To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

# Glossary of aerospace engineering

Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself. However, glossaries like this one are useful for looking up, comparing and reviewing large numbers of terms together. You can help enhance this page by adding new terms or writing definitions for existing ones.

This glossary of aerospace engineering terms pertains specifically to aerospace engineering and its sub-disciplines. For a broad overview of engineering, see glossary of engineering.

• 1/5
Views:
770
1 662 980
121 465
21 110
416
• Aeronautical Dictionary
• The Aerodynamics of Flight
• MACHINE SHOP LESSON 4, BLUEPRINT READING PART 1 Marc L'Ecuyer
• Mod-01 Lec-02 Introduction to Helicopter Aerodynamics and Dynamics
• Properties of matter intro 101 pt.1

## B

• Balloon — In aeronautics, a balloon is an unpowered aerostat, which remains aloft or floats due to its buoyancy. A balloon may be free, moving with the wind, or tethered to a fixed point. It is distinct from an airship, which is a powered aerostat that can propel itself through the air in a controlled manner.
• Ballute — (a portmanteau of balloon and parachute) is a parachute-like braking device optimized for use at high altitudes and supersonic velocities. Invented by Goodyear in 1958, the original ballute was a cone-shaped balloon with a toroidal burble fence fitted around its widest point. A burble fence is an inflated structure intended to ensure flow separation.[25] This stabilizes the ballute as it decelerates through different flow regimes (from supersonic to subsonic).
• Beam-powered propulsion — also known as directed energy propulsion, is a class of aircraft or spacecraft propulsion that uses energy beamed to the spacecraft from a remote power plant to provide energy. The beam is typically either a microwave or a laser beam and it is either pulsed or continuous. A continuous beam lends itself to thermal rockets, photonic thrusters and light sails, whereas a pulsed beam lends itself to ablative thrusters and pulse detonation engines.[26]
• Bearing — In navigation, bearing is the horizontal angle between the direction of an object and another object, or between it and that of true north. Absolute bearing refers to the angle between the magnetic North (magnetic bearing) or true North (true bearing) and an object. For example, an object to the East would have an absolute bearing of 90 degrees. 'Relative bearing refers to the angle between the craft's forward direction, and the location of another object. For example, an object relative bearing of 0 degrees would be dead ahead; an object relative bearing 180 degrees would be behind.[27] Bearings can be measured in mils or degrees.
• Bernoulli's principle — In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's principle states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy.[28](Ch.3)[29](§ 3.5)
• Bi-elliptic transfer — is an orbital maneuver that moves a spacecraft from one orbit to another and may, in certain situations, require less delta-v than a Hohmann transfer maneuver. The bi-elliptic transfer consists of two half-elliptic orbits. From the initial orbit, a first burn expends delta-v to boost the spacecraft into the first transfer orbit with an apoapsis at some point ${\displaystyle r_{b}}$ away from the central body. At this point a second burn sends the spacecraft into the second elliptical orbit with periapsis at the radius of the final desired orbit, where a third burn is performed, injecting the spacecraft into the desired orbit.[30]
• Big dumb booster — (BDB), is a general class of launch vehicle based on the premise that it is cheaper to operate large rockets of simple design than it is to operate smaller, more complex ones regardless of the lower payload efficiency.[31]
• Bleed air — produced by gas turbine engines is compressed air that is taken from the compressor stage of those engines, which is upstream of the fuel-burning sections.
• Booster — A booster rocket (or engine) is either the first stage of a multistage launch vehicle, or else a shorter-burning rocket used in parallel with longer-burning sustainer rockets to augment the space vehicle's takeoff thrust and payload capability.[32][33]
• Boundary layer — In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is an important concept and refers to the layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant. In the Earth's atmosphere, the atmospheric boundary layer is the air layer near the ground affected by diurnal heat, moisture or momentum transfer to or from the surface. On an aircraft wing the boundary layer is the part of the flow close to the wing, where viscous forces distort the surrounding non-viscous flow.
• Buoyancy — In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus the pressure at the bottom of a column of fluid is greater than at the top of the column. Similarly, the pressure at the bottom of an object submerged in a fluid is greater than at the top of the object. This pressure difference results in a net upwards force on the object. The magnitude of that force exerted is proportional to that pressure difference, and (as explained by Archimedes' principle) is equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would otherwise occupy the volume of the object, i.e. the displaced fluid.

## C

• Cabin pressurization — is a process in which conditioned air is pumped into the cabin of an aircraft or spacecraft, in order to create a safe and comfortable environment for passengers and crew flying at high altitudes. For aircraft, this air is usually bled off from the gas turbine engines at the compressor stage, and for spacecraft, it is carried in high-pressure, often cryogenic tanks. The air is cooled, humidified, and mixed with recirculated air if necessary, before it is distributed to the cabin by one or more environmental control systems.[34] The cabin pressure is regulated by the outflow valve.
• Cable lacing — is a method for tying wiring harnesses and cable looms, traditionally used in telecommunication, naval, and aerospace applications. This old cable management technique, taught to generations of linemen,[35] is still used in some modern applications since it does not create obstructions along the length of the cable, avoiding the handling problems of cables groomed by plastic or hook-and-loop cable ties.
• Camber — the asymmetric curves on the top and bottom, or front and back, of an aerofoil
• Canard — is an aeronautical arrangement wherein a small forewing or foreplane is placed forward of the main wing of a fixed-wing aircraft. The term "canard" may be used to describe the aircraft itself, the wing configuration or the foreplane.[36][37][38]
• Centennial challenges
• Center of gravity — A body's center of gravity is the point around which the resultant torque due to gravity forces vanishes. Where a gravity field can be considered to be uniform, the mass-center and the center-of-gravity will be the same. However, for satellites in orbit around a planet, in the absence of other torques being applied to a satellite, the slight variation (gradient) in gravitational field between closer-to (stronger) and further-from (weaker) the planet can lead to a torque that will tend to align the satellite such that its long axis is vertical. In such a case, it is important to make the distinction between the center-of-gravity and the mass-center. Any horizontal offset between the two will result in an applied torque.
• Center of mass — In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating. The distribution of mass is balanced around the center of mass and the average of the weighted position coordinates of the distributed mass defines its coordinates.
• Center of pressure — is the point where the total sum of a pressure field acts on a body, causing a force to act through that point.
• Chord — is the imaginary straight line joining the leading and trailing edges of an aerofoil. The chord length is the distance between the trailing edge and the point on the leading edge where the chord intersects the leading edge.[39][40]
• Clean configuration — is the flight configuration of a fixed-wing aircraft when its external equipment is retracted to minimize drag and thus maximize airspeed for a given power setting.
• Cockpit — or flight deck, is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft or spacecraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft.
• Collimated beam — A collimated beam of light or other electromagnetic radiation has parallel rays, and therefore will spread minimally as it propagates. A perfectly collimated light beam, with no divergence, would not disperse with distance. Such a beam cannot be created, due to diffraction.[41]
• Comet — is an icy, small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing. This produces a visible atmosphere or coma, and sometimes also a tail.
• Compression — In mechanics, compression is the application of balanced inward ("pushing") forces to different points on a material or structure, that is, forces with no net sum or torque directed so as to reduce its size in one or more directions.[42] It is contrasted with tension or traction, the application of balanced outward ("pulling") forces; and with shearing forces, directed so as to displace layers of the material parallel to each other. The compressive strength of materials and structures is an important engineering consideration.
• Compressibility — In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, compressibility (also known as the coefficient of compressibility[43] or isothermal compressibility[44]) is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change. In its simple form, the compressibility ${\displaystyle \beta }$ may be expressed as
${\displaystyle \beta =-{\frac {1}{V}}{\frac {\partial V}{\partial p}}}$, where V is volume and p is pressure. The choice to define compressibility as the opposite of the fraction makes compressibility positive in the (usual) case that an increase in pressure induces a reduction in volume. t is also known as reciprocal of bulk modulus(k) of elasticity of a fluid.

## D

• Damage tolerance — is a property of a structure relating to its ability to sustain defects safely until repair can be effected. The approach to engineering design to account for damage tolerance is based on the assumption that flaws can exist in any structure and such flaws propagate with usage.
• DecalageDecalage on a fixed-wing aircraft is the angle difference between the upper and lower wings of a biplane, i.e. the acute angle contained between the chords of the wings in question. Decalage is said to be positive when the upper wing has a higher angle of incidence than the lower wing, and negative when the lower wing's incidence is greater than that of the upper wing. Positive decalage results in greater lift from the upper wing than the lower wing, the difference increasing with the amount of decalage.[49]
• De Laval nozzle — (or convergent-divergent nozzle, CD nozzle or con-di nozzle), is a tube that is pinched in the middle, making a carefully balanced, asymmetric hourglass shape. It is used to accelerate a hot, pressurized gas passing through it to a higher supersonic speed in the axial (thrust) direction, by converting the heat energy of the flow into kinetic energy. Because of this, the nozzle is widely used in some types of steam turbines and rocket engine nozzles. It also sees use in supersonic jet engines.
• Dead reckoning — In navigation, dead reckoning is the process of calculating one's current position by using a previously determined position, or fix, and advancing that position based upon known or estimated speeds over elapsed time and course.
• Deflection — is the degree to which a structural element is displaced under a load. It may refer to an angle or a distance.
• Deformation (engineering) — In materials science, deformation refers to any changes in the shape or size of an object due to an applied force (the deformation energy, in this case, is transferred through work) or a change in temperature (the deformation energy, in this case, is transferred through heat).
• Deformation (mechanics) — in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.[50] A configuration is a set containing the positions of all particles of the body. A deformation may be caused by external loads,[51] body forces (such as gravity or electromagnetic forces), or changes in temperature, moisture content, or chemical reactions, etc.
• Delta-v — (literally "change in velocity"), symbolised as v and pronounced delta-vee, as used in spacecraft flight dynamics, is a measure of the impulse that is needed to perform a maneuver such as launch from, or landing on a planet or moon, or in-space orbital maneuver. It is a scalar that has the units of speed. As used in this context, it is not the same as the physical change in velocity of the vehicle.
• Delta-v budget — is an estimate of the total delta-v required for a space mission. It is calculated as the sum of the delta-v required for the propulsive maneuvers during the mission, and as input to the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, determines how much propellant is required for a vehicle of given mass and propulsion system.
• Delta wing— is a wing shaped in the form of a triangle. It is named for its similarity in shape to the Greek uppercase letter delta (Δ). Although long studied, it did not find significant applications until the jet age, when it proved suitable for high-speed subsonic and supersonic flight.
• Density
• Departure resistance – is a quality of an aircraft which enables it to remain in controlled flight and resist entering potentially dangerous less-controlled maneuvers such as spin.
• Derivative — The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value). Derivatives are a fundamental tool of calculus. For example, the derivative of the position of a moving object with respect to time is the object's velocity: this measures how quickly the position of the object changes when time advances.
• Digital Datcom — The United States Air Force Stability and Control Digital DATCOM is a computer program that implements the methods contained in the USAF Stability and Control DATCOM to calculate the static stability, control and dynamic derivative characteristics of fixed-wing aircraft. Digital DATCOM requires an input file containing a geometric description of an aircraft, and outputs its corresponding dimensionless stability derivatives according to the specified flight conditions. The values obtained can be used to calculate meaningful aspects of flight dynamics.
• Dihedral — Dihedral angle is the upward angle from horizontal of the wings or tailplane of a fixed-wing aircraft. "Anhedral angle" is the name given to negative dihedral angle, that is, when there is a downward angle from horizontal of the wings or tailplane of a fixed-wing aircraft.
• Displacement (vector)
• Distance measuring equipment — (DME), is a radio navigation technology that measures the slant range (distance) between an aircraft and a ground station by timing the propagation delay of radio signals in the frequency band between 960 and 1215 megahertz (MHz). Line-of-visibility between the aircraft and ground station is required. An interrogator (airborne) initiates an exchange by transmitting a pulse pair, on an assigned ‘channel’, to the transponder ground station. The channel assignment specifies the carrier frequency and the spacing between the pulses. After a known delay, the transponder replies by transmitting a pulse pair on a frequency that is offset from the interrogation frequency by 63 MHz and having specified separation.[53]
• DME — distance measuring equipment.
• DO-178B
• DO-254
• Drag (physics) — In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.[54] This can exist between two fluid layers (or surfaces) or a fluid and a solid surface. Unlike other resistive forces, such as dry friction, which are nearly independent of velocity, drag forces depend on velocity.[55][56] Drag force is proportional to the velocity for a laminar flow and the squared velocity for a turbulent flow. Even though the ultimate cause of a drag is viscous friction, the turbulent drag is independent of viscosity.[57] Drag forces always decrease fluid velocity relative to the solid object in the fluid's path.
• Drag coefficient — In fluid dynamics, the drag coefficient (commonly denoted as: ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle C_{\mathrm {d} }\,}$, ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle C_{\mathrm {x} }\,}$ or ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle C_{\mathrm {w} }\,}$) is a dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment, such as air or water. It is used in the drag equation in which a lower drag coefficient indicates the object will have less aerodynamic or hydrodynamic drag. The drag coefficient is always associated with a particular surface area.[58]
• Drag equation — In fluid dynamics, the drag equation is a formula used to calculate the force of drag experienced by an object due to movement through a fully enclosing fluid. The equation is:
${\displaystyle F_{D}\,=\,{\tfrac {1}{2}}\,\rho \,u^{2}\,C_{D}\,A}$
${\displaystyle F_{D}}$ is the drag force, which is by definition the force component in the direction of the flow velocity,
${\displaystyle \rho }$ is the mass density of the fluid,[59]
${\displaystyle u}$ is the flow velocity relative to the object,
${\displaystyle A}$ is the reference area, and
${\displaystyle C_{D}}$ is the drag coefficient – a dimensionless coefficient related to the object's geometry and taking into account both skin friction and form drag. In general, ${\displaystyle C_{D}}$ depends on the Reynolds number.

## References

1. ^ Radiotelephony Manual. UK Civil Aviation Authority. 28 May 2015. ISBN 9780-11792-893-0. CAP413.
2. ^ Wyer, S.S., "A treatise on producer-gas and gas-producers", (1906) The Engineering and Mining Journal, London, p.23
3. ^ Perry, R.H. and Green, D.W, (2007) Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook (8th Edition), Section 12, Psychrometry, Evaporative Cooling and Solids Drying McGraw-Hill, ISBN 978-0-07-151135-3
4. ^ Crew, Henry (2008). The Principles of Mechanics. BiblioBazaar, LLC. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-559-36871-4.
5. ^ Bondi, Hermann (1980). Relativity and Common Sense. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 3. ISBN 978-0-486-24021-3.
6. ^ Lehrman, Robert L. (1998). Physics the Easy Way. Barron's Educational Series. pp. 27. ISBN 978-0-7641-0236-3.
7. ^ a b "AOS, TCA, and LOS". Northern Lights Software Associates. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
8. ^ McGraw Hill Encyclopaedia of Physics (2nd Edition), C.B. Parker, 1994, ISBN 0-07-051400-3
9. ^ a b NRCC (2008). "Space Vision System Helps Astronauts See in Space". National Research Council of Canada. Archived from the original on June 3, 2008. Retrieved February 13, 2008.
10. ^ Sousa, V. C. (2011). "Enhanced aeroelastic energy harvesting by exploiting combined nonlinearities: theory and experiment". Smart Materials and Structures. 20 (9): 094007. Bibcode:2011SMaS...20i4007S. doi:10.1088/0964-1726/20/9/094007.
11. ^ Ellis, P. D. M. (1994). "Laser palatoplasty for snoring due to palatal flutter: a further report". Clinical Otolaryngology. 19 (4): 350–1. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2273.1994.tb01245.x. PMID 7994895.
12. ^ Encyclopedia of Aerospace Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, 2010. ISBN 978-0-470-75440-5.
13. ^ "Aircraft - Define Aircraft at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. Archived from the original on 28 March 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
14. ^ "Different Kinds & Types of Aircraft". www.wingsoverkansas.com. Archived from the original on 21 November 2016.
15. ^ "Definition of AIRSHIP". merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
16. ^
17. ^ "Glossary: Anticyclone". National Weather Service. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
18. ^ "the definition of apsis". Dictionary.com.
19. ^ John, R. R., Bennett, S., and Connors, J. P., "Arcjet Engine Performance: Experiment and Theory," AIAA Journal, Vol. 1, No. 11, Nov. 1963. http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/pdf/10.2514/3.2103
20. ^ Wallner, Lewis E. and Czika, Joseph, Jr, ARC-Jet Thrustor for Space Propulsion, NASA Technical note TN D-2868, NASA Lewis Research Center, June 1965 (accessed September 8 2014)
21. ^ Kermode, A.C. (1972), Mechanics of Flight, Chapter 3, (p.103, eighth edition), Pitman Publishing Limited, London ISBN 0-273-31623-0
22. ^ "Asteroids". NASA – Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 13 September 2010.
23. ^ Federal Aviation Administration (2008). "Chapter 15: Navigation" (PDF). Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge (PDF). US Dept. of Transportation. ISBN 978-1-56027-783-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 June 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
24. ^ Civil Aviation Safety Authority (2005). "Operational Notes on Non-Directional Beacons (NDB) and Associated Automatic Direction Finding (ADF)" (PDF). Government of Australia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 May 2009. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
25. ^ https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19690017080_1969017080.pdf
26. ^ Breakthrough (2018-05-29), Progress in beamed energy propulsion | Kevin Parkin, retrieved 2018-06-07
27. ^ Rutstrum, Carl, The Wilderness Route Finder, University of Minnesota Press (2000), ISBN 0-8166-3661-3, p. 194
28. ^ Clancy, L. J. (1975). Aerodynamics. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-15837-1.
29. ^ Batchelor, G. K. (2000). An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics. Cambridge: University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-66396-0.
30. ^ Curtis, Howard (2005). Orbital Mechanics for Engineering Students. Elsevier. p. 264. ISBN 0-7506-6169-0.
31. ^ Schnitt, Arthur (1998) Minimum Cost Design for Space Operations.
32. ^ "Rocket Staging". US: NASA. Archived from the original on June 2, 2016. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
33. ^ "Solid Rocket Boosters". US: NASA. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
34. ^ Brain, Marshall (April 12, 2011). "How Airplane Cabin Pressurization Works". How Stuff Works. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
35. ^ "Cable Sewing Knots", Popular Mechanics, Hearst Magazines, 7 (5): 550, May 1905, ISSN 0032-4558, Every lineman should know how to sew these knots.
36. ^ Wragg, D.; Historical Dictionary of Aviation, History Press (2008), Page 79.
37. ^ Clancy, L.; Aerodynamics, Halsted (1975), Page 293.
38. ^ Crane, Dale (1997), Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms (3rd ed.), Aviation Supplies & Academics, p. 86, ISBN 978-1-56027-287-8.
39. ^ L. J. Clancy (1975), Aerodynamics, Section 5.2, Pitman Publishing Limited, London. ISBN 0-273-01120-0
40. ^ Houghton, E. L.; Carpenter, P.W. (2003). Butterworth Heinmann, ed. Aerodynamics for Engineering Students (5th ed.). ISBN 0-7506-5111-3. p.18
41. ^ "Introduction to Laser Technology". Melles Griot Catalog (PDF). Melles Griot. n.d. p. 36.6. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
42. ^ Ferdinand Pierre Beer, Elwood Russell Johnston, John T. DeWolf (1992), "Mechanics of Materials". (Book) McGraw-Hill Professional, ISBN 0-07-112939-1
43. ^ "Coefficient of compressibility - AMS Glossary". Glossary.AMetSoc.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
44. ^ "Isothermal compressibility of gases -". Petrowiki.org. Retrieved 3 May 2017.
45. ^ a b "Systems & Control Engineering FAQ | Electrical Engineering and Computer Science". engineering.case.edu. Case Western Reserve University. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
46. ^ Clancy, L.J. Aerodynamics, Section 11.6
47. ^ E. Rathakrishnan (3 September 2013). Gas Dynamics. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. p. 278. ISBN 978-81-203-4839-4.
48. ^ Shepard, Dennis G. (1956). Principles of Turbomachinery. McMillan. ISBN 978-0-471-85546-0. LCCN 56002849.
49. ^ NACA technical report No.269 Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine The Distribution of Loads Between the Wings of a Biplane Having Decalage (November 1927), p.18. Retrieved on 9 February 2009.
50. ^ Truesdell, C.; Noll, W. (2004). The non-linear field theories of mechanics (3rd ed.). Springer. p. 48.
51. ^ Wu, H.-C. (2005). Continuum Mechanics and Plasticity. CRC Press. ISBN 1-58488-363-4.
52. ^ Keys, C. N.; Stepniewski, W. Z. (1984). Rotary-wing aerodynamics. New York: Dover Publications. p. 3. ISBN 0-486-64647-5. It is interesting to note that there has always been a strong intuitive association of rotary-wing aircraft with low disc loading which is reflected in the commonly accepted name of rotor given to their lifting airscrews.
53. ^ Annex 10 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, Volume I — Radio Navigation Aids; International Civil Aviation Organization; International Standards and Recommended Practices.
54. ^ "Definition of DRAG". www.merriam-webster.com.
55. ^ French (1970), p. 211, Eq. 7-20
56. ^ "What is Drag?". Archived from the original on 2010-05-24. Retrieved 2019-08-26.
57. ^ G. Falkovich (2011). Fluid Mechanics (A short course for physicists). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-00575-4.
58. ^ McCormick, Barnes W. (1979): Aerodynamics, Aeronautics, and Flight Mechanics. p. 24, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, ISBN 0-471-03032-5
59. ^ Note that for the Earth's atmosphere, the air density can be found using the barometric formula. Air is 1.293 kg/m3 at 0°C and 1 atmosphere
60. ^ L. G. Napolitano (22 October 2013). Applications of Space Developments: Selected Papers from the XXXI International Astronautical Congress, Tokyo, 21 — 28 September 1980. Elsevier Science. pp. 134–. ISBN 978-1-4831-5976-8.
61. ^ Hitchens, Frank (2015). The Encyclopedia of Aerodynamics. Andrews UK Limited. ISBN 9781785383250. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
62. ^ Administration, Federal Aviation (2017). Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge. Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. ISBN 9781510726185. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
63. ^ Clancy, L. J. (1975). Aerodynamics. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Sections 4.15 & 5.4.
64. ^ Abbott, Ira H., and Doenhoff, Albert E. von: Theory of Wing Sections. Section 1.2
65. ^ Young, Donald F.; Bruce R. Munson; Theodore H. Okiishi; Wade W. Huebsch (2010). A Brief Introduction to Fluid Mechanics (5 ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-470-59679-1.
66. ^ Graebel, W.P. (2001). Engineering Fluid Mechanics. Taylor & Francis. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-56032-733-2.
67. ^ orbit (astronomy) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia
68. ^ The Space Place :: What's a Barycenter
69. ^ Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution, pp. 238, 246–252