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List of governors of Florida

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Governor of Florida
Seal of Florida.svg
Seal of the State of Florida
Flag of Florida.svg
Flag of the State of Florida
Ron DeSantis

since January 8, 2019
StatusHead of State
Head of Government
ResidenceFlorida Governor's Mansion
Term lengthFour years, renewable once
Constituting instrumentConstitution of Florida
PrecursorGovernor of the Florida Territory
Inaugural holderWilliam Dunn Moseley
FormationJune 25, 1845
DeputyLieutenant Governor of Florida
Salary$130,273 (2013)[1]

The governor of Florida is the head of government of the U.S. state of Florida and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.[2] The governor has a duty to enforce state laws and the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Florida Legislature,[3] to convene the legislature[4] and grant pardons, except in cases of impeachment.[5]

When Florida was first acquired by the United States, future president Andrew Jackson served as its military governor. Florida Territory was established in 1822 and five people served as governor over 6 distinct terms. The first territorial governor, William Pope Duval, served 12 years, the longest of any Florida governor to date.

Since statehood in 1845, there have been 45 people who have served as governor, one of whom served two distinct terms. Four state governors have served two full four-year terms: William D. Bloxham, in two stints, as well as Reubin Askew, Jeb Bush and Rick Scott who each served their terms consecutively. Bob Graham almost served two terms, as he resigned with only three days left. The shortest term in office belongs to Wayne Mixson, who served three days following the resignation of his predecessor, Bob Graham.

The current officeholder is Ron DeSantis, a member of the Republican Party who took office on January 8, 2019.


Florida had been a French and then a Spanish colony. It came under British control and then returned to Spanish control again after the American Revolution. It had various governors during these colonial periods. The British divided Florida into East Florida and West Florida, each with its own governor.


Federal military commissioner

Spanish Florida was acquired from Spain in the Adams–Onís Treaty, which took effect July 10, 1821.[6] Parts of West Florida had already been assigned to Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi; the remainder and East Florida were governed by a military commissioner with the powers of governor until the territory was organized and incorporated.[7]

Federal Military Commissioner of Florida
Commissioner Term in office Appointed by Notes
Andrew Jackson.jpg
Andrew Jackson March 10, 1821

December 31, 1821
James Monroe [a][b]

Governors of the Territory of Florida

Florida Territory was organized on March 30, 1822, combining East and West Florida.[12]

Governors of the Territory of Florida
No. Governor Term in office Appointed by
2 Duval.jpg
William Pope Duval April 17, 1822
April 24, 1834
James Monroe
John Quincy Adams
Andrew Jackson
John Eaton.jpg
John Eaton April 24, 1834

March 16, 1836
Richard K. Call March 16, 1836

December 2, 1839
Robert Raymond Reid.jpg
Robert R. Reid December 2, 1839

March 19, 1841
Martin Van Buren
Richard K. Call March 19, 1841

August 11, 1844
William Henry Harrison
John Tyler
John Branch August 11, 1844

June 25, 1845

Governors of the State of Florida

The State of Florida was admitted to the Union on March 3, 1845. It seceded from the Union on January 10, 1861,[14] and joined the Confederate States of America on February 8, 1861,[15] as a founding member. Following the end of the American Civil War, it was part of the Third Military District.[16] Florida was readmitted to the Union on June 25, 1868.[17]

The Florida Constitution of 1838 provided that a governor be elected every 4 years, who was not allowed to serve consecutive terms.[18] The secessionist constitution of 1861 would have reduced this to two years and removed the term limit,[19] but the state fell to the Union before the first election under that constitution. The rejected constitution of 1865 and the ratified constitution of 1868 maintained the four-year term,[20][21] though without the earlier term limit, which was reintroduced in the 1885 constitution.[22] The current constitution of 1968 states that should the governor serve, or would have served had he not resigned, more than six years in two consecutive terms, he cannot be elected to the succeeding term.[23] The start of a term was set in 1885 at the first Tuesday after the first Monday in the January following the election,[22] where it has remained.[24]

Originally, the president of the state senate acted as governor should that office be vacant.[25] The 1865 and 1868 constitutions created the office of lieutenant governor,[26][27] who would similarly act as governor. This office was abolished in 1885, with the president of the senate again taking on that duty.[28] The 1968 constitution recreated the office of lieutenant governor, who now becomes governor in the absence of the governor.[29] The governor and lieutenant governor are elected on the same ticket.[23]

Florida was a strongly Democratic state before the Civil War, electing only one candidate from the Whig party (the Democrat's chief opposition at the time).[30] It elected three Republican governors following Reconstruction, but after the Democratic Party re-established control, 90 years passed before voters chose another Republican.

Governors of the State of Florida[c]
No. Governor Term in office Party Election Lt. Governor[d][e]
8 Moseley.jpg
  William Dunn Moseley June 25, 1845

October 1, 1849
(term limited)
Democratic 1845 Office did not exist
Florida Governor Thomas Brown.jpg
Thomas Brown October 1, 1849

October 3, 1853
(term limited)
Whig 1848
Florida Governor James E. Broome.jpg
James E. Broome October 3, 1853

October 5, 1857
(term limited)
Democratic 1852
Florida Governor Madison S. Perry.jpg
Madison S. Perry October 5, 1857

October 7, 1861
(term limited)
Democratic 1856
John Milton Florida.jpg
John Milton October 7, 1861

April 1, 1865
(died in office)[f]
Democratic 1860
Florida Governor Abraham K. Allison.jpg
Abraham K. Allison April 1, 1865

May 19, 1865
Democratic President of
the Senate
acting as
Vacant May 19, 1865

July 13, 1865
Office vacated
after civil war
Florida Governor William Marvin.jpg
William Marvin July 13, 1865

December 20, 1865
(provisional term ended)
appointed by
Florida Governor David S. Walker.jpg
David S. Walker December 20, 1865

July 4, 1868
Democratic[i] 1865   William W. J. Kelly[j]
Governor Harrison Reed of Florida.jpg
Harrison Reed July 4, 1868[k]

January 7, 1873
(not candidate for election)
Republican 1868 William Henry Gleason
(removed December 14, 1868)[l]
  Edmund C. Weeks
(appointed January 24, 1870)
(term ended December 27, 1870)[m]
Samuel T. Day
(took office December 27, 1870)
Florida Governor Ossian B. Hart.jpg
Ossian B. Hart January 7, 1873

March 18, 1874
(died in office)
Republican 1872 Marcellus Stearns
Florida Governor Marcellus Stearns.png
Marcellus Stearns March 18, 1874

January 2, 1877
(lost election)
Republican Lieutenant
acting as
Acting as Governor
Florida Governor George Franklin Drew.jpg
George Franklin Drew January 2, 1877

January 4, 1881
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1876 Noble A. Hull
(resigned March 3, 1879)
Florida Governor William Bloxham.jpg
William D. Bloxham January 4, 1881

January 7, 1885
(lost renomination)
Democratic 1880 Livingston W. Bethel
Florida Governor Edward A. Perry.jpg
Edward A. Perry January 7, 1885

January 8, 1889
(term limited)
Democratic 1884 Milton H. Mabry
Francis P. Fleming January 8, 1889

January 3, 1893
(term limited)
Democratic 1888 Office did not exist
Henry L Mitchell.jpg
Henry L. Mitchell January 3, 1893

January 5, 1897
(term limited)
Democratic 1892
Florida Governor William Bloxham.jpg
William D. Bloxham January 5, 1897

January 8, 1901
(term limited)
Democratic 1896
William Sherman Jennings.jpg
William Sherman Jennings January 8, 1901

January 3, 1905
(term limited)
Democratic 1900
Napoleon Bonaparte Broward.jpg
Napoleon B. Broward January 3, 1905

January 5, 1909
(term limited)
Democratic 1904
Florida Governor Albert W. Gilchrist.jpg
Albert W. Gilchrist January 5, 1909

January 7, 1913
(term limited)
Democratic 1908
Park Trammell.jpg
Park Trammell January 7, 1913

January 2, 1917
(term limited)
Democratic 1912
Sidney Johnston Catts in 1916 (cropped).jpg
Sidney Johnston Catts January 2, 1917

January 4, 1921
(term limited)
Prohibition 1916
Cary Hardee portrait.jpg
Cary A. Hardee January 4, 1921

January 6, 1925
(term limited)
Democratic 1920
Florida Governor John Martin.jpg
John W. Martin January 6, 1925

January 8, 1929
(term limited)
Democratic 1924
Doyle E. Carlton.jpg
Doyle E. Carlton January 8, 1929

January 3, 1933
(term limited)
Democratic 1928
33 Sholtz.jpg
David Sholtz January 3, 1933

January 5, 1937
(term limited)
Democratic 1932
Florida Governor Frederick Cone.jpg
Fred P. Cone January 5, 1937

January 7, 1941
(term limited)
Democratic 1936
Sen Spessard Holland.jpg
Spessard Holland January 7, 1941

January 2, 1945
(term limited)
Democratic 1940
Millard F. Caldwell.jpg
Millard Caldwell January 2, 1945

January 4, 1949
(term limited)
Democratic 1944
37 Warren.jpg
Fuller Warren January 4, 1949

January 6, 1953
(term limited)
Democratic 1948
Daniel T. McCarty.jpg
Daniel T. McCarty January 6, 1953

September 28, 1953
(died in office)
Democratic 1952
Charley Eugene Johns 1963.jpg
Charley Eugene Johns September 28, 1953

January 4, 1955
(lost election)
Democratic President of
the Senate
acting as
LeRoy Collins.jpg
LeRoy Collins January 4, 1955

January 3, 1961
(term limited)
Democratic 1954
C. Farris Bryant.jpg
C. Farris Bryant January 3, 1961

January 5, 1965
(term limited)
Democratic 1960
W Haydon Burns.jpg
W. Haydon Burns January 5, 1965

January 3, 1967
(lost election)
Democratic 1964[o]
Governor Claude R Kirk.jpg
Claude R. Kirk Jr. January 3, 1967

January 5, 1971
(lost election)
Republican 1966
Ray C. Osborne
(office created January 7, 1969)
Florida Governor Reubin Askew.jpg
Reubin Askew January 5, 1971

January 2, 1979
(term limited)
Democratic 1970 Thomas Burton Adams Jr.
1974 Jim Williams
Portrait of Florida Governor Bob Graham.jpg
Bob Graham January 2, 1979

January 3, 1987
Democratic 1978 Wayne Mixson
John Wayne Mixson.jpg
Wayne Mixson January 3, 1987

January 6, 1987
(successor took office)
Democratic Succeeded from
Portrait of Florida Governor Robert Martinez.jpg
Bob Martinez January 6, 1987

January 8, 1991
(lost election)
Republican 1986 Bobby Brantley
Lawton Chiles Governor portrait.jpg
Lawton Chiles January 8, 1991

December 12, 1998
(died in office)
Democratic 1990 Buddy MacKay
Buddy MacKay (official portrait).jpg
Buddy MacKay December 12, 1998

January 5, 1999
(successor took office)[q]
Democratic Succeeded from
Gov Jeb Bush.jpg
Jeb Bush January 5, 1999

January 2, 2007
(term limited)
Republican 1998 Frank Brogan
(resigned March 3, 2003)
Toni Jennings
Charlie Crist official portrait crop.jpg
Charlie Crist January 2, 2007

January 4, 2011
(not candidate for election)
Republican[r] 2006 Jeff Kottkamp
Rick Scott (cropped).jpg
Rick Scott January 4, 2011

January 7, 2019[s]
(term limited)
Republican 2010 Jennifer Carroll
(resigned March 12, 2013)
Carlos Lopez-Cantera
(appointed February 3, 2014)
Ron DeSantis 2020 (cropped).jpg
Ron DeSantis January 8, 2019

Republican 2018 Jeanette Núñez

Living former governors of Florida

There are six living former governors of Florida, the oldest being Buddy MacKay (served 1998–1999, born 1933). The most recent death of a former governor was that of Wayne Mixson (served 1987, born 1922), on July 8, 2020. The most recently serving governor to die was Lawton Chiles (served 1991–1998, born 1930), who died in office on December 12, 1998.

The living former governors, in order of service, are:

Governor Gubernatorial term Date of birth (and age)
Bob Graham 1979–1987 (1936-11-09) November 9, 1936 (age 85)
Bob Martinez 1987–1991 (1934-12-25) December 25, 1934 (age 87)
Buddy MacKay 1998–1999 (1933-03-22) March 22, 1933 (age 89)
Jeb Bush 1999–2007 (1953-02-11) February 11, 1953 (age 69)
Charlie Crist 2007–2011 (1956-07-24) July 24, 1956 (age 65)
Rick Scott 2011–2019 (1952-12-01) December 1, 1952 (age 69)

Federal offices held

Eighteen of Florida's governors have served higher federal offices: five have represented Florida in the U.S. House of Representatives, while three represented other states; five have represented Florida in the U.S. Senate, while two represented other states; eight have served in federal appointed office, with three serving in the Cabinet, two serving as ambassadors, one serving as a federal judge, and three serving as the heads of government agencies.

Governor Gubernatorial term U.S. House U.S. Senate Other offices held
William Pope Duval[u] 1822–1834 H[v]
John Eaton[u] 1834–1836 S[w] U.S. Secretary of War, U.S. Minister to Spain
Richard K. Call[u] 1836–1839


Robert R. Reid[u] 1839–1841 H[x]
John Branch[u] 1839–1841 H[y] S[y] U.S. Secretary of the Navy
William Marvin 1865 U.S. District Judge for the Southern District of Florida
Park Trammell 1913–1917 S
Spessard Holland 1941–1945 S
Millard Caldwell 1945–1949 H Administrator of the Federal Civil Defense Administration
C. Farris Bryant 1961–1965 Director of the Office of Emergency Planning
Ruben Askew 1971–1979 U.S. Trade Representative
Bob Graham 1979–1987 S
Bob Martinez 1987–1991 Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy
Lawton Chiles 1991–1998 S
Buddy McKay 1998–1999 H U.S. Special Envoy for the Americas
Charlie Crist 2007–2011 H
Rick Scott 2011–2019 S
Ron DeSantis 2019–present H

Line of succession

Since 2003, the line of succession to the office of governor has been as follows:[43]

  1. Lieutenant Governor, currently Jeanette Núñez
  2. Attorney General, currently Ashley Moody
  3. Chief Financial Officer, currently Jimmy Patronis
  4. Commissioner of Agriculture, currently Nikki Fried

Whenever the governor is unable or unwilling to discharge the office, either temporarily or permanently, the lieutenant governor takes over all the duties of the governorship either until the governor is able to resume the office or until the next election. At any time that the governor is on trial for impeachment, the lieutenant governor becomes the acting governor. Additionally, at any time that three members of the cabinet and the chief justice of the Supreme Court agree on the governor's mental or physical unfitness for office, they may suspend and reinstate the governor, pursuant to Article IV, Section 3 of the Florida Constitution.

If a vacancy occurs in the office of governor and a successor within the above-stated line of succession can not fill the vacancy, the speaker of the Florida House of Representatives and the president of the Senate must convene the Legislature by joint proclamation within 15 days for the purpose of choosing a person to serve as governor for the remainder of the term. A successor can only be chosen by a majority vote in a joint session of both houses.[44]

If, after the appointment of a lieutenant governor, a vacancy occurs in the office of governor with more than 28 months remaining in the term and the appointed lieutenant governor becomes governor, voters must choose a governor and lieutenant governor to serve out the remainder of the terms at the next general election.[44]

Acting Governor

Florida has had a number of people serve as “Acting Governor”. The state's first three Constitutions provided that the succession in office became operative whenever the Governor was out of the state. Thus, in 1853 when Governor Thomas Brown attended an event in Boston—the Senate President who would normally succeed the Governor at the time was also out of state. Therefore, the Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives, A.K. Allison, became “Acting Governor” on September 16, 1853. He served for 17 days.[45]

Only seven weeks after his inauguration, Governor McCarty suffered a heart attack. He died in September 1953. The President of the Senate, Charley E. Johns, took over as “Acting Governor” until an election could be held in November 1954 to till out Governor McCarty's term.[46]

Article IV Section 3 (b) of the Florida Constitution now calls for the Lieutenant Governor to “act as Governor” during the Governor's physical or mental incapacity. This provision has been invoked one time. On June 18, 2008 Governor Charlie Crist filed a Proclamation with the Secretary of State transferring power of the Office of Governor to Lt. Governor Jeff Kottkamp pursuant to the Constitutional provision while he underwent knee surgery.[47]

See also


  1. ^ Jackson's official titles were "Commissioner of the United States" and "Governor of East and West Florida".[8]
  2. ^ Jackson left Florida on October 8, 1821.[9] His resignation was submitted on November 13, 1821,[10] and the president accepted it on December 31, 1821.[11]
  3. ^ Data is sourced from the National Governors Association, unless supplemental references are required.
  4. ^ The office of lieutenant governor was created in 1868,[26] abolished in 1885,[28] and recreated in 1968.[29]
  5. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted.
  6. ^ Milton committed suicide due to the pending defeat of the Confederate States of America, stating in his final address to the legislature that "death would be preferable to reunion."[31]
  7. ^ Allison resigned to go into hiding from approaching Union troops, and was captured by them on June 19, 1865.[32]
  8. ^ Marvin was appointed provisional governor by the Union occupation.[33]
  9. ^ Most sources state Walker was a Democrat; the state archives say he was "Conservative".[34]
  10. ^ Represented the Republican Party
  11. ^ Reed was popularly elected under the terms of the 1868 constitution, and took the oath of office on June 8, 1868; it was not until July 4, 1868, however, that the federal commander of Florida, still under Reconstruction, recognized the validity of the state constitution and the election.[35]
  12. ^ During an attempted impeachment of Reed, Gleason proclaimed himself governor. The Supreme Court eventually sided with Reed, and Gleason was removed from office.[36]
  13. ^ Appointed as temporary lieutenant governor to replace William Henry Gleason. However, the state comptroller did not believe the governor could appoint a replacement to an elected office and refused to pay Weeks, and the Senate refused to accept his presidency over them, even proposing a motion to arrest him. Governor Reed called for a special election to replace him, and though Weeks fought it, the Florida Supreme Court declared his term to have ended when the new election results were certified.[37]
  14. ^ Special election to fill the remainder of McCarty's term[38]
  15. ^ This term was only two years as the election schedule was changed so that it would not coincide with presidential elections.[39]
  16. ^ Graham resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.[40]
  17. ^ MacKay was a candidate in the 1998 election but lost; he succeeded Lawton Chiles after the election but before his successor took office.
  18. ^ Crist was elected as a member of the Republican Party, and switched to independent in April 2010.[41]
  19. ^ Due to Ron DeSantis and Jeannette Núñez taking their oath of office ahead of time, they became governor and lieutenant governor at midnight on January 8, rather than waiting for an inauguration ceremony. Thus, Scott and Lopez-Cantera's terms ended at the end of January 7.[42]
  20. ^ DeSantis' first term expires on January 2, 2023.
  21. ^ a b c d e Territorial governor.
  22. ^ Served in Kentucky.
  23. ^ Served in Tennessee.
  24. ^ Served in Georgia
  25. ^ a b Served in North Carolina.


  • "Former Florida Governors". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  • "A Guide to Florida Governors and the Florida Cabinet". State Library and Archives of Florida. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
  • Buccellato, Robert (2015). Florida Governors Lasting Legacies (Images of America). Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-1467113694.
  • Sobel, Robert (1978). Biographical directory of the governors of the United States, 1789-1978, Vol. I. Meckler Books. ISBN 9780930466015. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  1. ^ "CSG Releases 2013 Governor Salaries". The Council of State Governments. June 25, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
  2. ^ FL Const. art. IV, § 1a
  3. ^ FL Const. art. III, § 8
  4. ^ FL Const. art. III, § 3c
  5. ^ FL Const. art. IV, § 8
  6. ^ "Adams-Onís Treaty". Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture. Oklahoma Historical Society. Archived from the original on July 31, 2010. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
  7. ^ "Andrew Jackson, Commissioner of the United States". Florida Department of State. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
  8. ^ "Andrew Jackson". State Library and Archives of Florida. Archived from the original on February 2, 2010. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
  9. ^ Morris, Allen; Joan Perry Morris (1999). The Florida Handbook, 1999–2000. Peninsular Books. ISBN 978-0-9616000-7-5. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
  10. ^ Harold D. Moser; David R. Hoth; George H. Hoemann, eds. (1996). The Papers of Andrew Jackson: 1821–1824. University of Tennessee Press. p. 513. ISBN 0-87049-897-5. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
  11. ^ Stanislaus Murray Hamilton, ed. (1902). The Writings of James Monroe. G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 207. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
  12. ^ Peters, Virginia Bergman (1979). The Florida Wars. Hamden: The Shoestring Press. pp. 63–74. ISBN 0-208-01719-4.
  13. ^ Congressional biography
  14. ^ "Florida and the Civil War" A Short History". Florida Memory. State Library & Archives of Florida. Archived from the original on April 26, 2010. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
  15. ^ "February 1861–1865". This Day in History. Florida Historical Society. Archived from the original on January 10, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
  16. ^ Cox, Merlin (January 1968). "Military Reconstruction in Florida". Florida Historical Quarterly. 46 (3): 219.
  17. ^ "June in Florida History". This Day in History. Florida Historical Society. Archived from the original on October 14, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
  18. ^ 1838 Const. art III, § 2
  19. ^ 1861 Const. art. III, § 2
  20. ^ 1865 Const. art. III, § 2
  21. ^ 1868 Const. art. V, § 2
  22. ^ a b 1885 Const. art. IV, § 2
  23. ^ a b FL Const. art. IV, § 5
  24. ^ FL Const. art. IV, § 2
  25. ^ 1838 Const. art III, § 18
  26. ^ a b 1865 Const. art. III, § 19
  27. ^ 1868 Const. art. V, § 15
  28. ^ a b 1885 Const. art. IV, § 19
  29. ^ a b FL Const. art. IV, § 3
  30. ^ "Whig Party | History, Beliefs, Significance, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-10-19.
  31. ^ "John Milton". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  32. ^ "Abraham Kurkindolle Allison". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  33. ^ "William Marvin". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  34. ^ "David Shelby Walker". State Library and Archives of Florida. Archived from the original on January 23, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
  35. ^ "Florida Governors' Portraits – Harrison Reed". Museum of Florida History. Archived from the original on February 3, 2014. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
  36. ^ Davis, William Watson (1913). The Civil War and Reconstruction in Florida, Volume 53. Columbia University. pp. 550–555. ISBN 9780722201985. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
  37. ^ Cases argued and adjudged in the Supreme Court of Florida. Vol. XIII. State of Florida. 1871. Retrieved July 6, 2010.
  38. ^ "Thomas Leroy Collins". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  39. ^ "Haydon Burns". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  40. ^ "Daniel Robert Graham". National Governors Association. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  41. ^ "Can Crist Win in Florida as an Independent?". Time. May 3, 2010. Archived from the original on May 5, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2010.
  42. ^ "DeSantis already governor when ceremony begins". Tampa Bay Times. January 5, 2019. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
  43. ^ "States' Lines of Succession of Gubernatorial Powers" (PDF). National Emergency Management Association (NEMA). May 2011. Retrieved March 27, 2015.
  44. ^ a b "Succession to office of Governor". The Florida Legislature. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
  45. ^ Allen Morris & Joan Perry Morris, “The Florida Handbook” 2007-2008.
  46. ^ Charlton W. Tebeau, “A History of Florida” (Revised Edition 1980).
  47. ^ "Gov. Crist Has Surgery on Knee".

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