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Governor of Massachusetts

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts
Seal of the Governor
Seal of the Governor
Standard of the Governor
Standard of the Governor
Incumbent
Charlie Baker

since January 8, 2015
Government of Massachusetts
Style
StatusHead of state
Head of government
Member ofGovernor's Council
Cabinet
ResidenceNone official
SeatState House, Boston, Massachusetts
NominatorPolitical parties
AppointerPopular vote
Term lengthFour years, no term limits[1]
Constituting instrumentConstitution of Massachusetts
FormationOriginal post:
April 30, 1629
Current form:
October 25, 1780
First holderJohn Endecott
DeputyLieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
Salary$185,000 (2018)[2]
WebsiteOfficial website Edit this at Wikidata

The governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the chief executive officer of the government of Massachusetts. The governor is the head of the state cabinet and the commander-in-chief of the commonwealth's military forces.

Massachusetts has a republican system of government that is akin to a presidential system. The governor acts as the head of government while having a distinct role from that of the legislative branch. The governor has far-reaching political obligations, including ceremonial and political duties. The governor also signs bills into law and has veto power. The governor is a member of the Massachusetts Governor's Council, a popularly elected council with eight members who provide advice and consent on certain legal matters and appointments.[3]

Beginning with the Massachusetts Bay Company in 1629, the role of the governor has changed throughout its history in terms of powers and selection. The modern form of the position was created in the 1780 Constitution of Massachusetts, which called for the position of a "supreme executive magistrate".[4]

Governors of Massachusetts are elected every four years during state elections that are held on the first Tuesday of November after November 1. As of April 2022, the most recent Massachusetts gubernatorial election was held in 2018. Following each gubernatorial election, the elected governor is inaugurated on the first Thursday following the next January 1. There are no term limits restricting how long a governor may serve.[5][6][7] The longest-serving Massachusetts Governor is Michael Dukakis, who served 12 years; Dukakis was in office from 1975 to 1979 and from 1983 to 1991. As of July 2022, the governor of Massachusetts is Charlie Baker, a Republican.

Qualifications

Any person seeking to become Governor of Massachusetts must meet the following requirements:[8]

  • Be at least eighteen years of age
  • Be a registered voter in Massachusetts
  • Be a Massachusetts resident for at least seven years when elected
  • Receive 10,000 signatures from registered voters on nomination papers

History

The role of Governor has existed in Massachusetts since the Royal Charter of 1628. The original role of the governor was one of a president of the board of a joint-stock company, namely the Massachusetts Bay Company. The governor would be elected by freemen, who were shareholders of the company. These shareholders were mostly colonists themselves who fit certain religious requirements. The governor acted in a vice-regal manner, overseeing the governance and functioning of the colony. Originally they were supposed to reside in London, as was the case with other colonial company governors, although this protocol was broken when John Winthrop was appointed Governor. The governor served as the executive of the colony, originally elected annually, they were joined by a Council of Assistants. This council was a group of magistrates who performed judicial functions, acted as an upper house of the General Court, and provided advice and consent to the governor. The early governors of Massachusetts Bay were staunchly Puritan colonists who wished to form a state that coincided with religious law.[9]

With the founding of the Dominion of New England, the New England colonies were combined with the Province of New York, Province of West Jersey, and the Province of East Jersey. During this period (1686-1689) Massachusetts had no governor of its own. Instead there existed a royally appointed governor who resided in Boston and served at the King's pleasure. Though there existed a council which served as a quasi-legislature, however the logistics of calling the council to meet were so arduous that the Dominion was essentially governed by the Crown through the Royal Governor. The reason for the creation of such a post was there existed tremendous hostility between the Kingdom of England and the colonists of Massachusetts Bay. In an effort to bring the colonies under tighter control the Crown dismantled the old assembly system and created the Viceroy system based on the Spanish model in New Spain. This model of government was greatly disliked by the colonists all throughout British North America but especially in New England where colonists at one time did have some semblance of democratic and local control. With the Glorious Revolution and the Boston Revolt the Dominion was abolished in 1689.[10]

With the creation of the Massachusetts Charter in 1691, the role of civilian governor was restored in Massachusetts Bay. Now the Province of Massachusetts Bay, the colony then encompassed the territory of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Plymouth Colony, and areas of what is now the state of Maine. The governor however would not be chosen by the electorate, instead the position would remain a royal appointment. In order to ease tensions with royal authorities and the colonists the General Court was reestablished and given significant powers. This created acrimony between the governors and the assembly of the General Court. The governor could veto any decision made by the assembly and had control over the militia, however the General Court had authority of the treasury and provincial finances. This meant that in the event the governor did not agree with or consent with the rulings and laws of the General Court then the assembly would threaten to withhold any pay for the governor and other Royal Officers.[11]

From 1765 on the unraveling of the Province into a full political crisis only increased the tensions between the governor and the people of Massachusetts Bay. Following the passage of the Stamp Act Governor Thomas Hutchinson had his home broken into and ransacked. The early stages of the American Revolution saw political turmoil in Massachusetts Bay. With the passage of the Intolerable Acts the then Royal Governor Thomas Gage dissolved the General Court and began to govern the province by decree. In 1774 the Massachusetts Provincial Congress was formed as an alternative revolutionary government to the royal government in Boston. With Massachusetts Bay declaring its independence in May 1776 the role of Governor was vacant for four years. The executive role during this time was filled by the Governor's Council, the Committee of Safety, and the president of the Congress when in session.[11]

With the adoption of the Constitution of Massachusetts in 1780 the role of an elected civilian governor was restored. John Hancock was elected as the first governor of the independent commonwealth on October 25, 1780.[11]

Constitutional role

Part the Second, Chapter II, Section I, Article I of the Massachusetts Constitution reads,

There shall be a supreme executive magistrate, who shall be styled, The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts; and whose title shall be – His Excellency.

The governor of Massachusetts is the chief executive of the commonwealth, and is supported by a number of subordinate officers. He, like most other state officers, senators, and representatives, was originally elected annually. In 1918 this was changed to a two-year term, and since 1966 the office of governor has carried a four-year term. The governor of Massachusetts does not receive a mansion or other official residence and resides in their own private residence. The governor does receives a housing allowance/stipend for $65,000. The title "His Excellency" is a holdover from the royally appointed governors of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. The first governor to use the title was Richard Coote, 1st Earl of Bellomont, in 1699; since he was an Earl, it was thought proper to call him "Your Excellency." The title was retained until 1742, when an order from King George II forbade its further use. However, the framers of the state constitution revived it because they found it fitting to dignify the governor with this title.[12]

The governor also serves as commander-in-chief of the commonwealth's armed forces.

Succession

According to the Massachusetts State Constitution:

Whenever the chair of the governor shall be vacant, by reason of his death, or absence from the commonwealth, or otherwise, the lieutenant governor, for the time being, shall, during such vacancy, perform all the duties incumbent upon the governor, and shall have and exercise all the powers and authorities, which by this constitution the governor is vested with, when personally present.[13]

The Constitution does not use the term "acting governor," but the practice in Massachusetts has been that the lieutenant governor retains his or her position and title as "lieutenant governor" and becomes acting governor, not governor. The lieutenant governor, when acting as governor, is referred to as "the lieutenant-governor, acting governor" in official documents.[14]

Despite this terminology, the Massachusetts courts have found that the full authority of the office of the governor devolves to the lieutenant governor upon vacancy in the office of governor, and that there is no circumstance short of death, resignation, or impeachment that would relieve the acting governor from the full gubernatorial responsibilities.[citation needed]

The first use of the succession provision occurred in 1785, five years after the constitution's adoption, when Governor John Hancock resigned the post, leaving Lieutenant Governor Thomas Cushing as acting governor. Most recently, Jane Swift became acting governor upon the resignation of Paul Cellucci.

When the constitution was first adopted, the Governor's Council was charged with acting as governor in the event that both the governorship and lieutenant governorship were vacant. This occurred in 1799 when Governor Increase Sumner died in office on June 7, 1799, leaving Lieutenant Governor Moses Gill as acting governor. Acting Governor Gill never received a lieutenant and died on May 20, 1800, between that year's election and the inauguration of Governor-elect Caleb Strong. The Governor's Council served as the executive for ten days; the council's chair, Thomas Dawes was at no point named governor or acting governor.

Article LV of the Constitution, enacted in 1918, created a new line of succession:

Cabinet

The governor has a 10-person cabinet, each of whom oversees a portion of the government under direct administration (as opposed to independent executive agencies). See Government of Massachusetts for a complete listing.

Traditions

The front doors of the State House are only opened when a governor leaves office, a head of state or the president of the United States comes to visit the State House, or for the return of flags from Massachusetts regiments at the end of wars. The tradition of the ceremonial door originated when departing governor Benjamin Butler kicked open the front door and walked out by himself in 1884.

Incoming governors usually choose at least one past governor's portrait to hang in their office.

Immediately before being sworn into office, the governor-elect receives four symbols from the departing governor: the ceremonial pewter "Key" for the governor's office door, the Butler Bible, the "Gavel", and a two-volume set of the Massachusetts General Statutes with a personal note from the departing governor to their successor added to the back of the text. The governor-elect is then escorted by the sergeant-at-arms to the House Chamber and sworn in by the President of the Senate before a joint session of the House and Senate.[15]

Lone walk

Upon completion of their term, the departing governor takes a "lone walk" down the Grand Staircase, through the House of Flags, into Doric Hall, out the central doors, and down the steps of the Massachusetts State House. The governor then crosses the street into Boston Common, thereby symbolically rejoining the commonwealth as a private citizen. Benjamin Butler started the tradition in 1884.[16] Some walks have been modified with some past governors having their wives, friends, or staff accompany them.[17] A 19-gun salute is offered during the walk, and frequently the steps are lined by the outgoing governor's friends and supporters.[18]

In January 1991, outgoing lieutenant governor Evelyn Murphy, the first woman elected to statewide office in Massachusetts, walked down the stairs before Governor Michael Dukakis. In a break from tradition, the January 2007 inauguration of Governor Deval Patrick took place the day after outgoing governor Mitt Romney took the lone walk down the front steps.[18]

Governor's residence

Despite several proposals for establishing an official residence for the governor of Massachusetts, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts does not have a governor's mansion.

In 1955, Governor Foster Furcolo turned down a proposal to establish the Shirley–Eustis House in Roxbury, built by royal Governor William Shirley, as the official residence.[19]

At one time, Governor John A. Volpe accepted the donation of the Endicott Estate in Dedham from the heirs of Henry Bradford Endicott. He intended to renovate the 19th-century mansion into a splendid governor's residence.[20] After Volpe resigned to become United States Secretary of Transportation in the Nixon administration, the plan was aborted by his successor in consideration of budgetary constraints and because the location was considered too far from the seat of power, the State House in Boston.

Prior to their respective demolitions in 1922 and 1863, the Province House and the Hancock Manor[20] were also proposed as official residences.

Since the governor has no official residence, the expression "corner office," rather than "governor's mansion," is commonly used in the press as a metonym for the office of governor. This refers instead to the governor's office on the third floor of the State House.[21]

List of governors

Since 1780, 65 people have been elected governor, six to non-consecutive terms (John Hancock, Caleb Strong, Marcus Morton, John Davis, John Volpe, and Michael Dukakis), and seven lieutenant governors have acted as governor without subsequently being elected governor. Thomas Talbot served a stint as acting governor, but later was elected governor several years later. Prior to 1918 constitutional reforms, both the governor's office and that of lieutenant governor were vacant on one occasion, when the state was governed by the Governor's Council.

Colonial Massachusetts

The colonial history of Massachusetts begins with the founding first of the Plymouth Colony in 1620, and then the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1628. The Dominion of New England combined these and other New England colonies into a single unit in 1686, but collapsed in 1689. In 1692 the Province of Massachusetts Bay was established, merging Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay, which then included the territory of present-day Maine.

Colonial governors of Plymouth and the Massachusetts Bay Colony were elected annually by a limited subset of the male population (known as freemen), while Dominion officials and those of the 1692 province were appointed by the British crown. In 1774 General Thomas Gage became the last royally appointed governor of Massachusetts. He was recalled to England after the Battle of Bunker Hill in June 1775, by which time the Massachusetts Provincial Congress exercised de facto control of Massachusetts territory outside British-occupied Boston. Between 1775 and the establishment of the Massachusetts State Constitution in 1780 the state was governed by the provincial congress and an executive council.

Commonwealth of Massachusetts: 1780–present

In the table below, acting governors are denoted in the leftmost column by the letter "A", and are not counted as actual governors. The longest-serving governor was Michael Dukakis, who served twelve years in office, although they were not all consecutive. The longest period of uninterrupted service by any governor was nine years, by Levi Lincoln Jr. The shortest service period by an elected governor was one year, achieved by several 19th century governors. Increase Sumner, elected by a landslide to a third consecutive term in 1799, was on his deathbed and died not long after taking the oath of office; this represents the shortest part of an individual term served by a governor. Sumner was one of four governors to die in office; seven governors resigned, most of them to assume another office.

Political party Number of governors
Democratic 19
Democratic-Republican 6
Federalist 3
Know Nothing 1
National Republican 2
No party affiliation 6
Republican 31
Whig 6


# Governor Party Years Lieutenant Governor Electoral history
1
John Hancock 1770-crop.jpg

John Hancock
None October 25, 1780

February 17, 1785
Thomas Cushing
(1780–1788)
Resigned due to claimed illness (recurring gout).
A[22]
Thomas Cushing, Member of Continental Congress.jpg

Thomas Cushing
None February 17, 1785

May 27, 1785
Acted as governor for the remainder of Hancock's term.

Lost election in his own right.
2
James Bowdoin II by Feke full length.jpg

James Bowdoin
None May 27, 1785

May 30, 1787
Lost re-election.
3
John Hancock 1770-crop.jpg

John Hancock
None May 30, 1787

October 8, 1793
Died.
Benjamin Lincoln
(1788–1789)
Samuel Adams
(1789–1794)
4
Samuel Adams by John Singleton Copley.jpg

Samuel Adams
None October 8, 1793

June 2, 1797
Acted as governor for the remainder of Hancock's term.

Elected and re-elected in his own right until retirement.
Moses Gill
(1794–1800)
5
IncreaseSumnerBySharples.jpg

Increase Sumner
Federalist June 2, 1797

June 7, 1799
Died.
A[22]
John Singleton Copley - Portrait of Govenor Moses Gill - 07.117 - Rhode Island School of Design Museum.jpg

Moses Gill
None June 7, 1799

May 20, 1800
Acted as governor for most of the remainder of Sumner's term.

Died ten days before its end.
A[22]
Seal of Massachusetts.svg

Governor's Council
None May 20, 1800

May 30, 1800
None. The council was headed by Thomas Dawes.
this is the only time both the governorship and the lieutenant governorship were vacant.
6
Portrait of Caleb Strong (1745-1819) (frame cropped).jpg

Caleb Strong
Federalist May 30, 1800

May 29, 1807
Samuel Phillips Jr.
(1801–1802)
Lost re-election.
Edward Robbins
(1802–1806)
7
James Sullivan.jpg

James Sullivan
Democratic-
Republican
May 29, 1807

December 10, 1808
Levi Lincoln Sr. Died.
A[22]
LeviLincoln.gif

Levi Lincoln Sr.
Democratic-
Republican
December 10, 1808

May 1, 1809
Acted as governor for the remainder of Sullivan's term.

Lost election in his own right.
8
ChristopherGoreByTrumbull.jpg

Christopher Gore
Federalist May 1, 1809

June 10, 1810
David Cobb Lost re-election.
9
Nathaniel Jocelyn - Elbridge Gerry (1744-1814) - 1943.1816 - Harvard Art Museums.jpg

Elbridge Gerry
Democratic-
Republican
June 10, 1810

June 5, 1812
William Gray Lost re-election.
10
Portrait of Caleb Strong (1745-1819) (frame cropped).jpg

Caleb Strong
Federalist June 5, 1812

May 30, 1816
William Phillips Jr. Retired.
11
Gilbert Stuart, Govenor John Brooks, c. 1820, HAA.jpg

John Brooks
Federalist May 30, 1816

May 31, 1823
Retired.
12
William Eustis.jpg

William Eustis
Democratic-
Republican
May 31, 1823

February 6, 1825
Levi Lincoln Jr.
(1823–1824)
Died.
Marcus Morton
(1824–1825)
A[22]
Marcus Morton.jpg

Marcus Morton
Democratic-
Republican
February 6, 1825

May 26, 1825
Acted as governor for the remainder of Eustis's term.

Retired.
13
LLincolnJr.jpg

Levi Lincoln Jr.
National
Republican
May 26, 1825

January 9, 1834
Thomas L. Winthrop
(1826–1833)
Retired.
14
John Davis (Massachusetts Governor).jpg

John Davis
National
Republican
January 9, 1834

March 1, 1835
Samuel Turell Armstrong Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
A[22]
Samuel Turell Armstrong.png

Samuel Turell Armstrong
Whig March 1, 1835

January 13, 1836
Acted as governor for the remainder of Davis's term.

Lost nomination.
lost election as independent.
15
Edward Everett.jpg

Edward Everett
Whig January 13, 1836

January 18, 1840
George Hull Lost re-election
16
Marcus Morton.jpg

Marcus Morton
Democratic January 18, 1840

January 7, 1841
Lost re-election.
17
John Davis (Massachusetts Governor).jpg

John Davis
Whig January 7, 1841

January 17, 1843
Lost re-election.
18
Marcus Morton.jpg

Marcus Morton
Democratic January 17, 1843

January 9, 1844
Henry H. Childs Lost re-election.
19
George Nixon Briggs.jpg

George N. Briggs
Whig January 9, 1844

January 11, 1851
John Reed Jr. Lost re-election.
20
George Boutwell, Brady-Handy photo portrait, ca1870-1880.jpg

George S. Boutwell
Democratic January 11, 1851

January 14, 1853
Henry W. Cushman Retired.
21
JohnCliffordByBenoni.jpg

John H. Clifford
Whig January 14, 1853

January 12, 1854
Elisha Huntington Retired.
22
EmoryWashburn.jpg

Emory Washburn
Whig January 12, 1854

January 4, 1855
William C. Plunkett Lost re-election.
23
GovHenryJGardner.jpg

Henry Gardner
Know-Nothing January 4, 1855

January 7, 1858
Simon Brown
(1855–1856)
Lost re-election.
Henry W. Benchley
(1856–1858)
24
Nathaniel Prentice Banks.jpg

Nathaniel Prentice Banks
Republican January 7, 1858

January 3, 1861
Eliphalet Trask Retired to run for president.
25
Houghton MS Am 1084 (59) - Andrew - edit.jpg

John Albion Andrew
Republican January 3, 1861

January 4, 1866
John Z. Goodrich
(1861)
Retired.
John Nesmith
(1862)
Joel Hayden
(1863–1866)
26
Alexander H. Bullock.png

Alexander H. Bullock
Republican January 4, 1866

January 7, 1869
William Claflin Retired.
27
William Claflin - Brady-Handy.jpg

William Claflin
Republican January 7, 1869

January 4, 1872
Joseph Tucker
(1869–1873)
Retired.
28
William B. Washburn - Brady-Handy.jpg

William B. Washburn
Republican January 4, 1872

April 29, 1874
Resigned to become U.S. Senator.
Thomas Talbot
(1873–1875)
A[22]
GovThomasTalbot.jpg

Thomas Talbot
Republican April 29, 1874

January 7, 1875
Acted as governor for the remainder of Washburn's term.

Lost election in his own right.
29
GovWilliamGaston.jpg

William Gaston
Democratic January 7, 1875

January 6, 1876
Horatio G. Knight Lost re-election.
30
AHRice.jpg

Alexander H. Rice
Republican January 6, 1876

January 2, 1879
Retired.
31
GovThomasTalbot.jpg

Thomas Talbot
Republican January 2, 1879

January 8, 1880
John Davis Long Retired.
32
JDLong.jpg

John Davis Long
Republican January 8, 1880

January 4, 1883
Byron Weston Retired.
33
BenFrankButler.jpg

Benjamin F. Butler
Democratic January 4, 1883

January 3, 1884
Oliver Ames Lost re-election.
34
GovGeorgeDRobinson.jpg

George D. Robinson
Republican January 3, 1884

January 6, 1887
Retired.
35
Oliver Ames 1831–1895.jpg

Oliver Ames
Republican January 6, 1887

January 7, 1890
John Q. A. Brackett Retired.
36
JohnQABrackett.jpg

John Q. A. Brackett
Republican January 7, 1890

January 8, 1891
William H. Haile
(1890–1893)
Lost re-election.
37
GovWilliamERussell.jpg

William E. Russell
Democratic January 8, 1891

January 4, 1894
Retired.
Roger Wolcott
(1893–1897)
38
Frederick T. Greenhalge.jpg

Frederic T. Greenhalge
Republican January 4, 1894

March 5, 1896
Died.
39
Roger Wolcott by Frederic Porter Vinton.jpg

Roger Wolcott
Republican March 5, 1896

January 4, 1900
Acted as governor for the remainder of Greenhalge's term.

Elected and re-elected in own right until retirement.
Winthrop Murray Crane
(1897–1900)
40
Winthrop Murray Crane.jpg

Winthrop Murray Crane
Republican January 4, 1900

January 8, 1903
John L. Bates Retired.
41
GovJohnLBates.jpg

John L. Bates
Republican January 8, 1903

January 5, 1905
Curtis Guild Jr. Retired.
42
WilliamLewisDouglas.jpg

William L. Douglas
Democratic January 5, 1905

January 4, 1906
Retired.
43
Curtis Guild Jr.jpg

Curtis Guild Jr.
Republican January 4, 1906

January 7, 1909
Eben Sumner Draper Retired.
44
Ebenezer Sumner Draper crop.jpg

Eben Sumner Draper
Republican January 7, 1909

January 5, 1911
Louis A. Frothingham Lost re-election.
45
Governor Foss.png

Eugene Noble Foss
Democratic January 5, 1911

January 8, 1914
Louis A. Frothingham
(1911–1912)
Did not stand for renomination as Democrat.
defeated as independent in general election.
Robert Luce
(1912–1913)
David I. Walsh
(1913–1914)
46
David I. Walsh (MA).jpg

David I. Walsh
Democratic January 8, 1914

January 6, 1916
Edward P. Barry
(1914–1915)
Lost re-election.
Grafton D. Cushing
(1915–1916)
47
SamuelMcCall.jpg

Samuel W. McCall
Republican January 6, 1916

January 2, 1919
Calvin Coolidge Retired.
48
John Calvin Coolidge, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg

Calvin Coolidge
Republican January 2, 1919

January 6, 1921
Channing H. Cox Retired

Vice President of the United States

1921-1923

President of the United States

1923-1929

49
Channing H Cox.png

Channing H. Cox
Republican January 6, 1921

January 8, 1925
Alvan T. Fuller Elected in 1920 (first two-year term).

Re-elected in 1922.

Retired.
50
Alvin T Fuller.png

Alvan T. Fuller
Republican January 8, 1925

January 3, 1929
Frank G. Allen Retired.
51
Frank G Allen.png

Frank G. Allen
Republican January 3, 1929

January 8, 1931
William S. Youngman Lost re-election.
52
Joseph B. Ely (MA).png

Joseph B. Ely
Democratic January 8, 1931

January 3, 1935
William S. Youngman
(1929–1933)
Retired.
Gaspar G. Bacon
(1933–1935)
53
James Michael Curley.jpg

James Michael Curley
Democratic January 3, 1935

January 7, 1937
Joseph L. Hurley Retired to run unsuccessfully for U.S. Senate
54
Charles Francis Hurley 1937.png

Charles F. Hurley
Democratic January 7, 1937

January 5, 1939
Francis E. Kelly Lost renomination.
55
Leverett Saltonstall (MA).jpg

Leverett Saltonstall
Republican January 5, 1939

January 4, 1945
Horace T. Cahill Retired to run successfully for U.S. Senate
56
Mjtobin.jpg

Maurice J. Tobin
Democratic January 4, 1945

January 2, 1947
Robert F. Bradford Lost re-election.
57
Robert F. Bradford (Massachusetts Governor).jpg

Robert F. Bradford
Republican January 2, 1947

January 6, 1949
Arthur W. Coolidge Elected in 1946.

Lost re-election.
58
PaulADever.jpg

Paul A. Dever
Democratic January 6, 1949

January 8, 1953
Charles F. Sullivan Elected in 1948.

Re-elected in 1950.

Lost re-election.
59
Christian Archibald Herter (politician).jpg

Christian A. Herter
Republican January 8, 1953

January 3, 1957
Sumner G. Whittier Elected in 1952.

Re-elected in 1954.

Retired.
60
Foster Furcolo, 60th Governor of Massachusetts.jpg

Foster Furcolo
Democratic January 3, 1957

January 5, 1961
Robert F. Murphy
(1957–1960)
Elected in 1956.

Re-elected in 1958.

Retired to run for U.S. Senator.
61
John Volpe (1970).jpg

John Volpe
Republican January 5, 1961

January 3, 1963
Edward F. McLaughlin Jr. Elected in 1960.

Lost re-election.
62
Endicott Peabody (MA).png

Endicott Peabody
Democratic January 3, 1963

January 7, 1965
Francis Bellotti Elected in 1962.

Lost renomination.
63
John Volpe (1970).jpg

John Volpe
Republican January 7, 1965

January 22, 1969
Elliot Richardson
(1965–1967)
Elected in 1964.

Re-elected in 1966 (first four-year term).

Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of Transportation.
Francis Sargent
(1967–1969)
64
Governor Francis Sargent (cropped).jpg

Francis Sargent
Republican January 22, 1969

January 2, 1975
Acted as governor for the remainder of Volpe's term.

Elected in own right in 1970.

Lost re-election.
Donald Dwight
(1971–1975)
65
Governor Dukakis speaks at the 1976 Democratic National Convention (cropped).jpg

Michael Dukakis
Democratic January 2, 1975

January 4, 1979
Thomas P. O'Neill III Elected in 1974.

Lost renomination.
66
Edward J. King.jpg

Edward J. King
Democratic January 4, 1979

January 6, 1983
Elected in 1978.

Lost renomination.
67
Governor Michael Dukakis (1).jpg

Michael Dukakis
Democratic January 6, 1983

January 3, 1991
John Kerry
(1983–1985)
Elected in 1982.

Re-elected in 1986.

Retired.
Vacant
(1985–1987)
Evelyn Murphy
(1987–1991)
68
William F. Weld (MA).jpg

Bill Weld
Republican January 3, 1991

July 29, 1997
Paul Cellucci
(1991–1999)
Elected in 1990.

Re-elected in 1994.

Resigned when nominated U.S. Ambassador to Mexico, but was not confirmed to the office.
A[22]
69
Paul Cellucci gubernatorial photo.jpg

Paul Cellucci
Republican July 29, 1997

April 10, 2001
Acted as governor for the remainder of Weld's term.

Elected in own right in 1998.

Resigned to become U.S. Ambassador to Canada.
Jane Swift (1999–2003)
A[22]
Jane Swift 2001.jpeg

Jane Swift
Republican April 10, 2001

January 2, 2003
Acted as governor for the remainder of Cellucci's term.

Retired.
70
Mitt Romney's official gubernatorial portrait (cropped).jpg

Mitt Romney
Republican January 2, 2003

January 4, 2007
Kerry Healey Elected in 2002.

Retired to unsuccessfully run for president.
71
Deval Patrick official photo.jpg

Deval Patrick
Democratic January 4, 2007

January 8, 2015
Tim Murray
(2007–2013)
Elected in 2006.

Re-elected in 2010.

Retired.
Vacant
72
Charlie Baker official photo (cropped).jpg

Charlie Baker
Republican January 8, 2015

Incumbent[a]
Karyn Polito Elected in 2014.

Re-elected in 2018.

Retiring at end of term.

Other high offices held

This is a table of notable government offices held by governors. All representatives and senators mentioned represented Massachusetts, except otherwise noted.

Governor Gubernatorial term U.S. Congress Other offices held
House Senate
John Hancock 1787–1793
1780–1785
Delegate to the Continental Congress (including twice as President of the Continental Congress)
Thomas Cushing 1785 (acting) Delegate to the Continental Congress
Samuel Adams 1793–1797 Delegate to the Continental Congress
Caleb Strong 1800–1807
1812–1816
Green tickY Delegate to the Continental Congress
James Sullivan 1807–1808 Delegate to the Continental Congress, but did not attend
Levi Lincoln Sr. 1808–1809 (acting) Green tickY U.S. Attorney General
Christopher Gore 1813–1816 Green tickY
Elbridge Gerry 1810–1812 Green tickY Delegate to the Continental Congress, Co-commissioner to France, Vice President of the United States
William Eustis 1823–1825 Green tickY Ambassador to the Netherlands, U.S. Secretary of War
Marcus Morton 1825 (acting)
1840–1841
1843–1844
Green tickY
Levi Lincoln Jr. 1825–1834 Green tickY
John Davis 1834–1835
1841–1843
Green tickY Green tickY[b]
Edward Everett 1836–1840 Green tickY Green tickY Ambassador to Great Britain, U.S. Secretary of State
George N. Briggs 1844–1851 Green tickY
George S. Boutwell 1851–1853 Green tickY Green tickY U.S. Secretary of the Treasury
Nathaniel Prentice Banks 1858–1861 Green tickY Speaker of the House
William Claflin 1869–1872 Green tickY
William B. Washburn 1874–1874 Green tickY Green tickY[b]
Alexander H. Rice 1876–1879 Green tickY
John Davis Long 1880–1883 Green tickY U.S. Secretary of the Navy
Benjamin Franklin Butler 1883–1884 Green tickY
George D. Robinson 1884–1887 Green tickY
Frederic T. Greenhalge 1894–1896 Green tickY
Winthrop Murray Crane 1900–1903 Green tickY
Curtis Guild Jr. 1906–1909 U.S. Ambassador to the Russian Empire
Eugene Noble Foss 1911–1914 Green tickY
David I. Walsh 1914–1916 Green tickY
Samuel W. McCall 1916–1919 Green tickY
Calvin Coolidge 1919–1921 Vice President of the United States, President of the United States
Alvan T. Fuller 1925–1929 Green tickY
James Michael Curley 1935–1937 Green tickY Mayor of Boston
Leverett Saltonstall 1939–1945 Green tickY Speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives, U.S. Senator
Maurice J. Tobin 1945–1947 Mayor of Boston, U.S. Secretary of Labor
Christian A. Herter 1953–1957 Green tickY U.S. Secretary of State, U.S. Trade Representative
Foster Furcolo 1957–1961 Green tickY Treasurer and Receiver General of Massachusetts
John A. Volpe 1961–1963
1965–1969
U.S. Secretary of Transportation,[b] Ambassador to Italy
Paul Cellucci 1997–2001 Ambassador to Canada[b]
Mitt Romney 2003–2007 Green tickY U.S. Senator from Utah
  1. ^ Baker's second term began on January 3, 2019, and will expire on January 5, 2023.
  2. ^ a b c d Resigned as governor to take office

Educational backgrounds

No governor of Massachusetts has graduated from the state's public university system, making the University of Massachusetts one of only two American public university systems to never produce a governor of its respective state.[citation needed]

A plurality of governors, and a majority of those who attended any college, graduated from Harvard College. Marcus Morton (Brown) was the first Governor to graduate from an institution other than Harvard College.

Undergraduate institutions

Institution # Governors
Harvard College 24* John Hancock,[23] James Bowdoin,[24] Samuel Adams,[25] Increase Sumner,[26] Caleb Strong,[27] Christopher Gore,[28] Elbridge Gerry,[29] William Eustis,[30] Levi Lincoln Jr.,[31] Edward Everett,[32] John Davis Long,[33] George D. Robinson,[34] John Q. A. Brackett,[35] William Russell, Frederic Greenhalge*,[36] Roger Wolcott, Curtis Guild Jr.,[37] Leverett Saltonstall,[38] Robert F. Bradford,[39] Christian Herter,[40] Endicott Peabody,[41] Bill Weld,[42] Deval Patrick, Charlie Baker
Brown College 5* Marcus Morton,[43] John H. Clifford,[44] William Claflin*,[45] William Gaston,[46] Oliver Ames,[47]
Boston College 4* Charles F. Hurley*,[48] Maurice J. Tobin, Edward J. King,[49] Paul Cellucci[50]
Dartmouth College 3* Emory Washburn*,[51] Samuel W. McCall,[52] Channing Cox[53]
Yale College 3 John Davis,[54] William Washburn,[55] Foster Furcolo[56]
Amherst College 2 Alexander Bullock,[57] Calvin Coolidge
Boston University 2 John L. Bates, Paul A. Dever[58]
Bowdoin College 2 Henry Gardner,[59] John Albion Andrew[60]
MIT 2 Eben Draper,[61] Francis Sargent[62]
Williams College 2 Emory Washburn,[51] Joseph B. Ely[63]
Brigham Young University 1 Mitt Romney
Colby College 1 Benjamin Butler[64]
Holy Cross 1 David I. Walsh[65]
Swarthmore College 1 Michael Dukakis[66]
Union College 1 Alexander Rice[67]
University College, Oxford 1 Bill Weld[42]
Wentworth Institute 1 John Volpe[68]
University of Vermont 1* Eugene Foss*
Northeastern University 1* Paul A. Dever*[58]
None 11 James Sullivan, John Brooks, George N. Briggs, George S. Boutwell,[69] Nathaniel P. Banks, Thomas Talbot, W. Murray Crane, William L. Douglas, Alvan T. Fuller, Frank G. Allen, James Michael Curley

An asterisk indicates that the Governor attended but did not graduate from that institution.

Acting Governors Thomas Cushing and Levi Lincoln Sr. also attended Harvard College. Acting Governor Jane Swift attended Trinity College. Acting Governors Moses Gill and Samuel Armstrong attended no recorded institution. Governor Frank Allen was admitted to Harvard but did not attend.

Graduate degrees: As with undergraduate institutions, the vast majority of governors who received graduate degrees did so from Harvard University. Of those, all but three degrees were law degrees from Harvard Law School; Elbridge Gerry and Edward Everett received masters' degrees and Mitt Romney, who also received a law degree, received a master's in business administration. Other than those, Charlie Baker is the only governor with a graduate degree not in law; he holds an M.B.A. from Northwestern University.

Romney and Everett are the only governors with multiple graduate degrees, and Everett is the only Ph.D. holder.

Institution # Governors
Harvard University 15 Elbridge Gerry (A.M.), Edward Everett (M.A.), Alexander Bullock (LL.B.),[57] John Davis Long (LL.B.),[33] John Q.A. Brackett (LL.B.),[35] Roger Wolcott (LL.B.), Channing Cox (LL.B.)[53] Joseph B. Ely (LL.B.),[63] Leverett Saltonstall (LL.B.),[38] Robert F. Bradford (LL.B.),[39] Endicott Peabody (J.D.),[41] Michael Dukakis (J.D.),[66] Bill Weld (J.D.),[42] Mitt Romney (J.D., M.B.A.), Deval Patrick (J.D.)
Boston University 4 William Russell (LL.B.)[70], John L. Bates (LL.B.), David I. Walsh (LL.B.),[65] Paul A. Dever (LL.B.)[58]
Boston College 1 Paul Cellucci (J.D.)[50]
Northwestern University 1 Charlie Baker (M.B.A.)
University of Göttingen 1 Edward Everett (Ph.D.)
Yale University 1 Foster Furcolo (LL.B.)[56]

Governor Christian Herter entered a graduate program in architecture at Columbia University but did not complete the degree.[40]

Living former governors

As of November 2018, there are five former governors or acting governors of Massachusetts who are still alive, the oldest being Michael Dukakis (served 1975–1979 and 1983–1991, born 1933). The most recent governor of Massachusetts to have died was Paul Cellucci (served 1997–1999 [acting] and 1999–2001, born 1948), on June 8, 2013.[71]

Governor Gubernatorial term Date of birth (and age)
Michael Dukakis 1975–1979
1983–1991
(1933-11-03) November 3, 1933 (age 88)
William F. Weld 1991–1997 (1945-07-31) July 31, 1945 (age 77)
Jane Swift 2001–2003 (acting) (1965-02-24) February 24, 1965 (age 57)
Mitt Romney 2003–2007 (1947-03-12) March 12, 1947 (age 75)
Deval Patrick 2007–2015 (1956-07-31) July 31, 1956 (age 66)

See also

References

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  2. ^ Michaels, Matthew (June 22, 2018). "Here's the salary of every governor in the United States". Business Insider.
  3. ^ Morison 1917, p.22-28.
  4. ^ "Massachusetts Constitution".
  5. ^ "A Third Term For Governor Charlie Baker?". News. June 8, 2019. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
  6. ^ "What Charlie Baker faces should he seek a third term". Boston Herald. July 4, 2020. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
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  9. ^ Adams 1913, p.444-445.
  10. ^ Adams 1913, p.430-445
  11. ^ a b c Morison 1917, p.9-22.
  12. ^ Frothingham, Louis Adams. A Brief History of the Constitution and Government of Massachusetts, p. 74. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1916.
  13. ^ Constitution of Massachusetts, Chapter II, Section II, Article III.
  14. ^ An example of this is found in Chapter 45 of the Acts of 2001, where a veto by Swift was overridden by the General Court.
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External links

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