To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ghilman (singular Arabic: غُلاَمghulām ,[note 1] plural غِلْمَان ghilmān )[note 2] were slave-soldiers and/or mercenaries in the armies of the Abbasid, Samanid, Ottoman, Safavid, Afsharid and Qajar empires.

History

Ghilman were introduced to the Abbasid Caliphate during the reign of al-Mu'tasim (r. 833–842), who showed them great favor and relied upon them for his personal guard. The ghilman were slave-soldiers taken as prisoners of war from conquered regions or frontier zones, especially from among the Turkic people of Central Asia and the Caucasian peoples (Turkish: Kölemen). They fought in bands, and demanded high pay for their services.[1] They were opposed by the native Arab population, and riots against the ghilman in Baghdad in 836 forced Mu'tasim to relocate his capital to Samarra. The ghilman rose rapidly in power and influence, and under the weak rulers that followed Mu'tasim, they became king-makers: they revolted several times during the so-called "Anarchy at Samarra" in the 860s and killed four caliphs. Eventually, starting with Ahmad ibn Tulun in Egypt, some of them became autonomous rulers and established dynasties of their own, leading to the dissolution of the Abbasid Caliphate by the mid-10th century.

A ghulam was trained and educated at his master's expense and could earn his freedom through his dedicated service. Ghilman were required to marry Turkic slave-women, who were chosen for them by their masters.[2] Some ghilman seem to have lived celibate lives. The absence of family life and offspring was possibly one of the reasons why ghilman, even when attaining power, generally failed to start dynasties or proclaim their independence. The only exception to this was the Ghaznavid dynasty of Afghanistan.

The Ottomans and various Iranian dynasties (Safavid, Afsharid, Qajar) drew its peoples generally from the Balkans and the Caucasus.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ Other standardized transliterations: ġulām / ḡulām . IPA: [ʁʊˈlæːm, ɣoˈlæːm].
  2. ^ Other standardized transliterations: ġilmān / ḡilmān . IPA: [ʁɪlˈmæːn, ɣelˈmæːn].
  1. ^ "Ghulam - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Oxfordislamicstudies.com. 2008-05-06. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
  2. ^ "Handbook to Life in the Medieval World, 3-Volume Set - Madeleine Pelner Cosman, Linda Gale Jones - Google Books". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
  3. ^ "BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI v. Military slavery in Islamic Iran". Retrieved 15 April 2014.

External links

This page was last edited on 15 June 2019, at 20:19
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.