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Gilgit-Baltistan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gilgit-Baltistan
گلگت بلتستان
Flag of Gilgit-Baltistan گلگت بلتستان

Flag
Official seal of Gilgit-Baltistan گلگت بلتستان

Seal
Nickname(s): 
GB
Gilgit-Baltistan is shaded in red. The rest of Pakistan is shown in white. The Indian-administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir is indicated by hatching.
Gilgit-Baltistan is shaded in red. The rest of Pakistan is shown in white. The Indian-administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir is indicated by hatching.
Coordinates: 35°21′N 75°54′E / 35.35°N 75.9°E / 35.35; 75.9
Country Pakistan
Established1 Nov 1948
CapitalGilgit
Largest citySkardu[3]
Government
 • TypeSelf-governing territory of Pakistan
 • BodyLegislative assembly
 • GovernorRaja Jalal Hussain Maqpoon
 • Chief MinisterHafeezur Rahman[4]
Area
 • Total72,971 km2 (28,174 sq mi)
 [5]
Population
 (2015)
 • Total1,800,000[2]
Time zoneUTC+5 (PKT)
ISO 3166 codePK-GB
Main languagesBalti, Shina, Burushaski
HDI (2017)0.565[6]
medium
Assembly seats33[7]
Districts10
Towns9
Websitegilgitbaltistan.gov.pk

Gilgit-Baltistan (Urdu: گلگت بلتستان‎), formerly known as the Northern Areas,[8] is the northernmost territory administered by Pakistan.[1] It borders Azad Kashmir to the south, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan to the north, the Xinjiang region of China, to the east and northeast, and the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir to the southeast.

Gilgit-Baltistan is part of the greater Kashmir region, which is the subject of a long-running conflict between Pakistan and India. The territory shares a border with Azad Kashmir, together with which it is referred to by the United Nations and other international organisations as "Pakistan administered Kashmir".[1][note 1] Gilgit-Baltistan is six times the size of Azad Kashmir.[13] The territory also borders Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir state to the south and is separated from it by the Line of Control, the de facto border between India and Pakistan.

The territory of present-day Gilgit-Baltistan became a separate administrative unit in 1970 under the name "Northern Areas". It was formed by the amalgamation of the former Gilgit Agency, the Baltistan district and several small former princely states, the larger of which being Hunza and Nagar.[2] In 2009, it was granted limited autonomy and renamed to Gilgit-Baltistan via the Self-Governance Order signed by Pakistan president Asif Ali Zardari, which also aimed to empower the people of Gilgit-Baltistan. However, scholars state that the real power rests with the governor and not with chief minister or elected assembly.[14][15] The population of Gilgit-Baltistan wants to be merged into Pakistan as a separate fifth province and opposes integration with Kashmir.[16][17] The Pakistani government has rejected Gilgit-Baltistani calls for integration with Pakistan on the grounds that it would jeopardise its demands for the whole Kashmir issue to be resolved according to UN resolutions.[18]

Gilgit-Baltistan covers an area of over 72,971 km² (28,174 sq mi)[5] and is highly mountainous. It had an estimated population of 1,800,000 in 2015.[2] Its capital city is Gilgit (population 216,760 est). Gilgit-Baltistan is home to five of the "eight-thousanders" and to more than fifty peaks above 7,000 metres (23,000 ft). Three of the world's longest glaciers outside the polar regions are found in Gilgit-Baltistan. The main tourism activities are trekking and mountaineering, and this industry is growing in importance.

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Transcription

- Good morning, I hope you're having an amazing day. It's Mark Wiens, I'm in Gilgit, Pakistan, and in the Karakoram Mountain Range. Today we are gonna go on a cultural and food tour of Gilgit. We're gonna explore the market. We were invited to a local home to eat lunch. I'm psyched to be here, it's just spectacular. Okay, let's move. (upbeat music) All right, I'm gonna rewind real fast to the day before. Our plan was to drive through Deosai National Park on our way to Gilgit, but things didn't work out as planned so we ended up having to turn around and make a very long drive in the opposite direction to get to Gilgit. Before we start today's tour of Gilgit, I just wanna show you a little bit of yesterday. We're not sure how much snow... It snowed last night, but we're gonna go across the plains and try, attempt, to get to the other side, and then make our way to Gilgit. Okay, getting kind of cold now, but we've stopped at Satpara Lake. (car engine revving) (car door closes) (upbeat music) (car engine roars) It's snowing. (laughing) - [Ali] This is the starting point of Deosai. This is the starting point of Deosai National Park. - Sweet. (laughing) Got a bit of... Got a bit of a dilemma. Okay, my lips are starting to freeze. - This place is like 12,000 feet, and it's gonna be 14,000 feet once we get to Sheosar Lake. - And it's gonna be snowing harder? - Certainly harder, it's gonna take the elevation 2,000 more feet. - We're not sure if we should pass all the way through. I mean, if it's not safe then let's not risk it. That's just fresh powder. That's, like, snow cone, cheers. Did you eat some snow? Oh, that's cold. (upbeat music) The chicken boti kebabs are on the grill. It smells so good. (speaking in foreign language) Oh, nice. Oh, wow. Back in the car now, we're on our way to Gilgit. We still, I'm sure, have about three or four hours left. (upbeat music) Okay, so it is midnight. We've been driving since 6:30 a.m. this morning. We finally arrived to Gilgit. Thank you, nice to meet you. (speaking in foreign language) - [Woman] This is homemade crepe and fritter. (upbeat music) (laughing) - They prepared dinner for us, and we got here kind of late, but they've graciously still served us dinner at 1:00 a.m. Okay, next up for a local soup. It's so juicy. (upbeat music) Thank you. (upbeat music) Welcome to the center of Gilgit, it's a bustling little city but actually quite calm. The air is fresh. Actually we're driving in the van, but we just noticed this giant pot of food right up ahead, and that's actually the reason why we stopped. We gotta see what's in there. But just take a look at this truck. Fully outfitted for the mountains. They're loading it up. There's garlic and vegetables on the top. Look at that detail. (speaking in foreign language) I love how it's topped in a leopard print blanket. Oh, nice, he just opened it up. Oh, that aroma, yeah, it's huge. And it looks like such fluffy rice. So it is Kabuli pulao. He dishes you a plate, and then he scoops on a bunch of yogurt with tomatoes and onions and cucumber inside. Yeah, what a cool spot. And, he's just, like, it's in this closet-little shop. The master pot, it takes up the entire front entrance of the entire shop, and then there's some dark seating in the back. It's so light and fluffy, like the cinnamon-y spices. - Warm rice underneath, and the cool yogurt and the crunch from the onions, that's really nice. - Yeah, that fresh vegetable-like yogurt. Vegetable-filled yogurt. Thank you. - [Mark] Get that yogurt on that. (speaking in foreign language) Oh, yeah, it would be good, though. Okay, Ali is just asking for a piece of meat. Thanks to Ali we got the meat hookup. He asked him for some extra meat there, because there's not a lot of meat in the dish, mostly used just for flavor, to flavor the dish, but we did get a couple chunks plus some more of that raita, that's the yogurt sauce with the vegetables in it. Oh, the meat, yum. And bathing in steam of the pot. - He's eating in the car. (horn honking) (chill beats) - The one over here is beef sliver. (speaking in foreign language) - We stopped at the next stall. We saw... it's beef. It looks so beautifully marinated with chilis and some kind of a red something. How can you resist a stall that looks like this? We got also some chutney, but let me just taste that straight meat. This is right off the grill. You just bite it right off the skewer. It's dripping. That's like salty, you taste the chilis in there. That's some good meat. (dishes clanging) (car horn honking) And that chutney, I don't know what that chutney is. There's, like, lumps in it. It's kind of, like, yogurt-y maybe. The chutney is kind of plain, maybe a little chili in there. And I think that is yogurt, maybe. Again, dip it in that chunky, curdled chutney. Never had a chutney like that before. Oh, yeah, all the liver is great. (upbeat music) We haven't even made it to the main bazaar, main market. That's where... We're on our way there right now. (chill beats) You just will not be able to get over, to fathom, the views from the city, just the mountains surrounding, and just, like, the most rugged, jagged, steep cliffs of any mountains I've ever seen. And just snow-covered, capped mountains everywhere. (speaking in foreign language) I just got the full spectrum. (speaking in foreign language) Thank you, it's so good. (chill music) Oh, that looks so good. Again, just a total unplanned stop. The man selling the curry, he actually was smiling at Micah and waving at Smile with this huge grin. What an amazing man. You couldn't resist the chaplis? - Yup. - No. (laughing) - [Ali] How could a day go by without having chaplis? - [Mark] When a day can go by without chaplis. - When we walked up, though, he was like... (food sizzling) - Oh, it's like a doughnut. And Uncle has this amazing little dining room. Check out this little closet-sized dining room. We're gonna sit in here. Okay, we got the chapli kebab. This is such a cool little spot, and they have to have indoor sections because it gets so cold in the winter here. Gonna start with the meat curry along with the okra. Wow, that has some oily goodness to it. - Cheers, dude. - Oh yeah, you could just tell from his smile and his, like, jolly aura that his food was gonna be good. Oh, that's just warm and comforting and rich and delicious. Very nice. - Okay, okay. - [Mark] Thank you. It's got that wonderful, like, sliminess from the okra. (laughing) He just sets it on the table. Too bad it's not already pre-cooked or we would order it. But he really wanted us to see the fish, so he set it on the table with us. (laughing) Gave us a big smile and thumbs up while he was doing it. (laughing) What an amazing man. Oh man, you can smell that. The coriander seed is what always is so noticeable to me, and this is all buffalo meat, made from buffalo meat. Okay, beautiful. (chill beats) (laughing) That's one of the greatest possible formations of meat. (woman speaking in foreign language) Yes. Okay, we're probably spending way too much time here. We could just not leave, but we gotta move on, because we gotta get to the village where we have a home, where we've been invited, to eat a home-cooked meal, which is gonna be spectacular. Thank you, shukrian. (chill beats) (people speaking in foreign language) The bridge actually leads across, this is the Hunza River. Oh, man, the peaks, the snow-capped peaks, just fully surrounding, it's spectacular. (motorbike engine roaring) (water rushing) (upbeat music) We're on our way to the village now, but walking through the market, walking through Gilgit, people were so friendly. People wanted to shake hands, dish they have a photo, to smile. Yeah, people are amazing here. (upbeat music) (speaking in foreign language) One of Ali's employees is from this village, and he invited us to his village, to his home, for lunch today. That's the backyard, that's their backyard. Look at that peak, you could just... The mist, spectacular scenery. Nizam is the... He's hosting us. What a backyard, and he said that he takes his cattle and his sheep and goats up the mountain there to graze. It's unbelievable. We have a massive mountain in the backyard, but this is the front yard, and if I can zoom over on this mountain, can you see that trail that goes along this mountain? Nizam has just told us that that's part of the original Silk Road route. Micah, can you shake hands? - [Woman] Nice to meet you. - [Mark] Yeah, good job, Micah. - [Woman] Nice to meet you, Peta, look. - He got to say hello to some of the kids here. They're so nice and friendly. (kids laughing) (speaking in foreign language) Quick cup of tea before we go to the garden before we start more cooking. (upbeat music) Oh, that's great. (upbeat music) Okay, we're on our way to the garden. But we gotta... I guess it's a little bit further than a walk. We're trying to save some time so we're gonna jump in this little minivan. (upbeat music) (laughing) - That was quite a struggle. (speaking in foreign language) - This is a saag field, a vegetable that we've been eating frequently, and lots of corn as well. It's sweet corn. - [Ali] It's sweet corn. - I can actually feel the fresh mountain air just entering my lungs with every single breath. (upbeat music) We just made it to Nizam's grandparents' home, and this is still a traditional home made of stones and mud. (upbeat music) (speaking in foreign language) - So they cut them in pieces, and then they dry them to make a powder, a chili powder. (speaking in foreign language) - That is a beautiful sight, one of my favorite ingredients. I think we'll take some chilis for lunch. He's gonna crush some chilis, yes. (laughing) I just showed him the photo of him grinding the chilis. He just burst out into just ultra happiness. (laughing) (speaking in foreign language) (laughing) What an amazing man. Thank you. We got some of the fresh saag. Just gonna sample it raw real fast. Ripe. Oh, it's wonderful. - Is it? - Yeah. - How does it taste? - It's sweet. Sweet and so green tasting. It's unimaginable how hospitable and how generous and friendly the people are here. And just the chuckles and the handshakes. (sighing) And the fresh air. One more type of saag that we gotta see over here underneath the cornfield. Is this (foreign word). (speaking in foreign language) (upbeat music) - This is one massive green chili. Wow, it's almost the size of a banana. (laughing) (upbeat music) Okay, back in the mini mini-van on our way to go eat. I hope we can make it up the hill. (spices sizzling) (women speaking in foreign language) They've already prepared most of the dishes, but they're just preparing that saag, especially that saag that we just picked, and just kind of stirring frying that in a little bit of oil with some onions and chilis. (speaking in foreign language) Oh, it's dried tomato. And now we're gonna go take a peak inside the kitchen where some of the dishes, I think, have already been prepared. - 120 years old, this place. - This whole building? Oh, cool, so cool. What's really cool about this house, I mean this old style house is that there's a sun roof, but also right in the center is where the stove is, but that also heats the little house, and then there's just carpets and mats and pads all around. (woman speaking in foreign language) It's spectacular, beautiful. (woman speaking in foreign language) (upbeat music) All the food is ready, it's placed before us. A huge thank you to Nizam and his entire family for preparing this amazing, amazing meal. (upbeat music) Mutton curry, just look, it looks so good. (upbeat music) When it's this good you just gotta reach in with your fingers, get some of the rice, some of the mutton. (upbeat music) Oh, wow. That is stunning, oh wow. You can actually taste the chilis in it. It's spicier than other regions of food that we have. You taste the chilis. That sauce is so rich and succulent. Oh, that is stunning. And kind of tomato-y, garlic-y. Okay moving on over to the vegetable, and then yeah, I got that chili. Oh, nice. Here's some of the saag, and we'll reach in for that chili. That vegetable has a really nutty taste to it. When it's cooked down, it's like sweated down, it still has that crispness. The big chili is coming, but it has such a nutty flavor to that vegetable. Nice, the big chili. (laughing) Okay, try this chili. (upbeat music) It's not like intensely spicy, but it's so flavorful. It's so fresh tasting, and this is the chili we just picked up off the... The chili tree, like, moments ago. Would you guys all like to have a chunk of chili? A chili cheers. (upbeat music) Oh, it's sweet. - So crisp. - Yeah, not, not spicy. - I was ready for the worst, but this so good. - Not really spicy, more like crisp and sweet, actually. I have to take one more bite of the mutton curry before proceeding onto the beef curry, I believe. Okay, this one is the beef curry, and I got some of a chunk of the roti as well to sample with it. Oh, I got a nice nugget of the beef. The beef is unbelievable. You taste the tomatoes, and then you taste the cumin so vibrantly. And it's like tomato-y. Oh, that's incredible. And the curries are amazing, but that vegetable, it's so fresh tasting, that nuttiness, and how they just sauteed it down in onions and garlic and the oil. That's the way vegetables should taste. (upbeat music) There's only one thing that can possibly make you forget about the stunning scenery that is right behind us, and that is a meal and hospitality this good, but then when you prepare it with the food and you think about the scenery that we're sitting in, it just makes it like an experience beyond belief. (upbeat music) What a treat, what a privilege. The spices, the home flavors, the natural ingredients, the vegetables, and made with so much love and hospitality. I wanna say a huge thank you to Nizam and his entire family for their gracious kindness. This was... It is a meal I will never forget. And this location. (breathing heavily) Blown away. (kid crying) Shukran, shukran, oh, the green tea. Nice, shukran. Just to completely wash it down, nothing more satisfying. This is a perfect situation, and a beautiful family. What a special day. I cannot even... I can't even fathom everything from the scenery to the hospitality and culture. Man, what a day, what a day. Buh-bye, buh-bye, thank you. (upbeat music) All right, back in the same place that I started this video this morning. That was an unbelievable day here in Paksitan, in Gilgit. Thank you to Nizam and his entire family for hosting us. And thank you to Ali from Landmark Communications, and Landmark Travel for organizing and for setting everything up. That's gonna be it for this video. Tomorrow is gonna be another big day. Tomorrow we drive from Gilgit to Hunza, Hunza Valley, which is supposed to be one of the most spectacular valleys maybe in the world. It's gonna be an amazing day, so stay tuned for that. And thank you very much for watching today's video. Please remember to give it a thumbs up if you enjoyed it. Leave a comment below, I'd love to hear from you. If you're not already subscribed, click subscribe now and click that little bell icon so that you get notified of the next video that I publish. Good night, thanks again for watching. See you on the next video.

Contents

Early history

Rock carvings
Manthal Buddha Rock in outskirts of Skardu city
Photograph of Kargah Buddha
The Hanzal stupa dates from the Buddhist era
"The ancient Stupa – rock carvings of Buddha, everywhere in the region is a pointer to the firm hold of the Buddhist rules for such a long time."[19]

The rock carvings found in various places in Gilgit-Baltistan, especially those found in the Passu village of Hunza, suggest a human presence since 2000 BC.[20] Within the next few centuries after human settlement in the Tibetan plateau, this region became inhabited by Tibetans, who preceded the Balti people of Baltistan. Today Baltistan bears similarity to Ladakh physically and culturally (although not religiously). Dards are found mainly in the western areas. These people are the Shina-speaking peoples of Gilgit, Chilas, Astore and Diamir while in Hunza and in the upper regions Burushaski and Khowar speakers dominate. The Dards find mention in the works of Herodotus,[note 2] Nearchus, Megasthenes, Pliny,[note 3] Ptolemy,[note 4] and the geographical lists of the Puranas.[21] In the 1st century the people of these regions were followers of the Bon religion while in the 2nd century they followed Buddhism.

Map of Tibetan Empire citing the areas of Gilgit-Baltistan as part of its kingdom in 780–790 CE
Map of Tibetan Empire citing the areas of Gilgit-Baltistan as part of its kingdom in 780–790 CE
Provincial symbols of the Gilgit-Baltistan (un-official)
Animal Yak[22][23]
The Yak.jpg
Bird Golden eagle[22][23]
Aquila chrysaetos Flickr.jpg
Tree Apricot[22][23]
Prunus armeniaca 'Moorpark'.jpg
Flower Granny's bonnet
Aquilegia alpina1JUSA.jpg
Sport Polo
Polo at Shandur Top; Tahsin Shah 05.jpg

Between 399 and 414, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Faxian visited Gilgit-Baltistan,[24] while in the 6th century Somana Palola (greater Gilgit-Chilas) was ruled by an unknown king. Between 627 and 645, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzang travelled through this region on his pilgrimage to India.

According to Chinese records from the Tang dynasty, between the 600s and the 700s, the region was governed by a Buddhist dynasty referred to as Bolü (Chinese: 勃律; pinyin: bólǜ), also transliterated as Palola, Patola, Balur.[25] They are believed to be the Palola Sāhi dynasty mentioned in a Brahmi inscription,[26] and are devout adherents of Vajrayana Buddhism.[27] At the time, Little Palola (Chinese: 小勃律) was used to refer to Gilgit, while Great Palola (Chinese: 大勃律) was used to refer to Baltistan. However, the records do not consistently disambiguate the two.

In mid-600s, Gilgit came under Chinese suzerainty after the fall of Western Turkic Khaganate due to Tang military campaigns in the region. In late 600s CE, the rising Tibetan Empire wrestled control of the region from the Chinese. However, faced with growing influence of the Umayyad Caliphate and then the Abbasid Caliphate to the west, the Tibetans were forced to ally themselves with the Islamic caliphates. The region was then contested by Chinese and Tibetan forces, and their respective vassal states, until the mid-700s.[28] Rulers of Gilgit formed an alliance with the Tang Chinese and held back the Arabs with their help.[29]

Between 644 and 655, Navasurendrāditya-nandin became king of Palola Sāhi dynasty in Gilgit.[30] Numerous Sanskrit inscriptions, including the Danyor Rock Inscriptions, were discovered to be from his reign.[31] In late 600s and early 700s, Jayamaṅgalavikramāditya-nandin was king of Gilgit.[30]

According to Chinese court records, in 717 and 719 respectively, delegations of a ruler of Great Palola (Baltistan) named Su-fu-she-li-ji-li-ni (Chinese: 蘇弗舍利支離泥; pinyin: sūfúshèlìzhīlíní) reached the Chinese imperial court.[32][33] By at least 719/720, Ladakh (Mard) became part of the Tibetan Empire. By that time, Buddhism was practiced in Baltistan, and Sanskrit was the written language.

In 720, the delegation of Surendrāditya (Chinese: 蘇麟陀逸之; pinyin: sūlíntuóyìzhī) reached the Chinese imperial court. He was referred to by the Chinese records as the king of Great Palola; however, it is unknown if Baltistan was under Gilgit rule at the time.[34] The Chinese emperor also granted the ruler of Cashmere, Chandrāpīḍa ("Tchen-fo-lo-pi-li"), the title of "King of Cashmere". By 721/722, Baltistan had came under the influence of the Tibetan Empire.[35]

In 721–722, Tibetan army attempted but failed to capture Gilgit or Bruzha (Yasin valley). By this time, according to Chinese records, the king of Little Palola was Mo-ching-mang (Chinese: 沒謹忙; pinyin: méijǐnmáng). He had visited Tang court requesting military assistance against the Tibetans.[36] Between 723–728, the Korean Buddhist pilgrim Hyecho passed through this area. In 737/738, Tibetan troops under the leadership of Minister Bel Kyesang Dongtsab of Emperor Me Agtsom took control of Little Palola. By 747, the Chinese army under the leadership of the ethnic-Korean commander Gao Xianzhi had recaptured Little Palola.[37] Great Palola was subsequently captured by the Chinese army in 753 under the military Governor Feng Changqing. However, by 755, due to the An Lushan rebellion, the Tang Chinese forces withdrew and was no longer able to exert influence in Central Asia and in the regions around Gilgit-Baltistan.[38] The control of the region was left to the Tibetan Empire. They referred to the region as Bruzha, a toponym that is consistent with the ethnonym "Burusho" used today. Tibetan control of the region lasted until late-800s CE.[39]

Turkic tribes practicing Zoroastrianism arrived in Gilgit during the 7th century, and founded the Trakhan dynasty in Gilgit.[29]

Medieval history

In the 14th century Sufi Muslim preachers from Persia and Central Asia introduced Islam in Baltistan. Famous amongst them was Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani who came via Kashmir[40] while in the Gilgit region Islam entered in the same century through Turkic Tarkhan rulers. Gilgit-Baltistan was ruled by many local rulers, amongst whom the Maqpon dynasty of Skardu and the Rajas of Hunza were famous. The Maqpons of Skardu unfied Gilgit-Baltistan with Chitral and Ladakh, especially in the era of Ali Sher Khan Anchan[41] who had friendly relations with the Mughal court.[42] Anchan reign brought prosperity and entertained art, sport, and variety in architecture. He introduced polo to the Gilgit region and from Chitral he sent a group of musicians to Delhi to learn Indian music; the Mughal architecture influenced the architecture of the region as well.[43] Later Anchan in his successors Abdal Khan had great influence though in the popular literature of Baltistan he is still alive as dark figure by the nickname "Mizos" "man-eater". The last Maqpons Raja, Ahmed Shah, ruled all of Baltistan between 1811–1840. The areas of Gilgit, Chitral and Hunza had already become independent of the Maqpons.[citation needed]

Before the demise of Shribadat, a group of Shin people migrated from Gilgit Dardistan and settled in the Dras and Kharmang areas. The descendants of those Dardic people can be still found today, and are believed to have maintained their Dardic culture and Shina language up to the present time.[citation needed]

Modern history

Dogra rule

The last Maqpon Raja  Ahmed Shah (died in prison in Lhasa[44] c. 1845)
The last Maqpon Raja Ahmed Shah (died in prison in Lhasa[44] c. 1845)

In November 1839, Dogra commander Zorawar Singh, whose allegiance was to Gulab Singh, started his campaign against Baltistan.[45] By 1840 he conquered Skardu and captured its ruler, Ahmad Shah. Ahmad Shah was then forced to accompany Zorawar Singh on his raid into Western Tibet. Meanwhile, Baghwan Singh was appointed as administrator (Thanadar) in Skardu. But in the following year, Ali Khan of Rondu, Haidar Khan of Shigar and Daulat Ali Khan from Khaplu led a successful uprising against the Dogras in Baltistan and captured the Dogra commander Baghwan Singh in Skardu.[46]

In 1842, Dogra Commander Wasir Lakhpat, with the active support of Ali Sher Khan (III) from lKartaksho, conquered Baltistan for the second time. There was a violent capture of the fortress of Kharphocho. Haidar Khan from Shigar, one of the leaders of the uprising against the Dogras,[47] was imprisoned and died in captivity. Gosaun was appointed as administrator (Thanadar) of Baltistan and till 1860, the entire region of Gilgit-Baltistan was under the Sikhs and then the Dogras.[48][49]

After the defeat of the Sikhs in the First Anglo-Sikh War, the region became a part of the princely state called Jammu and Kashmir which since 1846 remained under the rule of the Dogras. The population in Gilgit perceived itself to be ethnically different from Kashmiris and disliked being ruled by the Kashmir state.[50] The region remained with the princely state, with temporary leases of some areas assigned to the British, until 1 November 1947.

First Kashmir War

After Pakistan's independence, Jammu and Kashmir initially remained an independent state. Later on 22 October 1947, tribal militias backed by Pakistan crossed the border into Jammu and Kashmir.[51][52] Local tribal militias and the Pakistani armed forces moved to take Srinagar but on reaching Uri they encountered defensive forces. Hari Singh made a plea to India for assistance and signed the Instrument of Accession.

Gilgit's population did not favour the State's accession to India.[53] The Muslims of the Frontier Districts Province (modern day Gilgit-Baltistan) had wanted to join Pakistan.[54] Sensing their discontent, Major William Brown, the Maharaja's commander of the Gilgit Scouts, mutinied on 1 November 1947, overthrowing the Governor Ghansara Singh. The bloodless coup d'etat was planned by Brown to the last detail under the code name "Datta Khel", which was also joined by a rebellious section of the Jammu and Kashmir 6th Infantry under Mirza Hassan Khan. Brown ensured that the treasury was secured and minorities were protected. A provisional government (Aburi Hakoomat) was established by the Gilgit locals with Raja Shah Rais Khan as the president and Mirza Hassan Khan as the commander-in-chief. However, Major Brown had already telegraphed Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan asking Pakistan to take over. The Pakistani political agent, Khan Mohammad Alam Khan, arrived on 16 November and took over the administration of Gilgit.[55][56] Brown outmaneuvered the pro-Independence group and secured the approval of the mirs and rajas for accession to Pakistan. Browns's actions surprised the British Government.[57] According to Brown,

Alam replied [to the locals], "you are a crowd of fools led astray by a madman. I shall not tolerate this nonsense for one instance... And when the Indian Army starts invading you there will be no use screaming to Pakistan for help, because you won't get it."... The provisional government faded away after this encounter with Alam Khan, clearly reflecting the flimsy and opportunistic nature of its basis and support.[58]

The provisional government lasted 16 days. The provisional government lacked sway over the population. The Gilgit rebellion did not have civilian involvement and was solely the work of military leaders, not all of whom had been in favor of joining Pakistan, at least in the short term. Historian Ahmed Hasan Dani mentions that although there was lack of public participation in the rebellion, pro-Pakistan sentiments were intense in the civilian population and their anti-Kashmiri sentiments were also clear.[59] According to various scholars, the people of Gilgit as well as those of Chilas, Koh Ghizr, Ishkoman, Yasin, Punial, Hunza and Nagar joined Pakistan by choice.[60][61][62][63][64]

After taking control of Gilgit, the Gilgit Scouts along with Azad irregulars moved towards Baltistan and Ladakh and captured Skardu by May 1948. They successfully blocked the Indian reinforcements and subsequently captured Dras and Kargill as well, cutting off the Indian communications to Leh in Ladakh. The Indian forces mounted an offensive in Autumn 1948 and recaptured all of Kargil district. Baltistan region, however, came under Gilgit control.[65][66]

On 1 January 1948, India took the issue of Jammu and Kashmir to the United Nations Security Council. In April 1948, the Council passed a resolution calling for Pakistan to withdraw from all of Jammu and Kashmir and India to reduce its forces to the minimum level, following which a plebiscite would be held to ascertain the people's wishes.[67] However, no withdrawal was ever carried out, India insisting that Pakistan had to withdraw first and Pakistan contending that there was no guarantee that India would withdraw afterwards.[68] Gilgit-Baltistan and a western portion of the state called Azad Jammu and Kashmir have remained under the control of Pakistan since then.[69]

Inside Pakistan

While the residents of Gilgit-Baltistan expressed a desire to join Pakistan after gaining independence from Maharaja Hari Singh, Pakistan declined to merge the region into itself because of the territory's link to Jammu and Kashmir.[63] For a short period after joining Pakistan, Gilgit-Baltistan was governed by Azad Kashmir if only "theoretically, but not practically" through its claim of being an alternative government for Jammu and Kashmir.[70] In 1949, the Government of Azad Kashmir handed administration of the area to the federal government via the Karachi Agreement, on an interim basis which gradually assumed permanence. According to Indian journalist Sahni, this is seen as an effort by Pakistan to legitimize its rule over Gilgit-Baltistan.[71]

There were two reasons why administration was transferred from Azad Kashmir to Pakistan: (1) the region was inaccessible to Azad Kashmir and (2) because both the governments of Azad Kashmir and Pakistan knew that the people of the region were in favour of joining Pakistan in a potential referendum over Kashmir's final status.[63]

According to the International Crisis Group, the Karachi Agreement is highly unpopular in Gilgit-Baltistan because Gilgit-Baltistan was not a party to it even while its fate was being decided upon.[72]

From then until 1990s, Gilgit-Baltistan was governed through the colonial-era Frontier Crimes Regulations, which treated tribal people as "barbaric and uncivilised," levying collective fines and punishments.[73][74] People had no right to legal representation or a right to appeal.[75][74] Members of tribes had to obtain prior permission from the police to travel to any location and had to keep the police informed about their movements.[76][77] There was no democratic set-up for Gilgit-Baltistan during this period. All political and judicial powers remained in the hands of the Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas (KANA). The people of Gilgit-Baltistan were deprived of rights enjoyed by citizens of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir.[78]

A primary reason for this state of affairs was the remoteness of Gilgit-Baltistan. Another factor was that the whole of Pakistan itself was deficient in democratic norms and principles, therefore the federal government did not prioritise democratic development in the region. There was also a lack of public pressure as an active civil society was absent in the region, with young educated residents usually opting to live in Pakistan's urban centers instead of staying in the region.[78]

In 1970 the two parts of the territory, viz., the Gilgit Agency and Baltistan, were merged into a single administrative unit, and given the name "Northern Areas".[1] The Shaksgam tract was ceded by Pakistan to China following the signing of the Sino-Pakistani Frontier Agreement in 1963.[79][80] In 1969, a Northern Areas Advisory Council (NAAC) was created, later renamed to Northern Areas Council (NAC) in 1974 and Northern Areas Legislative Council (NALC) in 1994. But it was devoid of legislative powers. All law-making was concentrated in the KANA Ministry of Pakistan. In 1994, a Legal Framework Order (LFO) was created by the KANA Ministry to serve as the de facto constitution for the region.[81][82]

In 1984 the territory's importance shot up on the domestic level with the opening of the Karakoram Highway and the region's population came to be more connected with mainland Pakistan. With the improvement in connectivity, the local population availed education opportunities in the rest of Pakistan.[83] Improved connectivity also allowed the political parties of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir to setup local branches, raise political awareness in the region, and these Pakistani political parties have played a 'laudable role' in organising a movement for democratic rights among the residents of Gilgit-Baltistan.[78]

In the late 1990s, the President of Al-Jihad Trust filed a petition in the Supreme Court of Pakistan to determine the legal status of Gilgit-Baltistan. In its judgement of 28 May 1999, the Court directed the Government of Pakistan to ensure the provision of equal rights to the people of Gilgit-Baltistan, and gave it six months to do so. Following the Supreme Court decision the government took several steps to devolve power to the local level. However, in several policy circles the point was raised that the Pakistani government was helpless to comply with the court verdict because of the strong political and sectarian divisions in Gilgit-Baltistan and also because of the territory's historical connection with the still disputed Kashmir region and this prevented the determination of Gilgit-Baltistan's real status.[84]

A position of 'Deputy Chief Executive' was created to act as the local administrator, but the real powers still rested with the 'Chief Executive', who was the Federal Minister of KANA. "The secretaries were more powerful than the concerned advisors," in the words of one commentator. In spite of various reforms packages over the years, the situation is essentially unchanged.[85] Meanwhile, public rage in Gilgit-Baltistan is "growing alarmingly." Prominent "antagonist groups" have mushroomed protesting the absence of civic rights and democracy.[86] Pakistan government has been debating the grant of a provincial status to Gilgit-Baltistan.[87]

According to Antia Mato Bouzas, the PPP-led Pakistani government has attempted a compromise through its 2009 reforms between its traditional stand on the Kashmir dispute and the demands of locals, most of whom may have pro-Pakistan sentiments. While the 2009 reforms have added to the self-identification of the region, they have not resolved the constitutional status of the region within Pakistan.[88]

The people of Gilgit-Baltistan want to be merged into Pakistan as a separate fifth province,[16][17] however, leaders of Azad Kashmir are opposed to any step to integrate Gilgit-Baltistan into Pakistan.[89] The people of Gilgit-Baltistan oppose any integration with Kashmir and instead want Pakistani citizenship and constitutional status for their region.[16][17]

Gilgit-Baltistan has been a member state of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization since 2008.[90]

Government

The territory of present-day Gilgit-Baltistan became a separate administrative unit in 1970 under the name "Northern Areas". It was formed by the amalgamation of the former Gilgit Agency, the Baltistan District of the Ladakh Wazarat and the hill states of Hunza and Nagar. It presently consists of ten districts,[91] has a population approaching one million and an area of approximately 28,000 square miles (73,000 km2), and shares borders with Pakistan, China, Afghanistan, and India. In 1993, an attempt was made by the High Court of Azad Jammu and Kashmir to annex Gilgit-Baltistan but was quashed by the Supreme Court of Pakistan after protests by the locals of Gilgit-Baltistan, who feared domination by the Kashmiris.[18]

Government of Pakistan abolished State Subject Rule in Gilgit-Baltistan in 1974, which resulted in demographic changes in the territory.[92][93] While administratively controlled by Pakistan since the First Kashmir War, Gilgit-Baltistan has never been formally integrated into the Pakistani state and does not participate in Pakistan's constitutional political affairs.[94][95] On 29 August 2009, the Gilgit-Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Order 2009, was passed by the Pakistani cabinet and later signed by the then President of Pakistan Asif Ali Zardari.[96] The order granted self-rule to the people of Gilgit-Baltistan, by creating, among other things, an elected Gilgit-Baltistan Legislative Assembly and Gilgit-Baltistan Council. Gilgit-Baltistan thus gained a de facto province-like status without constitutionally becoming part of Pakistan.[94][97] Currently Gilgit-Baltistan is neither a province nor a state. It has a semi-provincial status.[98] Officially, the Pakistan government has rejected Gilgit-Baltistani calls for integration with Pakistan on the grounds that it would jeopardise its demands for the whole Kashmir issue to be resolved according to UN resolutions.[18] Some Kashmiri nationalist groups, such as the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front, claim Gilgit-Baltistan as part of a future independent state to match what existed in 1947.[18] India, on the other hand, maintains that Gilgit-Baltistan is a part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir that is "an integral part of the country [India]."[99]

The Gilgit-Baltistan Police (GBP) is responsible for law enforcement in Gilgit-Baltistan. The mission of the force is the prevention and detection of crime, maintenance of law and order and enforcement of the Constitution of Pakistan.

Regions

Gilgit-Baltistan is administered as three divisions and ten districts
Gilgit-Baltistan is administered as three divisions and ten districts

Gilgit-Baltistan is administratively divided into three divisions[100] which, in turn, are divided into ten districts, consisting of the four Baltistan districts of Skardu, Shigar, Kharmang, and Ghanche, and the four Gilgit districts of Gilgit, Ghizer, Hunza and Nagar and two districts of Diamer and Astore are part of Diamer Division.[101][102] The principal administrative centers are the towns of Gilgit and Skardu.

Division District Area (km²) Capital Population (2013)[103] Divisional Capital
Baltistan Ghanche 4,052 Khaplu 108,000 Skardu
Shigar 8,500 Shigar -
Kharmang 5,500 Kharmang -
Skardu 8,700 Skardu 305,000*
Gilgit Gilgit 14,672 Gilgit 222,000 Gilgit
Ghizer 9,635 Gahkuch 190,000
Hunza 7,900 Aliabad 70,000 (2015)[104]
Nagar 5,000 Nagar 51,387 (1998)[103]
Diamer Diamer 10,936 Chilas 214,000 Chilas
Astore 5,092 Eidghah 114,000

* Combined population of Skardu, Shigar and Kharmang Districts. Shigar and Kharmang Districts were carved out of Skardu District after 1998. The estimated population of Gilgit-Baltistan was about 1.8 million in 2015[2] and the overall population growth rate between 1998 and 2011 was 63.1% making it 4.85% annually.[105][106]

Geography and climate

Map of Gilgit-Baltistan showing its position relative to Azad Kashmir
Map of Gilgit-Baltistan showing its position relative to Azad Kashmir
Naltar Lake or Bashkiri Lake-I
Naltar Lake or Bashkiri Lake-II
Azure colored water of Naltar Lake III
Surface elevation = 3050–3150 m[107]

Gilgit-Baltistan borders Pakistan's Khyber Pukhtunkhwa province to the west, a small portion of the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan to the north, China's Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region to the northeast, the Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir to the southeast, and the Pakistani-administered state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir to the south.

Gilgit-Baltistan is home to all five of Pakistan's "eight-thousanders" and to more than fifty peaks above 7,000 metres (23,000 ft). Gilgit and Skardu are the two main hubs for expeditions to those mountains. The region is home to some of the world's highest mountain ranges. The main ranges are the Karakoram and the western Himalayas. The Pamir Mountains are to the north, and the Hindu Kush lies to the west. Amongst the highest mountains are K2 (Mount Godwin-Austen) and Nanga Parbat, the latter being one of the most feared mountains in the world.

Three of the world's longest glaciers outside the polar regions are found in Gilgit-Baltistan: the Biafo Glacier, the Baltoro Glacier, and the Batura Glacier. There are, in addition, several high-altitude lakes in Gilgit-Baltistan:

The Deosai Plains, are located above the tree line and constitute the second-highest plateau in the world at 4,115 metres (14,500 feet) after Tibet. The plateau lies east of Astore, south of Skardu and west of Ladakh. The area was declared as a national park in 1993. The Deosai Plains cover an area of almost 5,000 square kilometres (1,900 sq mi). For over half the year (between September and May), Deosai is snow-bound and cut off from rest of Astore and Baltistan in winters. The village of Deosai lies close to Chilum chokki and is connected with the Kargil district of Ladakh through an all-weather road.

Rock art and petroglyphs

There are more than 50,000 pieces of rock art (petroglyphs) and inscriptions all along the Karakoram Highway in Gilgit-Baltistan, concentrated at ten major sites between Hunza and Shatial. The carvings were left by invaders, traders, and pilgrims who passed along the trade route, as well as by locals. The earliest date back to between 5000 and 1000 BCE, showing single animals, triangular men and hunting scenes in which the animals are larger than the hunters. These carvings were pecked into the rock with stone tools and are covered with a thick patina that proves their age.

The ethnologist Karl Jettmar has pieced together the history of the area from inscriptions and recorded his findings in Rock Carvings and Inscriptions in the Northern Areas of Pakistan[108] and the later-released Between Gandhara and the Silk Roads — Rock Carvings Along the Karakoram Highway.[109] Many of these carvings and inscriptions will be inundated and/or destroyed when the planned Basha-Diamir dam is built and the Karakoram Highway is widened.

Climate

The climate of Gilgit-Baltistan varies from region to region, surrounding mountain ranges creates sharp variations in weather. The eastern part has the moist zone of the western Himalayas, but going toward Karakoram and Hindu Kush, the climate dries considerably.[110]

There are towns like Gilgit and Chilas that are very hot during the day in summer yet cold at night and valleys like Astore, Khaplu, Yasin, Hunza, and Nagar, where the temperatures are cold even in summer.[111]

Economy and resources

Montage of Gilgit-Baltistan
Montage of Gilgit-Baltistan

The economy of the region is primarily based on a traditional route of trade, the historic Silk Road. The China Trade Organization forum led the people of the area to actively invest and learn modern trade know-how from its Chinese neighbor Xinjiang. Later, the establishment of a chamber of commerce and the Sust dry port (in Gojal Hunza) are milestones. The rest of the economy is shouldered by mainly agriculture and tourism. Agricultural products are wheat, corn (maize), barley, and fruits. Tourism is mostly in trekking and mountaineering, and this industry is growing in importance.[112][113]

In early September 2009, Pakistan signed an agreement with the People's Republic of China for a major energy project in Gilgit-Baltistan which includes the construction of a 7,000-megawatt dam at Bunji in the Astore District.[114]

Mountaineering

View of Laila Peak, which is located near Hushe Valley (a town in Khaplu)
View of Laila Peak, which is located near Hushe Valley (a town in Khaplu)
The Trango Towers offer some of the largest cliffs and most challenging rock climbing in the world, and every year a number of expeditions from all corners of the globe visit Karakoram to climb the challenging granite.[115]
The Trango Towers offer some of the largest cliffs and most challenging rock climbing in the world, and every year a number of expeditions from all corners of the globe visit Karakoram to climb the challenging granite.[115]

Gilgit-Baltistan is home to more than 20 peaks of over 20,000 feet (6,100 m), including K-2 the second highest mountain on Earth.[116] Other well known peaks include Masherbrum (also known as K1), Broad Peak, Hidden Peak, Gasherbrum II, Gasherbrum IV, and Chogolisa, situated in Khaplu Valley. The following peaks have so far been scaled by various expeditions:

Name of Peak Photos Height Date of Conquest Location
1.K-2
K2 2006b.jpg
(28,250Ft) 31 Jul 1954 Karakoram
2. Nanga Parbat
Nanga Parbat The Killer Mountain.jpg
(26,660 Ft) 3 Jul 1953 Himalaya
3. Gasherbrum I
Gasherbrum2.jpg
(26,360Ft) 7 Jul 1956 Karakoram
4. Broad Peak
7 15 BroadPeak.jpg
(26,550Ft) 9 Jun 1957 Karakoram
5. Muztagh Tower
MuztaghTower.jpg
(23,800Ft) 6 Aug 1956 Karakoram
6. Gasherbrum II
Gasherbrum2.jpg
(26,120Ft) 4 Jul 1958 Karakoram
7. Hidden Peak
HiddenPeak.jpg
(26,470Ft) 4 Jul 1957 Karakoram
8. Khunyang Chhish
Kunyang Pumari Chhish.JPG
(25,761 Ft) 4 July 1971 Karakoram
9. Masherbrum
Masherbrum.jpg
(25,659 Ft) 4 Aug 1960 Karakoram
10. Saltoro Kangri
Saltoro Kangri.jpg
(25,400Ft) 4 June 1962 Karakoram
11. Chogolisa
Chogolisa.jpg
(25,148 Ft) 4 Aug 1963 Karakoram

Transport

A picture of Gilgit Airport taken in the month of December 2015. Runway can be seen.
A picture of Gilgit Airport taken in the month of December 2015. Runway can be seen.

Before 1978, Gilgit-Baltistan was cut off from the rest of the Pakistan and the world due to the harsh terrain and the lack of accessible roads. All of the roads to the south opened toward the Pakistan-administered state of Azad Kashmir and to the southeast toward the present-day Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir. During the summer, people could walk across the mountain passes to travel to Rawalpindi. The fastest way to travel was by air, but air travel was accessible only to a few privileged local people and to Pakistani military and civilian officials. Then, with the assistance of the Chinese government, Pakistan began construction of the Karakoram Highway (KKH), which was completed in 1978. The journey from Rawalpindi / Islamabad to Gilgit takes approximately 20 to 24 hours.

A view of Jaglote, Gore, from a tunnel on Karakoram Highway.
A view of Jaglote, Gore, from a tunnel on Karakoram Highway.

The Karakoram Highway connects Islamabad to Gilgit and Skardu, which are the two major hubs for mountaineering expeditions in Gilgit-Baltistan. Northern Areas Transport Corporation (NATCO) offers bus and jeep transport service to the two hubs and several other popular destinations, lakes, and glaciers in the area. Landslides on the Karakoram Highway are very common. The Karakoram Highway connects Gilgit to Tashkurgan Town, Kashgar, China via Sust, the customs and health-inspection post on the Gilgit-Baltistan side, and the Khunjerab Pass, the highest paved international border crossing in the world at 4,693 metres (15,397 ft).

In March 2006, the respective governments announced that, commencing on 1 June 2006, a thrice-weekly bus service would begin across the boundary from Gilgit to Kashgar and road-widening work would begin on 600 kilometres (370 mi) of the Karakoram Highway. There would also be one daily bus in each direction between the Sust and Taxkorgan border areas of the two political entities.[117]

ATR 42-500 on Gilgit Airport. Picture taken on July 10, 2016
ATR 42-500 on Gilgit Airport. Picture taken on July 10, 2016

Pakistan International Airlines used to fly a Fokker F27 Friendship daily between Gilgit Airport and Benazir Bhutto International Airport. The flying time was approximately 50 minutes, and the flight was one of the most scenic in the world, as its route passed over Nanga Parbat, a mountain whose peak is higher than the aircraft's cruising altitude. However, the Fokker F27 was retired after a crash at Multan in 2006. Currently, flights are being operated by PIA to Gilgit on the brand-new ATR 42–500, which was purchased in 2006. With the new plane, the cancellation of flights is much less frequent. Pakistan International Airlines also offers regular flights of a Boeing 737 between Skardu and Islamabad. All flights are subject to weather clearance; in winter, flights are often delayed by several days.

A railway through the region has been proposed; see Khunjerab Railway for details.

Population

Demographics

At the last census (1998), the population of Gilgit-Baltistan was 870,347.[118] Approximately 14% of the population was urban.[119] The estimated population of Gilgit-Baltistan in 2013 was over 2 million. The population of Gilgit-Baltistan consists of many diverse linguistic, ethnic, and religious sects, due in part to the many isolated valleys separated by some of the world's highest mountains. The ethnic groups include Shins, Yashkuns, Kashmiris, Kashgaris, Pamiris, Pathans, and Kohistanis.[120] A significant number of people from Gilgit-Baltistan are residing in other parts of Pakistan, mainly in Punjab and Karachi. The literacy rate of Gilgit-Baltistan is approximately 72%.

Languages

Gilgit-Baltistan is a multilingual region where Urdu being a national and official language serves as the lingua franca for inter ethnic communications. English is co-official and also used in education, while Arabic is used for religious purposes. The table below shows a breakup of Gilgit-Baltistan first-language speakers.

Rank Language Detail[121][122][123][124][125][126][127][128]
1 Shina It is a Dardic language spoken by the majority in six tehsils (Gilgit, Diamir/Chilas, Darel/Tangir, Astore, Puniyal/Gahkuch and Rondu).
2 Balti It is spoken by the majority in five tehsils (Skardu/Shigar, Kharmang, Gultari, Khaplu and Mashabrum). It is from the Tibetan language family and has Urdu borrowings.
3 Burushaski It is spoken by the majority in four tehsils (Nagar 1, Hunza/Aliabad, Nagar II, and Yasin). It is a language isolate that has borrowed considerable Urdu vocabulary.
4 Khowar It is spoken by the majority in two tehsils (Gupis and Ishkomen) but also spoken in Yasin and Puniyal/Gahkuch Tehsils. Like Shina, it is a Dardic language.
5 Wakhi It is spoken by the majority of people in Gojal Tehsil of Hunza. But it is also spoken in Ishkomen and Yasin Tehsils of District Ghizer. It is classified as eastern Iranian/ Pamiri language.
Others Pashto, Kashmiri, Domaaki (spoken by musician clans in the region) and Gojri languages are also spoken by a significant population of the region.

Religion

Sectarian divide of Gilgit-Baltistan[129]
Sects Percent
Shia
39.85%
Sunni
30.05%
Ismaili
24%
Noorbakhshis
6.1%

The population of Gilgit-Baltistan is entirely Muslim and is denominationally the most diverse in the country. The region is also the only Shia-majority area in an otherwise Sunni-dominant Pakistan.[130] People in the Skardu district are mostly Shia, while Diamir and Astore districts have Sunni majorities. Ghanche has a Noorbakhshi population, and Ghizar has an Ismaili majority.[131] The populations in Gilgit, Hunza and Nagar districts are composed of a mix of all of these sects.[129] In 1948, the Shias and Ismailis constituted about 85% of the population. The proportion was brought down by General Zia ul-Haq through a conscious policy of demographic change by encouraging the migration of Sunnis from other provinces and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. The policy is said to have been motivated by a desire to counter the growing sectarian consciousness of the Shias after the Iranian Revolution in 1979.[132]

Culture

Architecture
"Mostly the architecture have been influenced by Tibetan Architecture as the above images are testimonials of it."[19]
Dance of Swati Guests with traditional music at baltit fort 2014
Dance of Swati Guests with traditional music at baltit fort 2014
Wakhi musicians in Gulmit.
Wakhi musicians in Gulmit.

Gilgit-Baltistan is home to diversified cultures, ethnic groups, languages and backgrounds.[133] Major cultural events include the Shandoor Polo Festival, Babusar Polo Festival and Jashn-e-Baharan or the Harvest Time Festival (Navroz).[133] Traditional dances include: Old Man Dance in which more than one person wears old-style dresses; Cow Boy Dance (Payaloo) in which a person wears old style dress, long leather shoes and holds a stick in hand and the Sword Dance in which the participants show taking one sword in right and shield in left. One to six participants can dance in pairs.

Sports

Polo in progress with the shandur lake in background, Shandur Ghizer.
Polo in progress with the shandur lake in background, Shandur Ghizer.

Many types of sports are in currency, throughout the region, but most popular of them is Polo.[134][135] Almost every bigger valley has a polo ground, polo matches in such grounds attract locals as well as foreigners visitors during summer season. One of such polo tournament is held in Shandur each year and polo teams of Glgit with Chitral participates.[136] Though very internationally unlikely, but even for some local historians like Hassan Hasrat from skardu and for some national writers like Ahmed Hasan Dani it was originated in same region.[137] For testimonies they present the Epic of King Gesar of balti version where king gesar started polo by killing his step son and hit head of cadaver with a stick thus started the game[138] they also held that the very simple rules of local polo game also testifies its primitiveness. The English word Polo has balti origin, that is spoken in same region, dates back to the 19th century which means ball.[139][140]

Other popular sports are football, cricket, volleyball (mostly play in winters) and other minor local sports. with growing facilities and particular local geography Climbing, trekking and other similar sports are also getting popularity. Samina Baig from Hunza valley is the only Pakistani woman and the third Pakistani to climb Mount Everest and also the youngest Muslim woman to climb Everest, having done so at the age of 21 while Hassan Sadpara from Skardu valley is the first Pakistani to have climbed six eight-thousanders including the world's highest peak Everest (8848m) besides K2 (8611m), Gasherbrum I (8080m), Gasherbrum II (8034m), Nanga Parbat (8126 m), Broad Peak (8051m).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Indian government and Indian sources refer to Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan as "Pakistan-occupied Kashmir" ("PoK")[9] or "Pakistan-held Kashmir" (PHK).[10] Sometimes Azad Kashmir alone is meant by these terms.[9] "Pakistan-administered Kashmir" and "Pakistan-controlled Kashmir"[11][12] are used by neutral sources. Conversely, Pakistani sources call the territory under Indian control "Indian-Occupied Kashmir" ("IOK") or "Indian-Held Kashmir" ("IHK").[9]
  2. ^ He mentions twice a people called Dadikai, first along with the Gandarioi, and again in the catalogue of king Xerxes's army invading Greece. Herodotus also mentions the gold-digging ants of Central Asia.
  3. ^ In the 1st century, Pliny repeats that the Dards were great producers of gold.
  4. ^ Ptolemy situates the Daradrai on the upper reaches of the Indus

References

  1. ^ a b c d Weightman, Barbara A. (2 December 2005). Dragons and Tigers: A Geography of South, East, and Southeast Asia (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-471-63084-5.
  2. ^ a b c d Shahid Javed Burki 2015.
  3. ^ "Skardu". Skardu. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  4. ^ "In the saddle: New CM has a vision for Gilgit-Baltistan". The Express Tribune. 30 June 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  5. ^ a b "UNPO: Gilgit Baltistan: Impact Of Climate Change On Biodiversity". unpo.org. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  6. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  7. ^ Legislative Assembly will have directly elected 24 members, besides six women and three technocrats. "Gilgit Baltistan: New Pakistani Package or Governor Rule" 3 September 2009, The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO)
  8. ^ Hinman, Bonnie (15 September 2011), We Visit Pakistan, Mitchell Lane Publishers, Inc., p. 41, ISBN 978-1-61228-103-2
  9. ^ a b c Snedden 2013, pp. 2–3.
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External links

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