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List of colonial governors of Senegal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tenure Incumbent Notes
French rule of Saint-Louis, Senegal and Gorée Island by Chartered Companies
Expanding to small posts along West African Coast as Far as Gabon until 1850s
Governors of the Compagnie Normande [fr]
1626 to 1658    
1626–1631 Jacques Fumechon  
1631–1641 Thomas Lambert  
1641–1648 Jean Caullier  
1649–1650 de Soussy  
1651–1658 Mésineau  
Governors of the Compagnie du Cap-Vert et du Sénégal [fr]
1658 to 1664    
1658–1661 Raguenet  
1661–28 May 1664 de Boulay  
Governors of the Compagnie Française des Indes Occidentales
1664 to 1672    
28 May 1664 – 1668 Jacquet  
1668– 9 April 1672 Sieur de Richemont  
Governor of the Compagnie du Sénégal
1672 to 1673    
1672–1673 Sieur de Richemont (acting)
Director of the Compagnie du Sénégal
1674 to 1682    
1674–1682 Jacques Fumechon
Director of the Compagnie d'Afrique
1682 to 1684    
1682–12 September 1684 Denis Basset
Directors of the Compagnie de Guinée [fr]
1684 to 1696    
12 September 1684 – 1689 Louis Moreau de Chambonneau [fr] (1st time)
1689–1690 Michel Jajolet de la Courbe [fr]
1690 – Jan 1693 Louis Moreau de Chambonneau [fr] (2nd time)
Jan 1693 – Jul 1693 n/a Vacant
Jul 1693 – Mar 1696 Jean Bourguignon (2nd time)
Directors of the Compagnie Royale du Sénégal
1696 to 1709    
Mar 1696– 4 April 1697 Jean Bourguignon (acting)
4 April 1697 – 1 May 1702 André Brue (b. 1654–d. 1738)
1702–1706 Joseph Lemaitre (b. 1654–d. 1738)
1706–1709 Michel Jajolet de la Courbe [fr] (b. 1654–d. 1738)
Directors of the Compagnie de Rouen
1710 to 1718    
1710–15 August 1711 Guillaume Joseph Mustellier (d. 1711)
1712– 2 May 1713 Pierre de Richebourg
20 April 1714 – 15 December 1718 André Brué
Directors of the Compagnie des Indes Orientales
1718 to 1758    
15 December 1718 – May 1720 André Brue
May 1720 – Apr 1723 Nicolas Desprès de Saint-Robert (d. 1725/26)(1st time)
1723–1725 Julien du Bellay
1725 Nicolas Desprès de Saint-Robert (2nd time)
1725–1726 Arnaud Plumet
1726–1733 Jean Levens de la Rouquette
1733– 7 March 1733 Lejuge (d. 1733)
1733–1738 Sebastian Devaulx (acting to 1736)
1738–1746 Pierre Félix Barthélemy David (b. 1711–d. 1795)
1746–30 April 1758 Jean-Baptiste Estoupan de la Brüe[1]
British Seizure of Senegalese Possessions Ruled From Gorée Island and The Gambia.
British Governors
1758 to 1779    
30 April 1758 – 10 February 1763 Richard Alchorne Worge
10 February 1763 – 25 May 1765 John Barnes
25 May 1765 – Nov 1775 Charles O'Hara
25 May 1765 – Apr 1766 Joseph Debat (Gambia Superintendent of Trade)
Nov 1775– 8 April 1777 Matthias MacNamara
8 April 1777 – 18 August 1778 John Clarke
18 August 1778 – 11 February 1779 William Lacy (did not assume office)
18 August 1778 – 11 February 1779 George Fall (acting)
British Lieutenant Governors
1776 to 1779    
Apr 1776–24 January 1774 Joseph Debat
24 January 1774 – Aug 1775 William Myres
Aug 1774 – Nov 1775 Matthias MacNamara
Nov 1775 – Dec 1775 Thomas Sharpless (acting)
Dec 1775– 8 August 1776 Joseph Wall (b. 1737–d. 1802)
8 August 1776 – 1776 George Fall (acting) (1st time)
1776–18 August 1778 William Lacy (acting)
18 August 1778 – 11 February 1779 George Fall (acting) (2nd time)
French Reclaiming of Senegalese Possessions Ruled From Saint-Louis, Senegal and Gorée Island.
Royal government, then French First Republic, then French First Empire. From 1789 under Ministry of the Navy, controlling all posts to Gabon.
French Governors
1779 to 1809    
11 February 1779 – Mar 1779 Armand Louis de Gontaut duc de Lauzun (b. 1747–d. 1793)
Mar 1779– 7 March 1781 Jacques Joseph Eyries
7 March 1781 – Jul 1782 J.B. Bertrand (acting)
Jul 1782 – Feb 1784 Anne Gaston Dumontet
Feb 1784 – Feb 1786 Louis Legardeur sieur de Repentigny (b. 1721–d. 1786)
Feb 1786 – Dec 1787 Stanislas Jean Boufflers chevalier de Boufflers (b. 1738–d. 1815)
Dec 1787 – Jan 1801 François Blanchot de Verly [fr] (b. 17..–d. 1807)(1st time)
Jan 1801– 2 July 1802 Charbonnes (acting)
2 July 1802 – 27 October 1802 Louis Henri Pierre Lasserre
27 October 1802 – 12 September 1807 François Blanchot de Verly [fr] (2nd time)
Sep 1807–13 July 1809 Pierre Levasseur
British Seizure of Senegalese Possessions Ruled From Gorée Island and The Gambia.
British Governors
1809 to 1817    
13 July 1809 – 1811 Charles William Maxwell (d. 1848)
1811–1814 Charles MacCarthy (b. 1764–d. 1824)
1814–25 January 1817 Thomas Brereton
French Reclaim Senegalese Possessions Ruled From Saint-Louis, Senegal and Gorée Island.
Royal government restored by British. Under Ministry of the Navy, controlling all posts to Gabon until the 1850s.
French Commandants
1817 to 1828    
25 January 1817 – Dec 1817 Julien Schmaltz (1st time)
Dec 1817–13 March 1819 Aimé-Benjamin Fleuriau (acting)
13 March 1819 – 14 August 1820 Julien Schmaltz (2nd time)
14 August 1820 – 1 March 1821 Louis-Jean-Baptiste Le Coupé de Montereau, baron Lecoupe (acting)
1 March 1821 – 18 May 1827 Jacques-François Roger, baron Roger after 1824[2] (b. 1787 )
18 May 1827 – 7 January 1828 Hyacinthe-Benjamin Gerbidon (acting)
French Governors
7 January 1828 – 11 May 1829 Jean Jubelin [fr] (b. 1787)
11 May 1829 – 24 May 1831 Pierre-Édouard Brou [fr]
24 May 1831 – 18 October 1833 Thomas Renault de Saint-Germain (d. 1833)
18 October 1833 – 15 November 1833 Jean-Baptiste Bertrand Armand Cadéot (acting)
13 November 1833 – 10 May 1834 Eustache-Louis-Jean Quernel [fr]
10 May 1834 – 1 July 1836 Louis Pujol
1 July 1836 – Dec 1836 Médéric Malavois [fr]
Dec 1836–13 September 1837 Louis-Laurent-Auguste Guillet (acting)
13 September 1837 – 12 April 1839 Julien-Armand Soret [fr]
1839–1854: Posts from Gambia south under command of Naval Division of the Western Coasts of Africa. See Colonial heads of Gabon
12 April 1839 – 19 May 1841 Pons-Guillaume-Bazile Charmasson de Puylaval [fr] (b. 1780)
19 May 1841 – 7 May 1842 Jean-Baptiste Montagniès de La Roque [fr] (b. 1761)
1842–1860: For subdivision Colony of Gorée and Dependencies see Colonial heads of Côte d'Ivoire
7 May 1842 – 5 February 1843 Paul Pageot Des Noutières
5 February 1843 – 24 May 1844 Édouard Bouët-Willaumez (b. 1808–d. 1871)
24 May 1844 – Jul 1844 Auguste-Lazare Laborel (acting)
Jul 1844–11 December 1845 Pierre Thomas (acting)
11 December 1845 – 20 March 1846 François-Marie-Charles Ollivier (d. 1846)
20 March 1846 – 30 August 1846 Hoube (acting)
30 August 1846 – 24 August 1847 Ernest Bourdon [fr], count of Gramont (b. 1805–d. 1847)
24 August 1847 – 7 September 1847 Caille (acting) (d. 1847)
7 September 1847 – Nov 1847 Léandre Bertin du Château (acting) (b. 1804–d. 1884)
Nov 1847 – Aug 1850 Auguste Baudin (b. 1800–d. 1877)
Aug 1850–11 October 1850 Aumont (acting)
11 October 1850 – 16 December 1854 Auguste Léopold Protet (1st time) (b. 1808–d. 1862)
May 1853–30 January 1854 André César Vérand (acting for Protet)
31 January 1854 – 16 December 1854 Auguste Léopold Protet (2nd time)
1854: all other West African possessions fall under subdivision of Senegal: Colony of Gorée and Dependencies.
16 December 1854 – 1 June 1861 Louis Léon César Faidherbe (b. 1818–d. 1889)
4 September 1858 – 12 February 1859 A. Robin (acting for Faidherbe)
4 October 1860: Ivory Coast territory moved to the Ivory Coast-Gabon colony see Colonial heads of Côte d'Ivoire
1 June 1861 – 1 December 1861 Léopold François Stephan (acting) (b. 1815)
1 December 1861 – 13 May 1863 Jean Bernard Jauréguiberry (b. 1815–d. 1887)
13 May 1863 – 14 July 1863 Émile Pinet-Laprade (1st time)(b. 1822–d. 1869)(acting)
14 July 1863 – 1 May 1865 Louis Léon César Faidherbe (2nd time)
1 May 1865 – 17 August 1869 Émile Pinet-Laprade (2nd time) (acting to 12 July 1865)
18 August 1869 – 17 October 1869 Ferdinand Charles Alexandre Tredos (b. 1820 )(acting)
17 October 1869 – 18 June 1876 François-Xavier Michel Valière (b. 1826–d. 1886)
18 June 1876 – Apr 1880 Louis Briere de l'Isle (b. 1827–d. 1896)
27 February 1880: Haut-Sénégal military region created as sub division. See Colonial heads of Mali
Apr 1880– 4 August 1881 Louis Ferdinand de Lanneau (b. 1822 )
4 August 1881 – Oct 1881 Marie Auguste Deville de Perière (b. 1825 ) (acting)
Oct 1881–28 June 1882 Henri Philibert Canard (b. 1824–d. 1894)
1882: Coastal sections of Guinea separated from Senegal, become Rivières du Sud, later French Guinee.
28 June 1882 – 16 November 1882 Aristide Louis Antoine Vallon (b. 1826–d. 1897)
16 November 1882 – 28 June 1883 René Servatius
28 June 1883 – 25 July 1883 Adolphe Ernest Auguste Le Boucher (b. 1837–d. 1896) (acting)
25 July 1883 – 15 April 1884 Henry Bourdiaux (acting) (b. 1838–d. 1899)
15 April 1884 – 14 April 1886 Alphonse Seignac-Lesseps
1886: Gabon and Eastern coastal possessions separated from Senegal, become French Congo
14 April 1886 – 29 April 1888 Jules Genouille (b. 1839–d. 1923)
29 April 1888 – 22 September 1890 Léon Émile Clément-Thomas
18 August 1890: French Sudan Territory separated from Senegal. See: Colonial heads of Mali
22 September 1890 – 19 May 1895 Henri Félix de Lamothe (b. 1843–d. 1926)
19 May 1895 – 28 June 1895 Louis Mouttet (acting)(b. 1857–d. 1902)
Incorporated into French West Africa – 16 June 1895 Command of French West Africa Handed to Governor General
Governors of Sénégal now subordinate to Governor General of French West Africa
28 June 1895 – 1 November 1900 Jean Baptiste Émile Louis (b. 1853–d. 19..)
1 November 1900 – 26 January 1902 Noël Eugène Ballay (b. 1847–d. 1902)
26 January 1902 – 15 March 1902 Pierre Paul Marie Capest (b. 1857–d. 19..)
15 March 1902 – 11 November 1902 Ernest Roume (b. 1858–d. 1934)
11 November 1902 – 26 August 1907 Camille Lucien Xavier Guy (b. 1860–d. 1929)
26 August 1907 – 15 December 1907 Joost van Vollenhoven (acting) (b. 1877–d. 1918)
15 December 1907 – 10 June 1908 Martial Henri Merlin (b. 1860–d. 1935)
10 June 1908 – 17 October 1908 Jean Jules Émile Peuvergne (b. 1849–d. 19..)(1st time)
17 October 1908 – 23 February 1909 Maurice Gourbeil
23 February 1909 – 2 May 1909 Marie Antoine Edmond Gaudard (acting)
2 May 1909 – 5 February 1911 Jean Jules Émile Peuvergne (2nd time)
5 February 1911 – 13 May 1914 Henri François Charles Core
13 May 1914 – 1916 Raphaël Valentin Marius Antonetti (b. 1872–d. 1938)
20 March 1917 – 23 September 1920 Fernand Émile Levêque
23 September 1920 – 17 September 1921 Théophile Antoine Pascal (acting)
17 September 1921 – 4 July 1925 Pierre Jean Henri Didelot (b. 1870–d. 19..)
4 July 1925 – 23 May 1926 Camille Théodore Raoul Maillet (1st time) (acting)
23 May 1926 – 23 October 1926 Joseph Zébédée Olivier Cadier (acting)
23 October 1926 – 12 March 1929 Léonce Alphonse Noël Henri Jore (b. 1882–d. 1975)
12 March 1929 – 4 July 1930 Maurice Beurnier (1st time) (b. 1878–d. 19..)
4 July 1930 – 15 August 1931 Camille Théodore Raoul Maillet (2nd time)
15 August 1931 – 14 October 1931 Benoît Louis Rebonne (acting)
14 October 1931 – Dec 1936 Maurice Beurnier (2nd time)
Dec 1936–25 October 1938 Louis Lefebvre
25 October 1938 – 1940 Jean Paul Parisot
1 January 1941 – 22 December 1942 Georges Pierre Rey
22 December 1942 – 2 December 1943 Hubert Jules Deschamps (b. 1900–d. 1979)
2 December 1943 – Jun 1945 Charles Jean Dagain (b. 1885–d. 1969)
Jun 1945 – Apr 1946 Pierre Louis Maestracci
Apr 1946–20 May 1947 Oswald Durand (b. 1888–d. 1982)
20 May 1947 – 19 October 1950 Laurent Marcel Wiltord
19 October 1950 – 25 April 1952 Camille Victor Bailly (b. 1907–d. 1984)
25 April 1952 – 19 February 1954 Lucien Eugène Geay (b. 1900)
19 February 1954 – 31 October 1955 Maxime Marie Antoine Jourdain
31 October 1955 – 10 February 1957 Jean Colombani (b. 1903)
10 February 1957 – 25 November 1958 Pierre Auguste Michel Marie Lami [fr] (b. 1909)
African High Commissioner of the French Union
25 November 1958 – 20 June 1960 Pierre Auguste Michel Marie Lami [fr]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ The Seven Years War: Crash Course World History #26
  • ✪ Governor-General
  • ✪ Yaa Asantewa: Warrior Queen of Ghana
  • ✪ French West Africa
  • ✪ History of Africa | Wikipedia audio article


Hi, my name is John Green, This is Crash Course World History. Oh my gosh! Today we're going to talk about war. Ah! Explosions everywhere! So, traditionally, historians are pretty keen on wars, because they feature clearly delineated beginnings, and middles, and ends, and because they always have a fair bit of death and drama and mortally wounded generals who have great last words like "Let us cross the river and rest under the shade of those trees," whereas the last words of, plague victims are always, like, "Unggggg." Sorry, plague victims. As if you don't have enough troubles. Now you've got me teasing you about your uninspired death throes. Wars have easy whens, wheres, whos, and whys: 1861-1865. The United States. The North vs. the South. To end slavery and save the Union. Mr. Green, Mr. Green. Are you gonna show us the hidden complexities behind something we already think we understand again? Sorry me from the past, but yes. However, to placate you, here are some more explosions. The 17th and 18th centuries saw a bunch of top-notch wars, but today we're going to focus on the 7 Years War, also called the French and Indian War, because it was the first truly global war. In fact, no less a historian than Winston Churchill called it "The first world war." But we've been so Eurocentric here on Crash Course that all we are going to say about the ENTIRE WAR IN EUROPE is that Prussia and Great Britain fought France and Austria, and that the Austrian Hapsburgs wanted to win back Silesia, which they failed to do. THERE. THAT'S ALL YOU GET, EUROPE. So the Seven Years War lasted for...anyone...anyone... Twenty three years. I hate you, Me from the Past. But, as it happens, by sheer coincidence, you are not necessarily wrong. [Intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] So, the when: The Seven Years War began in 1756 and ended in 1763. Unless you believe—as many historians do—that the 7 Years War lasted 23 years, because it was really a continuation of the War for Austrian Succession. Then you have the fact that much of the information in today's episode is taken from a book called, "The Global Seven Years War: 1754-1763," a nine year period. As for the who: It was mainly fought between the British and the French, seen here reenacting the knife fight from either Beat It or West Side Story, depending on your age. But some of the British were actually Americans, and both the British and the French were supported by American Indians. And there was fighting in India between Indian Indians, the British, the French. And as previously noted the French were fighting the Prussians and the British were fighting the Austrians. The where: Europe, the continental U.S., the Caribbean Sea, off the cost of Africa, India. Basically, the world. And the why: Ostensibly, land. British colonists wanted to expand into land west of the original 13 colonies. And that land was technically held by the French, who left it alone except for a bunch of trading posts. And they were like, "Je de veux pens l'anglais." Thank you, four years of high school French. Anyway, the war wasn't really about land; it was really about our old friend trade. The British wanted to expand into the American interior to allow for more colonists, because the British benefited from both the export of raw materials from the Americas and the import of British consumer goods to the Americas. So, more colonists meant more trade, which meant more wealth, which meant ever-fancier hats. And the French realized that this British-Atlantic maritime trade was making Britain so rich that British might come for France's actually valuable colonies—which were not in the continental U.S. but those slave-based sugar plantations in the Caribbean. So the fighting began around here. And while the British did send over actual British troops, much of the early fighting was done by colonial militias. Probably the most famous commander of British troops was a Virginia colonel named George Washington. In fact, he may have actually started the shooting at the battle of Fort Necessity in May of 1754. Washington was captured in that battle and then he was immediately released because 18th century war was super weird. Anyway, the real North American action was in New York and Canada. At the battle at the Plains of Abraham in 1759, for instance, the British defeated the French and captured the city of Quebec. Both the British commander, General Wolfe and the French commander, General Montcalm, were killed at this battle, with the death of the former being immortalized in this famous painting, by Benjamin West: As indicated by the picture, almost all the battles in North America featured significant participation by Native Americans. Different Native tribes sided with both the British and the French, but as a broad generalization, Native Americans were more likely to support the French. Up to this point, shrewd Indian tribes had been able to play the British and the French off each other and maintain a degree of autonomy for themselves. And as long as the French were present, the British were prevented from encroaching too much on lands Native Americans were using for hunting and agriculture. Now, we haven't talked much about American Indians, mostly because they were geographically isolated and didn't have a written language. But let's at least give them a Thought Bubble. Before the arrival of the Europeans, most Native Americans lived in tribal groups. And they subsisted on a combination of small-scale agriculture and hunting and gathering, depending on where they were situated. There were too many tribes to generalize about specific social structures but it's probably safe to say that in terms of gender they were much more egalitarian than the Europeans who they met up with. Which may explain why European women who were taken captive by Indians sometimes preferred to stay with the tribe rather than be rescued, although that's somewhat controversial. One thing we can say about the Indians: their notions of what it meant to hold property were very different from those of the Europeans. Individual Indians did not "own" land in the European sense; they used it, and not always particularly intensively. Europeans, when they came to North America, had a hard time even recognizing that the Indians were raising crops because their forms of farming were so different from European agriculture, so the French and especially the English just assumed that the Indians weren't improving the land, which meant that they didn't own the land, so that meant that it was ok for Europeans to take it. As you might imagine, that was problematic for the Indians. In general, Indian tribes initially got along better with the French than with the Dutch or English because 1. The French did not settle in large numbers, as they were mostly traders and fur trappers, and 2. French missionaries who made the journey to the Americas were Catholic, often Jesuits, who were so intent on converting the Indians that they took the time to learn Indian languages and try to make Catholicism more amenable to Indian religion. The end result of the war, a greatly reduced French presence on the American mainland, meant that Indians could no longer easily play the British and French off each other, which opened the floodgates of British settlers. In the end, the American Indians were perhaps the biggest losers of the 7 Years War. Thanks Thought Bubble. So, two thousand miles south, in the Caribbean, there was also quite a lot of fighting between the French and the British over sugar colonies. Most of these were naval battles, and by 1761, Spain got involved, because, you know, they had some sugar colonies of their own. While these battles get a lot of ink, it's interesting to note that by far, the greatest threat to combatants, was disease. By October of 1761 the British had lost about 1,000 men to war and 5,000 to disease. Meanwhile in West Africa, the British and the French were fighting there too. Because, you know, why not? The British attacked the French at a trading post called Saint Louis. Aw, Stan, don't make me say it right. Fine. Saint Louis. And at a town called Goree, both in Senegal. Why? Well, trade, of course. Senegal was the major source of gum Arabic, which is notable for many reasons but most importantly, it is a key ingredient in the Diet Coke and Mentos phenomenon, so of course the British wanted lots of it. The French were also fighting the British in India. In the 18th century India was nominally ruled by the Mughal empire. I bet I'm saying that wrong, aren't I? Computer: Mugal. John: Yeah, that sounds more plausible. But as throughout most of its history, the real power in India lay with local kings and princes, sometimes called nawabs. And these princes, just like their European counterparts were constantly vying for power and control over more territory. And to get it, they often enlisted the help, especially the military help, of Europeans. This is what happened in the most notorious event in the 7 Years War in India, the Black Hole of Calcutta. In June of 1756 the British governor of Calcutta, Roger Drake, made the mistake of insulting the emissaries sent by the nawab Siraj-ud-daula, who duly besieged and captured the English garrison of 500 with his own army of 30,000. Drake escaped to nearby ships with the town's women and children—you know the old saying, women, children, and governors first. But the town's defenders remained, and the survivors were imprisoned in a small windowless room that came to be known as the Black Hole. And 40 of 63 prisoners suffocated overnight. This story is mostly famous, in a war that killed a million people, because the British press exaggerated the numbers in order to build support for the war in India. Not the last time that exaggerations of enemy brutality would be used to gin up support for a war. Perhaps the most interesting thing about the military campaigns in this part of the world is that, at least initially, they were not undertaken by governments themselves, but by corporations that had their own armies. The British East India Company was the most successful of these corporations primarily because of the military skill of its leader, Robert Clive. Oh, it's time for the open letter? An Open Letter to Robert Clive. But first, let's see what's in the secret compartment today. Oh, bubbles. That makes sense, Stan. The British East India Company was involved in several early market bubbles. Mmm, bubbles. Dear Robert Clive, You were a complicated man, and not entirely likable, but you did win a very important battle at Plassey in 1757. And the way you won it says a lot about the relationship between Europe and its colonies. So, the key to your success was a conspiracy to overthrow the existing nawab orchestrated by a Bengali banking family, called the Seths. No, Stan. The Seths. Yes. Come on. And in thanks for your support of their conspiracy, the new nawab quickly signed a treaty with your company, the East India Company. And thereafter, the British had effective control over trade in Bengal and the French were excluded from it. This was an incredibly valuable region because it produced silk and inexpensive cotton cloth for export. And it gave the British a decisive advantage over the French and eventually allowed them to control all of India. And you accomplished this, Robert Clive, primarily by fomenting revolution. Why does this work for you and it never works for the CIA? Best wishes, John Green So, by now you have probably figured out that since the French kept losing battles they eventually lost the war. The main peace treaty, signed in Paris in 1763, limited French presence in the Caribbean, in India, and in North America. Although not completely, otherwise they couldn't have sold Louisiana to Thomas Jefferson in 1803. So, France was obviously dramatically weakened. But overall, so was Britain. One thing rarely mentioned is the actual human cost of war. As many as a million combatants died in the Seven Years War, but even that doesn't tell the whole story. In the 18th century armies usually fed themselves by foraging, which really meant just pillaging the countryside. In Europe, a single Prussian province lost a fifth of its population to pillaging. And in North America settlers in frontier regions lived in constant fear of raids. And, one of the perhaps lesser known outcomes of the war was the systematic deportation of the French Acadians from Maine to Louisiana where they became Cajuns. Meaning that the stars of the television shows Lobster Wars and Swamp Wars are basically the same people. What's that? There's no television show called Swamp Wars? STAN, CANCEL EVERYTHING AND GET ME ON THE PHONE WITH THE DISCOVERY CHANNEL. One last thing about wars: they are expensive. In 1756 the British national debt was £75million; in 1763 it was £133 million. Someone had to pay for this, and the British felt it was only fair that American colonists should foot the bill. And those taxes, which helped fuel the American Revolution, were a direct result of the Seven Years War. So in one way, winning the Seven Years War cost Britain its first empire. But, when we remember that it was a global war, and especially when we think about what happened in India, then the Seven Years War also begins to look like the beginning of Britain's second, and much greater empire. Winning is losing is winning is losing. Such is life, and such is history. Thanks for watching. See you next week.

See also


  1. ^ Rogers, Dominique; Stewart, King (2012). "Housekeepers, merchants, rentières: free women of color in the port cities of colonial Saint-Domingue, 1750–1790". In Catterall, Douglas; Campbell, Jodi (eds.). Women in Port: Gendering Communities, Economies, and Social Networks in Atlantic Port Cities, 1500-1800. Leiden: Brill. p. 384. ISBN 9789004233171. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  2. ^ Lecuir-Nemo, Geneviève (1998). Femmes et vocation missionnaire : permanence des congrégations féminines au Sénégal de 1819 à 1960 : adaption ou mutations? : impact et insertion (in French). Villeneuve d'Ascq: Presses Universitaire du Septentrion. p. 122 fn5. ISBN 2-284-002250.
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