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Godfrey G. Goodwin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Godfrey Goodwin
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Minnesota's 10th district
In office
March 4, 1925 – February 16, 1933
Preceded byThomas D. Schall
Succeeded byDistrict Abolished
Personal details
Born(1873-01-11)January 11, 1873
St. Peter, Minnesota
DiedFebruary 16, 1933(1933-02-16) (aged 60)
Washington, D.C.
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)Geneva Edwina Josephina Gouldberg
ResidenceIsanti County, Minnesota
Alma materUniversity of Minnesota Law School

Godfrey Gummer Goodwin (January 11, 1873 – February 16, 1933) was a Representative from Minnesota.

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  • ✪ High Density Training Systems in the Southeast
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Hello I'm Mike Parker the fruit tree extension specialist at North Carolina State University . Today we're in a high density aztec fuli planting at the Mountain Horticulture Crops Research Station in Mills River North Carolina. many growers in establishing new orchards these days are planting higher density with a higher number of trees per acre. The reason for these high density orchards is that the trees we are using are very precocious they bear fruit much earlier. Having fruit much earlier results in greater profitability for the grower. Also they can realize the extra revenue from having newer varieties. When those new varieties come into production the high value early in the life of that apple realizes great profits for the growers. Also these high density systems allow most of the work to be done from the ground, instead of having workers climb up and down ladders for thinning, for pruning and for harvesting. The high density systems also allows the opportunity for mechanization, reducing the amount of labor capital required. However, for these high density orchards to be successful and profitable, they must be managed very well. High density orchards in North Carolina are probably going to be in the density of approximately 500 to 600 trees per acre. Trees within the row will be spaced approximately four to six feet apart with the rows spaced 12 to 15 feet apart, depending on the elevation and the terrain of the land. As I mentioned earlier, in order for the high density systems to be productive and profitable, they must be managed very well with several very specific considerations. The first is, a dwarfing root stock must be used. This tree that we are standing next to is an M.9 337 . It is a dwarfing root stock. Also, if you look at the base of the tree, the root stock has been planted approximately 6 inches above the soil line. The greater the amount of the root stock shank out of the ground, the greater the dwarfing on the tree will be. Most high density systems today require at least 4 to 6 inches of the root stock shank to be planted under the ground. Another very important criteria is a support system. Here we are using angle iron - a ten foot angle iron, two feet is driven into the ground. And that is to support the trees early in their life. The stake is there to support the tree and the fruit load within the second or third year. Here we are using metal stakes for research purposes. However, any type of system should be suitable. Many times a wire system, whether it be a wire at 10 foot, with bamboo stakes, or a multiple wire system - four or five wire system - is used. It's what is most economical for the grower, and for their management system. Another key criteria with high density systems is an irrigation system. The irrigation system we are using here are micro sprinklers. They apply approximately 15 gallons of water per hour in a 6 to 8 foot radius, usually to the drip line of the tree, with a herbicide strip. You will also notice that we do have a vegetation free strip underneath the tree so that we do not have grass that is competing with the tree for water and nutrients. With high density systems, there also has to be an associated training system. Several of the primary ones now is a tall spindle or, what we are growing here, is a modified slender spindle. Our trees here are splayed 6 by 14 for approximately 500 trees per acre. We have a support system to 8 foot with a tree height of approximately 10 foot. Characteristics of this tree - it does have a strong central leader. One main trunk all the way up. Then we have lateral growth coming off from this, and all of this lateral growth is horizontal or below. The difference between the tall spindle and the modified slender spindle as we would have here, is that we keep one major whorl of permanent scaffold at the base of the tree with the rest of the growth on the tree being renewed. The tall spindle tree will have growth renewed consistently along the entire leader. To renew that growth, we would come in and use a dutch cut. When the diameter of the lateral branch gets anywhere from a half to two thirds the diameter of the leader, it is cut off during the winter with a dutch cut. This is a typical dutch cut, cut at an angle, to decrease the surface on top, allowing a greater surface on the bottom. You get branches to grow out the bottom there, coming out at a wide crotch angle. We allow them to regrow ten inches long, and then they are weighted down. Another way to train branches down to the stake of wire trellis system is with thin gauge wire - come in and put it through the stake, and then wrap it loosely around the branch. Until that point we will allow these lateral branches to come out and crop. They are pulled down to encourage fruiting, and then we will prune these branches back to lateral growth during the dormant season. The ultimate height of trees in high density systems is no more than double the free alley or free row width. If we have fourteen foot rows, we have 6 foot taken up - 3 foot from each side - we have 8 foot middles. So the height of this tree should be no more than 16 foot. However, in our situation, we would allow these trees to go to 10 to 12 foot for labor purposes. Some of the major mistakes that we see growers making with these high density systems - the first one we see is planting the root stock too deep, allowing that root stock union to be below the soil line after the soil is settled, which results in the scion rooting, the top rooting, result in a full sized tree. The other thing we see is inadequate support system, support systems that cannot support the weight of the tree and the fruit, especially if we get heavy winds, tropical storm winds, or if we get early ice and snow storms and the entire system collapses. And the last thing many times we have problems with is allowing the lateral branches to become too large and not renewing them quick enough. This is a prime example here. We notice that this lateral branch is larger than the central leader. That branch should have been cut out at least one, maybe two years ago, with a renewed dutch cut. This is a high density orchard, Apple Hill Orchard, in Hendersonville, North Carolina. Steven Godfrey is the orchard manager here. This is early Fuji and M.9 going into the third leaf. The trees were planted as whips. This year they are looking somewhere around 300 bushels per acre, on a 4 by 14 tree spacing for 777 trees per acre. This is a new orchard established at Apple Hill Orchard in Hendersonville again. They planted G.11 with early Fuji on top. This is the first year of planting, it will have a 4 wire trellis. The posts have been put in, the wires will go in this winter. If you will notice, all of the lateral branches have been pulled down. Here they are using rubber bands, pulled down below horizontal. This would be a 4 foot spacing so they have the lower permanent whorl scaffolds. With the remainder of the tree going to be renewed as the tree matures. We're in the orchard of Wayne Pace in Dana, North Carolina. Wayne has approximately 25 acres of high density tall spindle trees. He's using root stocks of B.9, M.9 and some 26 and some of the weaker varieties. Tree spacing ranges from 4 to 6 foot within the row, and 14 foot between the rows. He's averaging 518 to 777 trees per acre using approximately 10 or 12 varieties - the newer varieties that are in high demand at local retail outlets. One of the main issues that Wayne has when he gets close to harvest is with damage from the birds. The birds come in, they peck all of the apples and cause a significant amount of damage. So what you have been hearing going on in the background, you hear the propane cannons that he uses across the 25 acres. He also has the bird scarer, or bird guard alarms, that basically broadcast a distress signal for birds of concern in his orchard. You can hear that out here. Again, it has been very effective in minimizing the bird damage in his orchard. However, there are issues with neighbors. But again, like the deer, the neighbors become used to it over time as well. In addition to the bird alarms that are used to deter bird damage in this orchard, wind machines are also used. Wind machines are used to protect the crop during the spring from frost and freeze damage. In North Carolina frost and freeze damage is a major issue during bloom. The difference between a full crop and no crop many times is only 3 to 5 degrees. The wind machines are one way we can minimize potential for frost and freeze in the orchards. Especially with the high establish costs for a high density orchard. We are at the orchard of C. L. Henderson in Hendersonville, North Carolina. This is a high density system. The trees are spaced 5 by 14. All the trees are on Bud 9. The scion variety is going to be Pink Lady and Fuji. As we talked about earlier having a substantial support system is essential. In this orchard here they are using 12 foot poles within the row, with 2 foot driven in the ground. They have 5 wire - high tensile wire - spaced 2 foot apart. Then the trees are tied to it. Again, the system is not here for moral support, it's here for physical support, and they tie the trees at every wire. And then they also, from the tree up, use string. The leader is wrapped around that until it reaches the next wire. You'll notice with the training system that clothes pins are used in the trees as growth emerges in the spring - upright growth - the clothes pins are used to place around the trunk of the tree to get that wide crotch angle. Then as the branches become longer, they come in and use wires. A low gauge wire is used to come in and pull those branches below horizontal. They wrap one end of the wire around this wire here and then they loosely wrap them over the branches here. They can move them and place them throughout the season to make sure the entire branch stays below horizontal during the growing season. Hopefully this video has given you an understanding of some of the higher density apple systems used in North Carolina and how they can be successfully be used in your orchard.


Early life

He was born Alfred Gustafson near St. Peter, Nicollet County, Minnesota, to a single mother, Cecilia Carlson (née Sissa Carlsdotter), a native of Sweden.[1] They moved to St. Paul, Minnesota, in 1882, where he took the name Godfrey Gummer Goodwin. He attended public schools and graduated from the faculty of law at the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis in 1896. He was admitted to the bar in 1896 and commenced practice in Cambridge, Minnesota.

He married Geneva Edwina Josephina Gouldberg June 5, 1905. He served as president of the Board of Education in Cambridge, Minnesota from 1914 to 1917.

Political career

He was prosecuting attorney of Isanti County from 1898 to 1907. He was elected to the position again in November 1913, and served until February 15, 1925, when he resigned as he had been elected to Congress.

He was elected as a Republican to the 69th, 70th, 71st, and 72nd congresses, serving from March 4, 1925, to February 16, 1933. After his congressional district was eliminated, he failed to receive nomination to the at-large Minnesota delegation in 1932. He plunged to his death from a window of the Hotel Driscoll in Washington, D.C., on February 16, 1933, only two weeks before the end of his final term. It is not known whether Goodwin intended to commit suicide or if the fall was an accident. He is interred in Lakewood Cemetery, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

See also


  1. ^ "United States Census, 1900", FamilySearch, retrieved March 18, 2018

External links

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Thomas D. Schall
U.S. Representative from Minnesota's 10th congressional district
1925 – 1933
Succeeded by
district abolished
This page was last edited on 17 October 2018, at 19:20
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