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German National Library

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

German National Library
Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
The German National Library in Leipzig
LocationFrankfurt and Leipzig, Germany
TypeNational library
Established1912; 112 years ago (1912)
Reference to legal mandateLaw regarding the German National Library
Items collectedConventional printed works, those in microform, sound recording media and digital publications on physical storage devices and net publications
Size43.7 million items (2021)[1]
Criteria for collectionall publications published in Germany, all German-language publications published abroad, all translations into other languages of German-language works published abroad, all foreign-language publications about Germany published abroad known as "Germanica", written or printed works published between 1933 and 1945 by German-speaking emigrants
Legal deposityes, since 1935
Access and use
Access requirementsUsers must be at least 18 years old and present a valid passport or ID card. Library use is subject to a charge. A valid residence permit for Leipzig or Frankfurt am Main is requested for the application.
Circulation350,713 (2018)[2]
Members173,374 (2018)[2]
Other information
Budget€54.9 million (2018)[2]
DirectorFrank Scholze (2020)
Employees641.5 FTE (2018)[2]
Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Frankfurt am Main
Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Frankfurt am Main
Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Leipzig
Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Leipzig
German National Library
Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Frankfurt am Main
General information
AddressAdickesallee 1, 60322 Frankfurt am Main
Coordinates50°07′52″N 8°41′00″E / 50.13121°N 8.68329°E / 50.13121; 8.68329
Other information
Public transit access
Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Leipzig
General information
AddressDeutscher Platz 1, 04103 Leipzig
Coordinates51°19′20″N 12°23′48″E / 51.32228°N 12.39663°E / 51.32228; 12.39663
Other information
Public transit access

The German National Library (DNB; German: Deutsche Nationalbibliothek) is the central archival library and national bibliographic centre for the Federal Republic of Germany. It is one of the largest libraries in the world. Its task is to collect, permanently archive, comprehensively document and record bibliographically all German and German-language publications since 1913, foreign publications about Germany, translations of German works, and the works of German-speaking emigrants published abroad between 1933 and 1945, and to make them available to the public.[3] The DNB is also responsible for the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie [de] and several special collections like the Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933–1945 (German Exile Archive), Anne-Frank-Shoah-Bibliothek [de] and the Deutsches Buch- und Schriftmuseum (German Museum of Books and Writing). The German National Library maintains co-operative external relations on a national and international level. For example, it is the leading partner in developing and maintaining bibliographic rules and standards in Germany and plays a significant role in the development of international library standards. The cooperation with publishers has been regulated by law since 1935 for the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig [de] and since 1969 for the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main.

Duties are shared between the facilities in Leipzig and Frankfurt, with each center focusing its work in specific specialty areas. A third facility has been the Deutsches Musikarchiv Berlin (founded 1970), which deals with all music-related archiving (both printed and recorded materials). Since 2010, the Deutsches Musikarchiv is also located in Leipzig as an integral part of the facility there.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • Nazi Book Burning
  • Manuscripts from German speaking lands


Books represent humanity at its best and its worst. To burn books is simply a fundamental repression of ideas. I mean, what can a book do? And why is it so dangerous that it needs to be physically annihilated? In 1933, the National Socialist German Workers Party, called the Nazis for short, came to power in Germany and established a dictatorship under the leadership of Adolf Hitler. The Nazis intended to re-arm Germany and to reorganize the German state on the principle that the German ethnic group or race was superior to all others in Europe. They suppressed all dissent within Germany, making it a crime to criticize the regime. The newly established Ministry of Propaganda and Enlightenment set up various chambers to control specific aspects of German culture such as art, literature, theater, film, music, virtually all forms of entertainment and all forms of dissemination of news. In 1933, in April, Nazi German students decided to organize a nationwide book burning program to eliminate foreign influence, to purify German culture as they saw it. So you have committees of students meeting with professors together deciding what categories of books in these university libraries would count as un-German. They didn't see themselves as suppressing culture. They saw themselves as advancing Aryan German culture. I remember very distinctly a conversation between my parents and some friends who were all shocked that a nation like the Germans, an educated, highly intelligent nation, would burn books. Books never hurt anybody. The event that the students planned occurred on May 10, 1933. In each German university city, thirty-four of them in all, thousands of people gathered together at a public place in which books that had been confiscated either by the students themselves or by Nazi Party officials, often with the help of police, were brought and dumped in a pile. Student leaders exhorted their followers and the listening crowds to swear an oath by the fire, to destroy and combat subversive and un-German literature. "For the national treason against our soldiers in World War I, we're burning Hemingway's books." --Joseph Goebbels, the Propaganda Minister himself spoke at the book burning in Berlin. It is amazing to me the variety of books that was burned on that night and thereafter. -Among the authors whose books were burned were Ernest Hemingway...both Mann brothers, Thomas and Heinrich... --There's the German writer, Erich Maria Remarque, who wrote the famous book All Quiet on the Western Front... Helen Keller... Jack London, the American nature writer... There's very little that unites all of these books really except that they were all considered dangerous by the Nazis. A grand total of the number of volumes, perhaps best estimates would be between eighty or ninety thousand volumes. For weeks afterwards, books were confiscated from libraries, from bookshops, and from private collections. In 1939, the Nazi regime initiated what became the Second World War. During the course of this war, the Nazis begin to implement their population policy, a priority element of which was the annihilation of six million Jews on the European continent in a mass murder, a genocide that we now call the Holocaust. I was about 11 when i read the diary of Anne Frank. And it was translated into Persian. Reading about Anne Frank and millions of other Iranians reading Anne Frank, they discover that they are that little girl. And that what happened to that little girl was a supreme act of injustice. And so they connect to her in away that no political sermon, or propaganda could affect. The first thing every totalitarian regime does, along with confiscation and mutilation of reality, is confiscation of history and confiscation of culture. I think they all happen, almost simultaneously. And they surely happened in my experience when I was living in Iran. For me it's both heartbreaking and, quote unquote, a sort of badge of honor that my book is not allowed to be published in Iran. It has been translated into thirty-five languages and not in Persian. Really all literature is dangerous to a regime that fears the free flow of ideas. Because the literature in its most fundamental way is meant to forge connections among human beings. --Because you don't know where it takes you. Knowledge is always unpredictable, there is always a risk. It is like Alice jumping down that hole, running after that white rabbit, not knowing where she goes. And for tyrants, control is the main thing. They don't like this unpredictability, they don't want the citizens to connect to the unknown parts of themselves, of their past, and to connect to the world. --For a totalitarian regime this is perhaps the most dangerous thing. Because these regimes are predicated on the idea that the people within them will resign themselves the thinking that this is all there is. And that there aren't any other options. I think the shame is ours, is everyone's. We all have to think that as humans we share the best and worst, and that as human beings what happened then can happen again. --How serious those warning signs were taken is exemplified by my mother, who, when I asked her if we had to worry about a guy like Hitler, she said, "No. We are living in a democracy. We have the protection of the police. Nobody's going to hurt us." So talk about warning signs, there were plenty of them. Did w Did we take them seriously? My family didn't. Never believed that Germans would stoop so low that they would implement the threats which one fanatic uttered... And so, our own life went from bad to worse and it culminated in July of 1942, when we were arrested and sent to a concentration camp. To make this clear, it was a life without hope. The only thing that they cannot put in jail, or prevent from physically leaving, is your mind, is your imagination. That cannot be captured. But the idea of freedom should be kept alive, even if it's between two people or three people. Talk about it, think about it, live about it, and hope about it.


During the German revolutions of 1848, various booksellers and publishers offered their works to the Frankfurt Parliament for a parliamentary library. The library, led by Johann Heinrich Plath, was termed the Reichsbibliothek ("Reich library"). After the failure of the revolution the library was abandoned and the stock of books already in existence was stored at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg.[4] In 1912, the town of Leipzig, seat of the annual Leipzig Book Fair, the Kingdom of Saxony, and the Börsenverein der Deutschen Buchhändler [de] (Association of German booksellers) agreed to found a German National Library in Leipzig. Starting 1 January 1913, all publications in German were systematically collected (including books from Austria and Switzerland). In the same year, Gustav Wahl was elected as the first director.

Under Nazi rule, from 1933 to 1945, German libraries were censored, becoming extensions of National Socialist rule.[5][6] Books that Nazis seized in occupied countries entered German collections.[7][8][9][10][11]

In 1946, Georg Kurt Schauer, Heinrich Cobet, Vittorio Klostermann and Hanns Wilhelm Eppelsheimer, director of the Frankfurt University Library, initiated the re-establishment of a German archive library based in Frankfurt.[12] The Federal state representatives of the book trade in the American zone agreed to the proposal. The city of Frankfurt agreed to support the planned archive library with personnel and financial resources. The US military government gave its approval. The Library began its work in the tobacco room of the former Rothschild library, which served the bombed university library as accommodation. As a result, there were two libraries in Germany, which assumed the duties and function of a national library for the later German Democratic Republic (GDR/DDR) and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG/BRD), respectively. Two national bibliographic catalogues almost identical in content were published annually.

With the reunification of Germany on 3 October 1990, the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig [de] and the Deutsche Bibliothek Frankfurt am Main were merged into a new institution, The German Library (Die Deutsche Bibliothek).[12] The "Law regarding the German National Library" came into force on 29 June 2006. The law reconfirmed support for the national legal deposit at this library and expanded the collection brief to include online publications set the course for collecting, cataloguing and storing such publications as part of Germany's cultural heritage.[13] The Library's highest management body, the Administrative Council, was expanded to include two MPs from the Bundestag. The law also changed the name of the library and its buildings in Leipzig, Frankfurt am Main and Berlin to "Deutsche Nationalbibliothek" (German National Library).

In July 2000, the DMA also assumed the role as repository for GEMA, Gesellschaft für musikalische Aufführungs- und mechanische Vervielfältigungsrechte, a German music copyright organization. Since then, music publishers only have to submit copies to DMA, which covers both national archiving and copyright registration. The 210,000 works of printed music previously held by GEMA were transferred to DMA.

German Exile Archive

One of the special activities of the German National Library involves the collection and processing of printed and non-printed documents of German-speaking emigrants and exiles during the period from 1933 to 1945.

The German National Library maintains two exile collections: the Collection of Exile Literature 1933–1945 of the German National Library in Leipzig and the German Exile Archive [de] 1933–1945 [14] of the German National Library in Frankfurt am Main. Both collections contain printed works written or published abroad by German-speaking emigrants as well as leaflets, brochures and other materials produced entirely or in part by German-speaking exiles.

In 1998 the German National Library and the German Research Foundation began a publicly funded project to digitise the "Jewish Periodicals in Nazi Germany" collection of approximately 30,000 pages, which were originally published between 1933 and 1943. Additionally included in the project were 30 German-language emigrant publications "German-language exile journals 1933–1945", consisting of around 100,000 pages. These collections were put online in 2004 and were some of the most frequently visited sites of the German National Library.

In June 2012 the German National Library discontinued access to both collections on its website for legal reasons. The digitised versions are since then available for use in the reading rooms of the German National Library in Leipzig and Frankfurt am Main only, which caused partly harsh criticism.[15] The German National Library cited concerns over copyright as the reason, claiming that although the Library and the German Research Foundation had permission from the owners of the publication to put them online, the ownership of the "orphaned articles", that is, the individual authors, could not be ascertained as would be necessary because German legislation does not include a "fair use clause".

The Jewish German-language newspaper haGalil called the libraries action "overzealous". Yves Kugelmann, the head of Jüdische Medien AG in Zürich, which owns the rights to Aufbau magazine, one of the Exile Archive's offerings, called the action "completely absurd, confusing, and without merit". Anne Lipp of the German Research Foundation concluded that "all projects of the foundation", which have been paid for by public funding and with the intent of publishing online, "must be made public".[16]

Asmus, head of Deutsches Exilarchiv, claims that the ownership of articles from over 13,000 individual authors must first be confirmed and permissions obtained before the 70- to 80-year-old articles may be put online again, despite having had permission from the rightful owners of the publications to put the articles online. Asmus admits that there was not one single complaint of copyright violation.[17] Meanwhile, other German and international institutions such as Compact Memory, the Leo Baeck Institute and have no such compunctions and have begun restoring many of the deleted periodicals to the internet again.[note 1]

Working Group for the Collection of German Imprints

The German National Library only collects German imprints from 1913 onward.[18] Because of German's history of numerous kingdoms, creating a unified collection of all printed materials produced in Germany is a challenge. Therefore, the National Library is collaborating with five other libraries who possess large collections in order to coordinate and develop a complete collection of all literature published in German-speaking countries, starting with the year 1400. This group is called the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Sammlung Deutscher Drucke (AG SDD, Working Group for the Collection of German Imprints). The participating libraries and their collection periods are:

German Music Archive

The Deutsches Musikarchiv (DMA, German Music Archive) is the central collection of printed and recorded music and the music-bibliographic information centre for Germany. It is a Federal agency founded in 1970, tasked with collecting all music published in the country. Its precursor was the Deutsche Musik-Phonothek (1961–1969). The DMA moved to Leipzig in 2010, to be housed in an extension of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. Construction work began in 2006 and was completed in 2009.

Formerly situated in Berlin-Lankwitz, the DMA constitutes a department of the German National Library (Deutsche Nationalbibliothek). Publishers of printed and recorded music in Germany are required by law (since 1973) to deliver two copies of every edition to the archive. One copy is kept at the DMA in Leipzig, the second is deposited in Frankfurt.

German Museum of Books and Writing

The German Museum of Books and Writing (Deutsches Buch- und Schriftmuseum) is now hosted at the building in Leipzig. Founded in 1884 as the Deutsches Buchgewerbemuseum (German Book Trade Museum) it eventually made its way to the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig in December 1925.[19] It is the world's oldest museum of book culture and addresses both experts and the general public. With over one million items in the collection, it is one of the most extensive in the world. They offer a wide variety of services including physical and virtual exhibitions, guided tours, seminars and workshops.[20]

Building in Leipzig

The original building of the German National Library in Leipzig from 1914

The main building of the German National Library in Leipzig was built 1914–1916 after plans of the architect Oskar Pusch. The facade is 160 m long and faces the "Deutscher Platz" (German Plaza). The building was opened on 19 October 1916. The site of the library (near to today's Alte Messe) had been donated by the city of Leipzig, while Friedrich August III, King of Saxony provided the funds for the building. On the facade, the portraits of Otto von Bismarck, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Johannes Gutenberg are displayed. Statues represent Technology, Justice, Philosophy, Medicine etc. The central reading room contains a picture by Ludwig von Hofmann, depicting Arcadia in Art Nouveau-style. The staircase displays a mural showing the founders of the German library. The Library also contains the German Museum of Books and Writing. The fourth expansion of the library began in 2007 and was opened to the public on 9 May 2011. Designed by Gabriele Glockler, whose concept for the building was "Cover. Shell. Content." it connects all sections of the building together for the first time.[21]

Building in Frankfurt am Main

DNB building in Frankfurt

The current building of the Frankfurt branch was officially inaugurated on 14 May 1997. Stuttgart architects Arat-Kaiser-Kaiser were commissioned to design the building after winning an architectural competition in 1984. Planning was delayed however and construction didn't begin until 1992. With an appearance dominated by four main materials: exposed concrete, steel, glass and light Canadian Maple, it features over 300 workstations across three floors, with a large window providing illumination to all of them. Additional storage is located in three levels of underground storage expected to contain enough space until 2045.[21]


  • Total: 43.7 million items[1]
    • books: 17.3 million
    • journals: 8 million
    • audio records: 2.4 million
    • electronic publications: 10.7 million

See also


  1. ^ Compare the major internet sources for Holocaust research, such as Yad Vashem, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and countless other institutions and libraries, all of which increase their internet content every year.


  1. ^ a b Jahresbericht 2021 (in German). Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. 2022. p. 46.
  2. ^ a b c d "Jahresbericht 2018" (in German). 2019. Retrieved 2019-06-03.
  3. ^ Murray, Stuart (2009). The Library: An Illustrated History. New York, USA: Skyhorse Pub.
  4. ^ Fabian, Bernhard, ed. (2003). "Reichsbibliothek von 1848". Handbuch der historischen Buchbestände in Deutschland (in German). Hildesheim, Germany: Olms Neue Medien.
  5. ^ Stieg, Margaret (January 1992). "The Second World War and the Public Libraries of Nazi Germany". Journal of Contemporary History. 27 (1): 23–40. doi:10.1177/002200949202700102. ISSN 0022-0094. S2CID 159922468.
  6. ^ "Bibliography: 1933 Book Burnings". Retrieved 2022-01-22.
  7. ^ Flood, John L. (2018-01-02). "Anders Rydell, translated by Henning Koch, The Book Thieves: The Nazi Looting of Europe's Libraries and the Race to Return a Literary Inheritance". Library & Information History. 34 (1): 74–75. doi:10.1080/17583489.2017.1412664. ISSN 1758-3489. S2CID 165188074.
  8. ^ Esterow, Milton (2019-01-14). "The Hunt for the Nazi Loot Still Sitting on Library Shelves". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-01-22.
  9. ^ Sontheimer, Michael (2008-10-24). "Retracing the Nazi Book Theft: German Libraries Hold Thousands of Looted Volumes". Der Spiegel. ISSN 2195-1349. Retrieved 2022-01-22.
  10. ^ "'The Book Thieves' reveals the story of the Nazi assault on books". Christian Science Monitor. 2017-02-15. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 2022-01-22.
  11. ^ Lagnado, Lucette (2017-08-02). "On the Trail of Books Stolen by the Nazis". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2022-01-22.
  12. ^ a b "History". Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  13. ^ a b Lux, Claudia (2018). "Germany: Libraries, Archives, and Museums". Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press. pp. 1848–1849. ISBN 978-1-31511614-3.
  14. ^ "German Exile Archive 1933–1945". Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  15. ^ Tobias, Jim G. (2012-07-16). "Deutsche Nationalbibliothek blendet jüdische Geschichte aus" [German National Library blinds out Jewish History]. haGalil (in German).
  16. ^ Tobias, Jim G. (2012-07-19). "Absurd, irreführend und unbegründet" [Absurd, confusing, and without merit]. haGalil (in German).
  17. ^ Asmus, Sylvia (2013-11-29). Comments. Zugang Gestalten! (speech). Jewish Museum, Berlin.
  18. ^ "Deutsche Nationalbibliografie". Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  19. ^ "Chronicle of the German Museum of Books and Writing". Deutsche National Bibliothek. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  20. ^ "German Museum of Books and Writing". Deutsche National Bibliothek. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  21. ^ a b "Building and Congress Center". Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. Retrieved 2021-03-03.

External links

This page was last edited on 28 January 2024, at 05:45
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