talk about adjectives. Now, we use adjectives to describe nouns or things. Okay, we can describe its size, its color, its shape or other things like that. Okay… So let’s take a look at the board. The first noun we’re going to use is ‘marker’. “It’s a marker.” Now, I want to use an adjective to describe the color. “It’s a ‘black’ marker.” ‘Black’ is the adjective. Now notice, I have to put the adjective after the article ‘a’, but before the noun ‘marker’. “It’s a black marker.” Now, I can use another adjective to describe its size. “It’s a long marker.” Okay… Let’s try the next one. Here we have a bird. So, “It’s a bird.” Okay… I want to use another adjective to describe the color. So, I’m going to say, “It’s a blue bird.” Again, you have to put the adjective after the article, before the noun. I can also describe its size. “It’s a small bird.” ‘Small’ is another adjective. Now, at the last part, we have some apples. Three apples. Okay, remember, when we have more than one noun, it’s called a plural noun. So, we have to say, “They’re apples.”, with an ‘s’. “They’re apples.” I want to use the adjective ‘red’ to describe the color of these apples. So, I’m going to say, “They’re red apples.” Okay… Here, there’s no article. There’s no ‘a’. That’s because there’s more than one. “They’re red apples.” So, I just have to put the adjective before the noun that it’s describing. “They’re red apples.” Okay, let’s move on to some more examples. Okay… Mow we’re going to practice asking and answering questions using adjectives. Okay… So, we have a man here. I want to ask, “Is he a small man?” Okay… We have the adjective ‘small’. Notice, even in a question, we have to put the adjective agter the article and before the noun. “Is he a small man?” Well, let’s take a look at this picture. The answer is “No, he’s a _____ man.” We need another adjective. He’s not a small man. So, we have to say “No, he’s a…big man.” Okay… We’re going to use the adjective ‘big’. Okay, let’s look at the next one. “Is it a _____ table?” The answer is “Yes, it is.” We need an adjective to describe color, shape or size or something. Well, we can’t really describe the color. So, I think we should try the shape. Okay… Well, “Is it a….round table?” And the answer is “Yes, it is.” Okay, and last, we have two dresses. Okay… So that means the noun is plural. In that case, for the questions, we begin with ‘are’. “Are they red dresses?” Okay, the adjective is ‘red’. But, “Are they red dresses?” “No, they’re…blue dresses.” Okay… “No, they’re…blue dresses.” Okay… So in this video, we learned about adjectives. I hope you guys understand and I’ll see you in the next video. Bye. This is a check-up video for articles, prepositions, and adjectives. I’ve written some sentences on the board. Let’s try to finish them together. Okay… The first sentence says, “It’s __ ___ umbrella.” Okay… We have the noun. We need an article and an adjective to describe the umbrella. Okay… So here it is. Let’s describe the color. Okay… We would say ‘black’. Remember, the adjective comes before the noun. Now we need an article. And the correct article is ‘a’. “It’s a black umbrella.” Okay… Next, “It’s ___ ___ ___.” We have three blanks. Here, we have the noun ‘ant’. So we’re going to put that at the end. Okay… Let’s use the adjective ugly. Okay… Remember, again, the adjective comes before the noun. “…ugly ant.” “It’s __ ugly ant.” We need an article. Should we use ‘a’ or ‘an’? well, ‘ugly’ starts with the vowel ‘u’, so we have to say ‘an’. “It’s an ugly ant.” Next. “It’s __ __ __.” Okay… We have the noun ‘car’. So we put that at the end. Again, let’s use an adjective that describes the color. Let’s use ‘blue’. Okay… What article should we use? We have to say “a”. “It’s a blue car.” Okay, and last. “I __ ___ nice girl.” That’s me. We have the noun ‘girl’…and the adjective ‘nice’. So we need the article. We’re going to say “a”. Now, we’re missing one more thing. We need the ‘be’ verb ‘am’. “I am a nice girl.” Okay, let’s move on to the next part. Okay, let’s continue with the checkup. Here’s a picture. Okay… Look at it carefully. “What is it?” “What is it?” “It’s __ banana.” We need an article here. And it’s the first time I’m talking about this, so we’re going to say “a”. “It’s a banana.” “Where is ___ banana?” Now, you know, I’m talking about this one. It’s specific. So, I’m going to use the article ‘the’. “Where is the banana?” And now, let’s think about the preposition. “It’s __ the chair.” We need to use the preposition ‘on’. “It’s on the chair.” Okay… Let’s move on. “What are they?” Okay… “They’re ____ oranges.” Okay… We have more than one. That’s why we said, “They are…they’re” and “oranges”…with an ‘s’. Okay… Can we use ‘the’? No, you don’t know what oranges I’m talking about because it’s the first time I said anything about them. Then, can I use ‘a’ or ‘an’? No, ‘a’ or ‘an’ is used for any one thing. So here we do not need any article. “They’re oranges.” “What are they?” “They’re oranges.” Okay… “Where __ __ oranges?” Okay… Now, again, you know I’m talking about these specific oranges, so we use ‘the’. “Where __ the oranges?” Okay, remember, when you ask a question with plural, you need ‘are’. “Where are the oranges?” Okay… Now, let’s think about the preposition. “They’re ___ the chair.” Okay… The preposition we need is ‘under’. Okay… They’re not ‘on’, “they’re ‘under’ the chair.” Okay, let’s move on to the last part. Okay, let’s continue with the checkup. Now, we have two short stories here. You have to help me find the mistakes. The first sentence says, “It’s snake.” Well, we’re missing an article. Okay… And that article is ‘a’. “It’s a snake.” Okay… “It’s blue a snake.” Can you find the mistake? Okay… Remember, the adjective ‘blue’ has to go between the article and the noun. So we have to move the article to the front. “It’s a blue snake.” That is the correct answer. “It’s a blue snake.” Okay, the next one. “The snake under the box.” It sounds right. “The snake under the box.”, but we forgot the ‘be’ verb. “The snake is under the box.” Okay, let’s move on to the next story. “It’s a octopus.” Okay, we have an article, but octopus starts with the vowel ‘o’. So we have to use ‘an’. “It’s an octopus.” “An octopus is big.” Hmmm… This one’s a little bit hard. But remember, we’re talking about the same octopus. So now, this octopus is specific. So we have to change the article ‘an’ to ‘the’. “The octopus is big.” The octopus from the first sentence. Last, “The octopus are under the chair.” What’s the mistake? “The octopus…” There’s only one. So we don’t use ‘are’, we have to say “is”. “The octopus is under the chair.” Okay… So that was our checkup for articles, prepositions and adjectives. I hope you guys understand better and I’ll see you in the next video. Thank you. Bye. Hi, everybody. In this video, we’re going to learn ‘have’ and ‘has’. Now we use ‘have’ or ‘has’ to show possession. To show something belongs to you. Okay… So, let’s take a look at the board. Okay… When you’re talking about ‘you’, or me, we say, “I have…” Okay… If something belongs to a boy or man, we say, “He has…” For a girl or a woman. “She has…” For an animal or thing. “It has…” For you, “You have…” For us. Me and some other people. We say, “We have…” Okay, and some other people. “They have…” Okay… This is very easy, you just have to remember it. Okay… So, let’s practice with these pictures. Here we have a rabbit…and a carrot. So which one do we have to use? Well, a rabbit is an animal. So we have to use ‘it’. “It has a carrot.” Again, “It has a carrot.” Now, in this picture, we have two ants. Okay… So, for two things we have to use ‘they’. Okay… So, here are two ants and an apple. So, we’re going to say, “They have an apple.” “They have an apple.” Okay, let’s move on to some more practice. Okay… Let’s do some practice together. You have to think about if we should use ‘have’ or ‘has’ in the blanks. Okay… So let’s look at the first one. “The girl ‘blank’ long hair.” Okay… Now, ‘the girl’. We can we use instead of the girl? We can say “she”. “She” then what do we say? “Has.” “She has long hair.” Or… “The girl has long hair.” It’s the same. Okay… The next one. “The boys…” Now, there’s an ‘s’ here. That means there’s more than one boy. When we have more than one thing, what do we use? “They.” Okay… “They…” Do we say ‘have’ or ‘has’? We have to say “have”. “They have caps.” Or… “The boys have caps.” Okay, the next one’s easier. “I…” When we have ‘I’, we say “have”. “I have a friend.” Okay, the next one is also easy. “He…” “He ‘blank’ an umbrella.” What do we have to use? “Has.” “He has an umbrella.” Okay, the next one says, “The dog ‘blank’ a bone.” “The dog…” What do we use for animals? “It.” “It…has a bone.” Or… “The dog has a bone.” And last. “My mother and I ‘blank’ a car.” Okay, this one’s tricky. “My mother and I…” We have to say “we”. “We…have…a car.” “My mother and I have a car.” Okay… So I hope you understand how to use ‘have’ and ‘has’ and I’ll see you in the next video. Bye. Hi, everybody. In this video, we’re going to learn negatives with ‘have’ and ‘has’. Now this also pretty easy. You just have to remember everything that I wrote. Okay… So let’s take a look at the board. Okay, first, for ‘I’, we use, “I don’t have…” Remember, ‘don’t’ is a contraction for ‘do not’. “I don’t have…” For ‘he, ‘she’ and ‘it’, we use ‘doesn’t have’. ‘Doesn’t’ is a contraction for ‘does not’. “He doesn’t have…” “She doesn’t have…” “It doesn’t have…” Now on the bottom. For ‘you’, ‘we’, ‘they’, it’s the same as ‘I’. We use ‘don’t have’. “You don’t have…” “We don’t have…” and “They don’t have…” So, let’s look at these pictures. Remember, we have a rabbit and a carrot. So, we said, “It has a carrot.” Okay, but, we’re doing negatives, so we have to say “It doesn’t have a cake.” “It doesn’t have a cake.” Okay… Now here, we have the ants and an apple. So we said, “They have an apple.” Okay… But for this banana here, we have to say, “They don’t have a banana.” “They don’t have a banana.” Okay, let’s move on to some more practice. Okay… Now let’s try this practice with the negatives ‘doesn’t have’ and ‘don’t have’ together. Now this is a little easy because we know that the second word is have. All you have to think is should we use ‘doesn’t’ or ‘don’t’. Okay… So, I’m just going to put ‘have’ her first. Okay… “She ‘blank’ have short hair.” Should we use ‘don’t’ or ‘doesn’t’? If you remember, for ‘she’, we use ‘doesn’t’. “She doesn’t have short hair.” Okay… And again, I’m going to put ‘have’ first. This is easy. ‘He’ and ‘she’ we both use ‘doesn’t’. “He doesn’t have an umbrella.” Okay… How about for ‘I’? “I doesn’t have….” or ” I don’t have…”? The correct answer is ‘don’t’. “I don’t have a wife.” “People…” Remember, if we have more than one person, animal and thing, we have to think of ‘they’. For ‘they’, do we use ‘don’t’ or ‘ doesn’t’? Do you remember? The correct answer is ‘don’t’. “People don’t have manners.” Okay… Next. “We…” “We ‘blank’ have money.” Should we put ‘doesn’t’ or ‘don’t’? The correct answer is ‘don’t’. “We don’t have money.” Okay, and the last one. “A snake…” A snake is an animal. What do we use for an animal? “It.” “It…” What should we put here? “It…doesn’t…have legs.” Okay, so that was our practice the negatives ‘don’t have’ and ‘doesn’t have’. I hope you understand and I’ll see you in the next video. Bye. Hi, everybody. In this video, we’re going to learn how to ask questions using ‘have’. Okay, let’s look at the board. When we are talking about ‘he’, ‘she’ or ‘it’, the question always begins with ‘does’. After the pronoun, we have ‘have’. So, we say, “Does he have…” “Does she have…” “Does it have…” Now, let’s practice with this question and let’s look at the two answers. Okay… “Does he have a friend?” If the answer is ‘yes’, we say “yes”, in the blank, we match… this has to be the same. “Yes, he does.” If the answer is ‘no’. “No, he doesn’t.” “Does he have a friend?” “Yes, she does.” “No, she doesn’t.” “Does it have a friend?” “Yes, it does.” “No, it doesn’t.” Okay, so remember ‘does…have’. Now, when we use ‘you’, ‘we’, ‘they’, we use ‘do’ in the front. And ‘have’ after. “Do you have a friend?” “Do we have a friend?” “Do they have a friend?” Okay… And again we have two answers. We finish with ‘do’ or ‘don’t’. So, “Do you have a friend?” “Yes, I do.” Right, the questions is asking ‘you’, so you say “I do.” Or, “No, I don’t.” “Do we have a friend?” “Yes, we do.” Or, “No, we don’t.” And last. “Do they have a friend?” “Yes, they do.” “No, they don’t.” Okay, let’s move on to some more practice. Alright, let’s try this practice together. I know it looks hard, but I’m going to help you. Okay… So let’s look at the first practice. It’s a question. Okay, so remember, when we ask a question, we begin with ‘do’ or ‘does’. Okay… We have ‘she’. well, remember for all questions we use ‘have’. In the front, should we use ‘does’ or ‘do’? The answer is ‘does’. “Does she have a dress?” When we answer, “Yes…” What do we put here? Remember, we put the pronoun ‘she’. And the answer ‘does’. “Yes, she does.” The next one. We have ‘they’. Okay, ‘have’ is again the same. “…have a bicycle?” Okay, what goes in the front? For ‘they’. we use ‘do’. “Do they have a bicycle?” This time the answer is negative. “No, they….” What do we put here? It doesn’t make sense to say, “do”. Right? “No, they do.” That’s wrong. It’s a negative. We have to say, “No, they don’t.” “No, they do not.” Okay, and again, we have ‘have’ over here. “It…” Which one, ‘do’ or ‘does’? The answer is ‘does’. “Does it have a ball?” Again, the answer is negative. “No, it…does not.” or the contraction, “No, it doesn’t.” Okay… So that was our practice for asking questions with ‘have’. I hope you understand and I’ll see you in the next video.

Contents

Etymology

The word grammar is derived from Greek γραμματικὴ τέχνη (grammatikē technē), which means "art of letters", from γράμμα (gramma), "letter", itself from γράφειν (graphein), "to draw, to write".[7] The same Greek root also appears in graphics, grapheme, and photograph.

History

Vedic Sanskrit is the earliest language known to the world. The grammatical rules were formulated by Indra, Chandra, etc., but the modern systematic grammar, of Sanskrit, originated in Iron Age India, with Yaska (6th century BC), Pāṇini (6-5th century BC[8]) and his commentators Pingala (c. 200 BC), Katyayana, and Patanjali (2nd century BC). Tolkāppiyam, the earliest Tamil grammar, is mostly dated to before the 5th century AD. The Babylonians also made some early attempts at language description,[9]

In the West, grammar emerged as a discipline in Hellenism from the 3rd century BC forward with authors like Rhyanus and Aristarchus of Samothrace. The oldest known grammar handbook is the Art of Grammar (Τέχνη Γραμματική), a succinct guide to speaking and writing clearly and effectively, written by the ancient Greek scholar Dionysius Thrax (c. 170–c. 90 BC), a student of Aristarchus of Samothrace who established a school on the Greek island of Rhodes.[10] Dionysius Thrax's grammar book remained the primary grammar textbook for Greek schoolboys until as late as the twelfth century AD.[10] The Romans based their grammatical writings on it and its basic format remains the basis for grammar guides in many languages even today.[10] Latin grammar developed by following Greek models from the 1st century BC, due to the work of authors such as Orbilius Pupillus, Remmius Palaemon, Marcus Valerius Probus, Verrius Flaccus, and Aemilius Asper.

A grammar of Irish originated in the 7th century with the Auraicept na n-Éces. Arabic grammar emerged with Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali in the 7th century. The first treatises on Hebrew grammar appeared in the High Middle Ages, in the context of Mishnah (exegesis of the Hebrew Bible). The Karaite tradition originated in Abbasid Baghdad. The Diqduq (10th century) is one of the earliest grammatical commentaries on the Hebrew Bible.[11] Ibn Barun in the 12th century compares the Hebrew language with Arabic in the Islamic grammatical tradition.[12]

Belonging to the trivium of the seven liberal arts, grammar was taught as a core discipline throughout the Middle Ages, following the influence of authors from Late Antiquity, such as Priscian. Treatment of vernaculars began gradually during the High Middle Ages, with isolated works such as the First Grammatical Treatise, but became influential only in the Renaissance and Baroque periods. In 1486, Antonio de Nebrija published Las introduciones Latinas contrapuesto el romance al Latin, and the first Spanish grammar, Gramática de la lengua castellana, in 1492. During the 16th-century Italian Renaissance, the Questione della lingua was the discussion on the status and ideal form of the Italian language, initiated by Dante's de vulgari eloquentia (Pietro Bembo, Prose della volgar lingua Venice 1525). The first grammar of Slovene was written in 1583 by Adam Bohorič.

Grammars of non-European languages began to be compiled for the purposes of evangelization and Bible translation from the 16th century onward, such as Grammatica o Arte de la Lengua General de los Indios de los Reynos del Perú (1560), and a Quechua grammar by Fray Domingo de Santo Tomás.

From the latter part of the 18th century, grammar came to be understood as a subfield of the emerging discipline of modern linguistics. The Deutsche Grammatik of the Jacob Grimm was first published in the 1810s. The Comparative Grammar of Franz Bopp, the starting point of modern comparative linguistics, came out in 1833.

Theoretical frameworks

Simple constituency grammar parse tree, whereby the sentence is divided into a noun phrase and a verb phrase.
Simple constituency grammar parse tree, whereby the sentence is divided into a noun phrase and a verb phrase.

Frameworks of grammar, which attempt to give a precise scientific theory of the syntax rules of grammar and their function, have been developed in theoretical linguistics. Most mainstream frameworks are based on the conception of an innate "universal grammar", an idea developed by Noam Chomsky. The most prominent theories are:

Parse trees are commonly (but not always) used by such frameworks to depict their rules. There are various additional notation schemes for some grammars:

Development of grammars

Grammars evolve through usage and also due to separations of the human population. With the advent of written representations, formal rules about language usage tend to appear also. Formal grammars are codifications of usage that are developed by repeated documentation over time, and by observation as well. As the rules become established and developed, the prescriptive concept of grammatical correctness can arise. This often creates a discrepancy between contemporary usage and that which has been accepted, over time, as being standard or "correct". Linguists tend to view prescriptive grammars as having little justification beyond their authors' aesthetic tastes, although style guides may give useful advice about standard language employment, based on descriptions of usage in contemporary writings of the same language. Linguistic prescriptions also form part of the explanation for variation in speech, particularly variation in the speech of an individual speaker (an explanation, for example, for why some people say "I didn't do nothing", some say "I didn't do anything", and some say one or the other depending on social context).

The formal study of grammar is an important part of education for children from a young age through advanced learning, though the rules taught in schools are not a "grammar" in the sense most linguists use the term, particularly as they are prescriptive in intent rather than descriptive.

Constructed languages (also called planned languages or conlangs) are more common in the modern day than they used to be, although still extremely uncommon compared to natural languages. Many have been designed to aid human communication (for example, naturalistic Interlingua, schematic Esperanto, and the highly logic-compatible artificial language Lojban). Each of these languages has its own grammar.

Syntax refers to the linguistic structure above the word level (e.g. how sentences are formed) – though without taking into account intonation, which is the domain of phonology. Morphology, by contrast, refers to structure at and below the word level (e.g. how compound words are formed), but above the level of individual sounds, which, like intonation, are in the domain of phonology.[13] No clear line can be drawn, however, between syntax and morphology. Analytic languages use syntax to convey information that is encoded via inflection in synthetic languages. In other words, word order is not significant and morphology is highly significant in a purely synthetic language, whereas morphology is not significant and syntax is highly significant in an analytic language. Chinese and Afrikaans, for example, are highly analytic, and meaning is therefore very context-dependent. (Both do have some inflections, and have had more in the past; thus, they are becoming even less synthetic and more "purely" analytic over time.) Latin, which is highly synthetic, uses affixes and inflections to convey the same information that Chinese does with syntax. Because Latin words are quite (though not completely) self-contained, an intelligible Latin sentence can be made from elements that are placed in a largely arbitrary order. Latin has a complex affixation and simple syntax, while Chinese has the opposite.

Education

Prescriptive grammar is taught in primary and secondary school. The term "grammar school" historically refers to a school (attached to a cathedral or monastery) teaching Latin grammar to future priests and monks. In its earliest form, "grammar school" referred to a school that taught students to read, scan, interpret, and declaim Greek and Latin poets (including Homer, Virgil, Euripides, and others). These should not be confused with the related, albeit distinct, modern British grammar schools.

A standard language is a particular dialect of a language that is promoted above other dialects in writing, education, and broadly speaking in the public sphere; it contrasts with vernacular dialects, which may be the objects of study in academic, descriptive linguistics but which are rarely taught prescriptively. The standardized "first language" taught in primary education may be subject to political controversy, because it may sometimes establish a standard defining nationality or ethnicity.

Recently, efforts have begun to update grammar instruction in primary and secondary education. The primary focus has been to prevent the use of outdated prescriptive rules in favor of laying down norms based on prior descriptive research and to change perceptions about relative "correctness" of prescribed standard forms in comparison to non-standard dialects.

The pre-eminence of Parisian French has reigned largely unchallenged throughout the history of modern French literature. Standard Italian is not based on the speech of the capital, Rome, but on the speech of Florence because of the influence Florentines had on early Italian literature. Similarly, standard Spanish is not based on the speech of Madrid, but on that of educated speakers from more northerly areas like Castile and León (e.g. see Gramática de la lengua castellana). In Argentina and Uruguay the Spanish standard is based on the local dialects of Buenos Aires and Montevideo (Rioplatense Spanish). Portuguese has, for now, two official standards, respectively Brazilian Portuguese and European Portuguese.

The Serbian variant of Serbo-Croatian is divided in a similar way; Serbia and the Republika Srpska of Bosnia and Herzegovina use their own distinct normative subvarieties, with differences in yat reflexes. The existence and codification of a distinct Montenegrin standard is a matter of controversy, some treat Montenegrin as a separate standard lect and some think it should be considered another form of Serbian.

Norwegian has two standards, Bokmål and Nynorsk, the choice between which is subject to controversy: Each Norwegian municipality can declare one of the two its official language, or it can remain "language neutral". Nynorsk is endorsed by a minority of 27 percent of the municipalities. The main language used in primary schools normally follows the official language of its municipality and is decided by referendum within the local school district. Standard German emerged from the standardized chancellery use of High German in the 16th and 17th centuries. Until about 1800, it was almost entirely a written language, but now it is so widely spoken that most of the former German dialects are nearly extinct.

Standard Chinese has official status as the standard spoken form of the Chinese language in the People's Republic of China (PRC), the Republic of China (ROC) and the Republic of Singapore. Pronunciation of Standard Chinese is based on the local accent of Mandarin Chinese from Luanping, Chengde in Hebei Province near Beijing, while grammar and syntax are based on modern vernacular written Chinese. Modern Standard Arabic is directly based on Classical Arabic, the language of the Qur'an. The Hindustani language has two standards, Hindi and Urdu.

In the United States, the Society for the Promotion of Good Grammar designated 4 March as National Grammar Day in 2008.[14]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Traditionally, the mental information used to produce and process linguistic utterances is referred to as "rules". However, other frameworks employ different terminology, with theoretical implications. Optimality theory, for example, talks in terms of "constraints", while construction grammar, cognitive grammar, and other "usage-based" theories make reference to patterns, constructions, and "schemata"
  2. ^ O'Grady, William; Dobrovolsky, Michael; Katamba, Francis (1996). Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction. Harlow, Essex: Longman. pp. 4–7, 464–539. ISBN 978-0-582-24691-1.
  3. ^ Holmes, Janet (2001). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (second ed.). Harlow, Essex: Longman. pp. 73–94. ISBN 978-0-582-32861-7.; for more discussion of sets of grammars as populations, see: Croft, William (2000). Explaining Language Change: An Evolutionary Approach. Harlow, Essex: Longman. pp. 13–20. ISBN 978-0-582-35677-1.
  4. ^ Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey K. Pullum, 2002, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press, p. 627f.
  5. ^ Lundin, Leigh (23 September 2007). "The Power of Prepositions". On Writing. Cairo: Criminal Brief.
  6. ^ Jeremy Butterfield, (2008). Damp Squid: The English Language Laid Bare, Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-957409-4. p. 142.
  7. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Grammar". Online Etymological Dictionary. Retrieved 8 April 2010
  8. ^ The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica (2013). Ashtadhyayi, Work by Panini. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 23 October 2017., Quote: "Ashtadhyayi, Sanskrit Aṣṭādhyāyī (“Eight Chapters”), Sanskrit treatise on grammar written in the 6th to 5th century BCE by the Indian grammarian Panini."
  9. ^ McGregor, William B. (2015). Linguistics: An Introduction. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-0-567-58352-9.
  10. ^ a b c Casson, Lionel (2001). Libraries in the Ancient World. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-300-09721-4.
  11. ^ G. Khan, J. B. Noah, The Early Karaite Tradition of Hebrew Grammatical Thought (2000)
  12. ^ Pinchas Wechter, Ibn Barūn's Arabic Works on Hebrew Grammar and Lexicography (1964)
  13. ^ Gussenhoven, Carlos; Jacobs, Haike (2005). Understanding Phonology (second ed.). London: Hodder Arnold. ISBN 978-0-340-80735-4.
  14. ^ "National Grammar Day: Brought to you by Grammar Girl and the Society for the Promotion of Good Grammar".

References

  • American Academic Press, The (ed.). William Strunk, Jr., et al. The Classics of Style: The Fundamentals of Language Style From Our American Craftsmen. Cleveland: The American Academic Press, 2006. ISBN 0-9787282-0-3.
  • Rundle, Bede. Grammar in Philosophy. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. ISBN 0-19-824612-9.

External links

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