To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Glenn Grothman

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Glenn Grothman
Glenn Grothman 117th Congress portrait.jpg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Wisconsin's 6th district
Assumed office
January 3, 2015
Preceded byTom Petri
Member of the Wisconsin Senate
from the 20th district
In office
January 3, 2005 – January 3, 2015
Preceded byMary Panzer
Succeeded byDuey Stroebel
Member of the Wisconsin State Assembly
In office
January 5, 2003 – January 3, 2005
Preceded byMichael A. Lehman
Succeeded byPatricia Strachota
Constituency58th district
In office
December 16, 1993 – January 5, 2003
Preceded byMary Panzer
Succeeded byDaniel LeMahieu
Constituency59th district
Personal details
Born (1955-07-03) July 3, 1955 (age 66)
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
ResidenceGlenbeulah, Wisconsin
EducationUniversity of Wisconsin–Madison (BBA, JD)
WebsiteHouse website

Glenn S. Grothman /ˈɡrθmən/ (born July 3, 1955) is an American attorney and politician serving as the U.S. Representative from Wisconsin's 6th congressional district. He was first elected in 2014.

Grothman represented the 58th district in the Wisconsin State Assembly from 1993 until 2005 and was vice chair of the Assembly's Republican caucus from 1999 to 2004. He represented the 20th district in the Wisconsin Senate from 2005 to 2015, and was Assistant Majority Leader from 2011 to 2015.

Early life and education

Grothman graduated from Homestead High School in Mequon in 1973. In 1978, he graduated from the University of Wisconsin–Madison with a bachelor of business administration degree.[1] He earned a Juris Doctor from the University of Wisconsin Law School in 1983, was admitted to the bar, and became an attorney with a firm in West Bend, Wisconsin.

Wisconsin legislature

Elections

Grothman was elected to the Wisconsin 58th Assembly District in a special election in December 1993, and was reelected five times, from 1994 to 2002. From 1999 to 2004, he was the Assembly Majority Caucus Vice Chair.

In 2004, Grothman ran for the state senate seat in the 20th district, challenging State Senate Majority Leader Mary Panzer in the Republican primary. The district included the city of West Bend, other parts of Washington County, and parts of Fond du Lac, Dodge, Sheboygan, and Ozaukee Counties.

Running well to Panzer's right,[2] Grothman won the nomination with 79% of the vote to Panzer's 21%.[3] He was unopposed in the general election in the heavily Republican district,[4] and reelected in 2008 and 2012.

Tenure

From 2007 to 2008, Grothman was the Senate Minority Caucus Chair. He became the assistant Republican leader in 2009, serving as assistant minority leader from 2009 to 2010 and as assistant majority leader from 2011 to 2015.[1]

Grothman was a member of the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC).

2011 Wisconsin budget protests

Grothman was a vocal proponent of SB11, a controversial bill proposed by Governor Scott Walker in early 2011. He said he supported the so-called budget repair bill because it was fiscally responsible. In a press interview, he said he did not "find it impressive" that over 70,000 protesters had marched on the Capitol.[5]

During the protests, Grothman was cornered by almost 200 pro-union protesters yelling "Shame! Shame!" outside the Capitol. He said he was not concerned about violence at the time, adding, "They're loud, they'll give you the finger, and they yell at you, but I really think deep down inside they're just mostly college kids having fun, just like they're having fun sleeping with their girlfriends on air mattresses. That's the guts of that crowd." He also called the protesters "a different breed of person" and "a bunch of slobs taking up the building."[6][7]

During this time, Grothman advocated that the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources hire more business-friendly people. In doing so, he went out of his way to single out one University of Wisconsin campus as a target: "Maybe you look to hire those people who know what the real world is like, rather than a recent graduate from UW-Stevens Point who doesn't know what the real world is like." This was only days before he appeared at UW–Stevens Point with the Joint Finance Committee for a day of hearings on Walker's budget bill.[8]

Grothman was subject to a recall effort in the spring of 2011, but the effort failed, collecting only 75% of the required signatures.[9]

U.S. House of Representatives

Elections

2014

On April 3, 2014, Grothman announced he would run in that year's Republican primary for Wisconsin's 6th congressional district against 17-term incumbent Tom Petri. He positioned himself well to Petri's right; in his campaign announcement he called Petri a "decent, genial person" who lacked the "sense of urgency" to put more curbs on "a federal government that seems to be out of control."[10] Grothman did not have to give up his state senate seat to run for Congress; state senators serve staggered four-year terms, and he was not up for reelection until 2016. Shortly after Grothman entered the race, Petri dropped out.

Grothman's longtime home in West Bend was in the 5th District, represented by Jim Sensenbrenner, but his state senate district included much of the southeastern part of the 6th congressional district. In the summer of 2014, Grothman moved to Campellsport, a suburb of Fond du Lac, which is in the 6th District.[11]

In the general election, Grothman defeated the Democratic nominee, Winnebago County Executive Mark Harris, with 57% of the vote to Harris's 41%.

2016

Grothman was reelected over Democratic nominee Sarah Lloyd, getting 57% of the vote to Lloyd's 37%.

2018

Grothman was reelected over Democratic nominee Dan Kohl, getting 55.5% of the vote to Kohl's 44.5%.[12]

Committee assignments

Caucus Memberships

Political positions

The Washington Post has described Grothman as "a shambling, strident conservative with a Trumpian tell-it-like-it-is streak who typically votes with the House GOP leadership".[14] According to Axios in October 2020, Grothman had a "Trump Loyalty Index" – measuring both his congressional votes and public reaction to certain statements from President Donald Trump – of 93, higher than any other member of Congress.[15]

4-year-old kindergarten

Grothman said Governor Scott Walker should defund Wisconsin's kindergarten program for 4-year-olds, saying that any academic benefits disappear by fourth grade. Politifact rated this "False", writing, "Some studies reached that conclusion. But Grothman is citing one small portion of a much broader debate and declaring the whole matter settled when there is considerable evidence on the other side."[16]

Concealed carry

Grothman is a longtime supporter of concealed carry legislation, but does not advocate allowing concealed weapons in taverns. He believes concealed carry laws will deter criminal behavior, with permits being given to law-abiding citizens who pass a gun safety course.[17]

Grothman co-introduced 2011 SB 93, which Walker signed into law.[18] This bill made Wisconsin the 49th state to legalize concealed carry.[19]

Equal pay

Speaking in support of Walker's decision to repeal the Wisconsin Equal Pay Act, Grothman said that the alleged pay differential is explainable: "Once you break it down by married and unmarried, the differential disappears."[20] A study by the American Association of University Women in 2007 found that life choices and family circumstances explain only part of the difference in pay between genders. Grothman rejected that study and added, "You could argue that money is more important for men. I think a guy in their first job, maybe because they expect to be a breadwinner someday, may be a little more money-conscious. To attribute everything to a so-called bias in the workplace is just not true."[20]

LGBT rights

Grothman opposed a provision in a 2010 sex education law that prohibited teachers from promoting bias based on sexual orientation, saying he did not believe the topic should be discussed at all in public schools. According to the Capitol Times, Grothman's opposition was based on the belief that instructors who lead these talks would have what he called an "agenda" to persuade students to become gay.[21] He postulated that "Part of that agenda which is left unsaid is that some of those who throw it out as an option would like it if more kids became homosexuals."[21]

In April 2014, Grothman said that he was concerned about what God might think of the United States after Secretary of State John Kerry announced plans to send scientists to Uganda in response to a new law against homosexuality; Grothman described Kerry's plans as a way "to say how wonderful the homosexual lifestyle is"[22] and said Republicans, conservatives, and church leaders were not confronting the issue of homosexuality and were "losing the issue": "We had such a great country in the relatively recent past. Now America, supposed to be the light of the world, instead we're the light going in the opposite direction."[22][23]

Kwanzaa

In a December 2012 press release, Grothman said that Kwanzaa is not a real holiday: "Of course, almost no black people today care about Kwanzaa—just white left-wingers who try to shove this down black people's throats in an effort to divide Americans."[24][25]

Martin Luther King Jr. Day

Grothman has argued that Martin Luther King Jr. Day should not be a state employee holiday, calling it "an insult to all the other taxpayers around the state." He has expressed doubts that "state workers would be 'checking out DVDs or reading books' about King", saying they "would probably just be out shopping or watching television instead."[26]

Municipal water chlorination

Grothman co-sponsored Senate Bill 19 (2011), which removes the requirement of mandatory chlorination of groundwater in municipal water systems.[27][28] The bill was supported by the League of Wisconsin Municipalities.[29]

Raw milk

Grothman is a vocal supporter of decriminalizing raw milk sales.[30][31]

Marriage

In February 2012, Grothman introduced Senate Bill 507, which would amend Wisconsin statutes to emphasize non-marital parenthood as a contributing factor to child abuse and neglect.[32] Politifact investigated his claim that kids living with a parent and parent's partner are "20 times" more likely to be sexually abused, and rated it True.[33]

He also sponsored State Bill 202, which would have repealed the Equal Pay Enforcement Act, saying that the "Left and the social welfare establishment want children born out of wedlock because they are far more likely to be dependent on the government."[34]

Smoking

Grothman opposed a bill that would increase funding for anti-smoking programs from $10 million to $30 million,[citation needed] saying that anti-smoking campaigns do not work and are no longer necessary. "Everybody knows you're not supposed to smoke!", he wrote.[35] Grothman also voted against the ban on smoking in bars, restaurants and other small business that became effective in July 2010.[36][37][38] After the bill passed, he introduced new legislation to allow lodging establishments, such as hotels, to designate certain rooms as smoking rooms; the bill failed.[39] He also co-sponsored a bill to exempt electronic cigarettes from the smoking ban.[40]

Welfare reform

In June 2013, Grothman proposed changing Wisconsin's welfare system to require that nondisabled single adults either work 20 hours per week or attend 20 hours of job training per week to continue receiving FoodShare benefits.[41]

Controversy

During a debate on the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, Grothman declared on the House floor that Black Lives Matter supporters do not care about the old-fashioned family. He also claimed that President Joe Biden′s inauguration speech was divisive.[42][43][44]

Public image

In October 2016, Grothman was featured in the "People Who Somehow Got Elected" segment on HBO's program Last Week Tonight with John Oliver. The segment made reference to Grothman's controversial comments about women and race during his time as an elected official.[45]

Personal life

Grothman lives in Glenbeulah, Wisconsin.[46]

Electoral history

Wisconsin Assembly, 59th district (1992–2000)

Year Election Date Elected Defeated Total Plurality
1993[47] Primary November 9 Glenn Grothman Republican 3,121 52.41% Betty Pearson Rep. 1,408 23.64% 5,955 1,713
John Torinus Rep. 720 12.09%
William S. Reid Rep. 389 6.53%
Ruth A. Schmitt Rep. 214 3.59%
Mark A. Helmle Rep. 103 1.73%
Special December 7 Glenn Grothman Republican 3,410 78.70% Richard M. Buntrock Ind. 624 14.40% 4,333 2,786
Kevin Scheunemann Lib. 103 1.73%
1994[47] General November 8 Glenn Grothman (inc.) Republican 13,222 100.0% 13,222 13,222
1996[48] General November 5 Glenn Grothman (inc.) Republican 18,216 100.0% 18,216 18,216
1998[49] General November 3 Glenn Grothman (inc.) Republican 15,074 100.0% 15,074 15,074
2000[50] General November 7 Glenn Grothman (inc.) Republican 22,729 98.98% 22,964 22,494

Wisconsin Assembly, 59th district (2002)

Year Election Date Elected Defeated Total Plurality
2002[51] General November 5 Glenn Grothman Republican 14,032 99.48% 14,105 13,959

Wisconsin Senate (2004, 2008, 2012)

Year Election Date Elected Defeated Total Plurality
2004 Primary[3] September 14 Glenn Grothman Republican 27,732 78.84% Mary Panzer (inc.) Rep. 7,430 21.12% 35,175 20,302
General[4] November 2 Glenn Grothman Republican 75,424 99.15% 76,073 74,775
2008 General[52] November 4 Glenn Grothman (inc.) Republican 69,942 80.26% Clyde Winter Ind. 17,113 19.64% 87,146 52,829
2012 General[53] November 6 Glenn Grothman (inc.) Republican 66,882 68.63% Tanya Lohr Dem. 30,504 31.30% 97,460 36,378

U.S. House of Representatives (2014–2020)

Year Election Date Elected Defeated Total Plurality
2014 Primary[54] August 12 Glenn Grothman Republican 23,247 36.16% Joe Leibham Rep. 23,028 35.82% 64,295 219
Duey Stroebel Rep. 15,873 24.69%
Tom Denow Rep. 2,117 3.29%
General[55] November 4 Glenn Grothman Republican 169,767 56.77% Mark L. Harris Dem. 122,212 40.87% 299,033 47,555
Gus Fahrendorf Ind. 6,865 2.30%
2016 General[56] November 8 Glenn Grothman (inc.) Republican 204,147 57.15% Sarah Lloyd Dem. 133,072 37.26% 357,183 71,075
Jeff Dahlke Ind. 19,716 5.52%
2018 General[57] November 6 Glenn Grothman (inc.) Republican 180,311 55.47% Dan Kohl Dem. 144,536 44.46% 325,065 35,775
2020 General[58] November 3 Glenn Grothman (inc.) Republican 238,874 59.23% Jessica King Dem. 164,239 40.72% 403,333 74,635

References

  1. ^ a b "Glenn Grothman, Bio". Wisconsin State Legislature. Retrieved March 3, 2011.
  2. ^ Masse, Ryan (2004-09-17). "Grothman makes rare defeat". Badgerherald.com. Retrieved 2016-12-10.
  3. ^ a b Results of Fall Primary Election - 09/14/2004 (PDF) (Report). Wisconsin State Elections Board. November 10, 2004. p. 17. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  4. ^ a b Results of Fall General Election - 11/02/2004 (PDF) (Report). Wisconsin State Elections Board. December 1, 2004. p. 9. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  5. ^ "State Senate Stalemate Continues Sen. Grothman: Protests Not Impressive". Channel 3000 WISC Madison. WISC Madison. 2011-02-21. Archived from the original on 2011-02-23. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  6. ^ Condon, Stephanie (2011-03-02). "GOP Wisconsin lawmaker chased down by protesters". Political Hotsheet. CBS News. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  7. ^ "Protesters Confront Wisconsin State Senator". NBC News Video, The Last Word. 2011-03-02. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
  8. ^ "Grothman urges DNR to hire older workers" JSOnline – All Politics Blog, April 4, 2011; retrieved April 11, 2011.
  9. ^ Bill Schanen IV, "Aggressive effort to recall Grothman falls short", Ozaukee Press, May 4, 2011.
  10. ^ Terkel, Amanda. Glenn Grothman, Ultra-Conservative Wisconsin Lawmaker, Will Run For Congress. Huffington Post, April 3, 2014.
  11. ^ Nomination Paper Tracking Report for 2014 election from Wisconsin Government Accountability Board
  12. ^ "Rep. Glenn Grothman wins Wisconsin's 6th Congressional District seat". washingtonpost.com. 2018-11-19. Archived from the original on 2018-08-15. Retrieved 2018-11-20.
  13. ^ "Member List". Republican Study Committee. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  14. ^ DeBonis, Mike (2018-01-26). "Forget Senate negotiators — House conservatives could have the last word on immigration". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2018-01-27.
  15. ^ Bartz, Juliet; Allen, Mike; VandeHei, Jim; Rummler, Orion (October 13, 2020). "Always Trumpers: The president's unbreakable wall". Axios. Retrieved February 6, 2021.
  16. ^ "Wisconsin state Sen. Glenn Grothman says recent research shows that the benefits of 4-year-old kindergarten don't last (False)". PolitiFact Wisconsin. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. 2011-01-16. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  17. ^ Grothman, Glenn. "A Good Idea" (PDF). grothman.org. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
  18. ^ "2011 SB 93". Legislative Reference Bureau. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
  19. ^ Gardner, Brent (June 24, 2011). "Wisconsin to Become 49th State to Allow Right-to-Carry". NRA News. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
  20. ^ a b Goldberg, Michelle. "Wisconsin's Repeal of Equal Pay Rights Adds to Battles for Women". The Daily Beast. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
  21. ^ a b Shawn Doherty (2010-02-11). "Vital Signs: Grothman suggests "don't ask don't tell" for state schools". The Capital Times. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
  22. ^ a b Elbow, Steven (April 30, 2014). "Glenn Grothman blasts U.S. moves against draconian Ugandan homosexuality law". The Cap Times. Retrieved August 26, 2014.
  23. ^ Lachman, Samantha (April 29, 1014). "Glenn Grothman: John Kerry Upset God By Trying To Stop Ugandan Anti-LGBT Bill". Huffington Post. Retrieved August 26, 2014.
  24. ^ Grothman, Glenn. "Press Release" (PDF). Wheeler Report. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-01-24. Retrieved August 11, 2014.
  25. ^ McCoy, Adam W. (2012-12-31). "State Sen. Glenn Grothman Declares War on Kwanzaa". Patch Media. Retrieved 2019-07-29.
  26. ^ Mary Spicuzza (2011-01-18). "State senator says public employees should work on MLK Day". The Wisconsin State Journal. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  27. ^ "Wisconsin Legislature Data". Wisconsin Legislature website. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  28. ^ "2011-2012 Wisconsin Legislature Senate Bill 19". State of Wisconsin. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
  29. ^ Witynski, Curt. "Repealing Mandatory Disinfection" (PDF). League of Wisconsin Municipalities. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
  30. ^ "Why I Support Raw Milk" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  31. ^ Kinzel, Mike (December 10, 2013). "Senator Grothman continues push for raw milk sales". WHBL. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
  32. ^ "SB507: Bill Text". Wisconsin Legislature. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
  33. ^ Kertscher, Tom (March 25, 2012). "GOP Wisconsin state senator says study shows kids living with parent and parent's partner "20 times" more likely to be sexually abused". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
  34. ^ Alphonse, Lylah M. (March 2, 2012). "Wisconsin Bill Claims Single Moms Cause Child Abuse by Not Being Married". Yahoo! Shine.
  35. ^ Jackie Johnson (2007-09-06). "Grothman: More funding for anti-smoking efforts is absurd". Wisconsin Radio Network. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  36. ^ "Assembly, Senate pass indoor smoking ban". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  37. ^ "2009 Wisconsin Act 12". Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  38. ^ "Wisconsin State Senate Journal for May 13, 2009". Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  39. ^ "2009 Senate Bill 225". Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  40. ^ "2011 Senate Bill 389". Legislative Reference Bureau. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  41. ^ Grothman, Glenn. "Grothman Stands with Governor Walker on FoodShare Reform". Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
  42. ^ Einenkel, Walter. "A Wisconsin Republican went full racist on House floor. Watch Stacey Plaskett's response".
  43. ^ Keydra, Keydra (March 10, 2021). "Plaskett: 'How dare you say that we are not interested in families in Black community'". news.yahoo.com. The Grio. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
  44. ^ Journal, Mitchell Schmidt | Wisconsin State. "Glenn Grothman criticized for saying Black Lives Matter dislikes 'old-fashioned family'". madison.com. Retrieved 2021-03-14.
  45. ^ Elbow, Steven (October 24, 2016). "John Oliver takes aim at Glen Grothman". The Capital Times. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
  46. ^ Biography | U.S. Representative Glenn Grothman Retrieved 2018-10-29.
  47. ^ a b Wisconsin Legislative Reference Bureau (1995). "Elections" (PDF). In Barish, Lawrence S. (ed.). State of Wisconsin 1995-1996 Blue Book (Report). State of Wisconsin. pp. 903–904, 921–922. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  48. ^ Wisconsin Legislative Reference Bureau (1997). "Elections" (PDF). In Barish, Lawrence S. (ed.). State of Wisconsin 1997-1998 Blue Book (Report). State of Wisconsin. pp. 900, 904. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  49. ^ Wisconsin Legislative Reference Bureau (1997). "Elections" (PDF). In Barish, Lawrence S.; Meloy, Patricia E. (eds.). State of Wisconsin 1999-2000 Blue Book (Report). State of Wisconsin. pp. 880, 883. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  50. ^ Results of Fall General Election - 11/07/2000 (PDF) (Report). Wisconsin State Elections Board. May 10, 2001. p. 29. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  51. ^ Results of Fall General Election - 11/05/2002 (PDF) (Report). Wisconsin State Elections Board. December 2, 2002. p. 30. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  52. ^ Fall General Election - 11/04/2008 (PDF) (Report). Wisconsin State Elections Board. November 24, 2008. p. 10. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  53. ^ Canvass Results for 2012 Presidential and General Election - 11/6/2012 (PDF) (Report). Wisconsin Government Accountability Board. December 26, 2012. p. 6. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  54. ^ "Canvass Results for 2014 Fall Partisan Primary - 8/12/2014" (PDF). Wisconsin Government Accountability Board. August 29, 2014. p. 6. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  55. ^ Canvass Results for 2014 General Election - 11/4/2014 (PDF) (Report). Wisconsin Government Accountability Board. November 26, 2014. p. 4. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  56. ^ Canvass Results for 2016 General Election - 11/8/2016 (PDF) (Report). Wisconsin Elections Commission. December 22, 2016. p. 4. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  57. ^ Canvass Results for 2018 General Election - 11/6/2018 (PDF) (Report). Wisconsin Elections Commission. February 22, 2019. p. 5. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  58. ^ Canvass Results for 2020 General Election - 11/3/2020 (PDF) (Report). Wisconsin Elections Commission. November 18, 2020. p. 3. Retrieved January 19, 2021.

External links

Wisconsin State Assembly
Preceded by
Mary Panzer
Member of the Wisconsin Assembly
from the 59th district

December 16, 1993–January 5, 2003
Succeeded by
Daniel LeMahieu
Preceded by
Michael A. Lehman
Member of the Wisconsin Assembly
from the 58th district

January 5, 2003–January 3, 2005
Succeeded by
Patricia Strachota
Wisconsin State Senate
Preceded by
Mary Panzer
Member of the Wisconsin Senate
from the 20th district

January 3, 2005–January 3, 2015
Succeeded by
Duey Stroebel
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Tom Petri
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Wisconsin's 6th congressional district

January 3, 2015–present
Incumbent
U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by
Garret Graves
United States representatives by seniority
219th
Succeeded by
Jody Hice
This page was last edited on 11 August 2021, at 05:15
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.