To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

George Saintsbury

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

George Saintsbury, photographed by James Lafayette, c. 1910
George Saintsbury, photographed by James Lafayette, c. 1910

George Edward Bateman Saintsbury, FBA (23 October 1845 – 28 January 1933), was an English writer, literary historian, scholar, critic and wine connoisseur.


Born in Lottery Hall, Southampton, he was educated at King's College School, London, and at Merton College, Oxford, where he achieved a first class BA degree in Classical Mods, (1865), and a second class in literae humaniores (1867). He left Oxford in 1868 having failed to obtain a fellowship, and briefly became a master at the Manchester Grammar School, before spending six years in Guernsey as senior classical master of Elizabeth College, where he began his literary career by submitting his first reviews to The Academy. From 1874 until he returned to London in 1876 he was headmaster of the Elgin Educational Institute, with a brief period in 1877 on The Manchester Guardian. For ten years he was actively engaged in journalism, becoming an important member of the staff of the Saturday Review. Some of the critical essays contributed to the literary journals were afterwards collected in his Essays in English Literature, 1780–1860 (2 vols., 1890–1895), Essays on French Novelists (1891), Miscellaneous Essays (1892), and Corrected Impressions (1895). In 1895 he became professor of rhetoric and English literature at the University of Edinburgh, a position he held until 1915. During his time in Edinburgh he was a member of the Scottish Arts Club.[1] He retired to 1A Royal Crescent, Bath, Somerset and died there in 1933.[2]

1A Royal Crescent was the subject of a restoration and renovation programme by the Bath Preservation Trust during 2012 to reincorporate it into 1 Royal Crescent, of which it was the original servants' quarters. It opened to visitors for the first time in 2013. An exhibition celebrating Saintsbury's life was mounted in the house in 2014.

Literary criticism

His first book, A Primer of French Literature (1880), and his Short History of French Literature (1882),[3] were followed by a series of editions of French classics and of books and articles on the history of French literature, which made him the most prominent English authority on the subject. His studies in English literature were no less comprehensive, and included the valuable revision of Sir Walter Scott's edition of John Dryden's Works (Edinburgh, 18 vols., 1882–1893), Dryden (1881) in the "English Men of Letters" series, History of Elizabethan Literature (1887), History of Nineteenth Century Literature (1896), A Short History of English Literature (1898, 3rd ed. 1903 – and a book that continued to be reprinted at least into the 1960s), an edition of the Minor Poets of the Caroline Period (2 vols., 1905–1906, followed by a third volume in 1921), a collection of rare poems of great value, and editions of English classics. He coined the term "Janeite" for a fan of Jane Austen in his introduction to an 1894 edition of Pride and Prejudice.

He wrote numerous articles on literary subjects (including Pierre Corneille, Daniel Defoe, Clément Marot, Michel de Montaigne, Jean Racine, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Voltaire) for the ninth edition (1875–89) of the Encyclopædia Britannica.[4]

In 1901 Saintsbury edited and introduced an English edition of Honoré de Balzac's novel series La Comédie humaine, translated by Ellen Marriage and published in 1895–98 by J. M. Dent.

He went on to edit the series of Periods of European Literature for the publisher William Blackwood and Sons, contributing volumes on The Flourishing of Romance and the Rise of Allegory (1897) and The Earlier Renaissance (1901).[5]

Saintsbury subsequently produced some of his most important works: A History of Criticism (3 vols., 1900–1904), with the companion volume Loci Critici: Passages Illustrative of Critical Theory and Practice (Boston, Mass., and London, 1903), and A History of English Prosody from the 12th Century to the Present Day (i., 1906; ii., 1908; iii., 1910); also The Later Nineteenth Century (1909).

In 1925 he arranged for the publication of a lost recipe book by Anne Blencoe, which had been rediscovered 200 years after her death in Weston Hall. Saintsbury wrote a short introduction to the reissued book.[6]


Although Saintsbury was best known during his lifetime as a scholar, he is also remembered today for his Notes on a Cellar-Book (1920), one of the great testimonials to drink and drinking in wine literature. When he was close to death, André Simon arranged a dinner in his honour. Although Saintsbury did not attend, this was the start of the Saintsbury Club, men of letters and members of the wine trade who continue to have dinners to this day.

Political views

Saintsbury espoused deeply conservative views in political and social matters. George Orwell calls him a ‘confessed reactionary’ [7] in his 1937 book The Road to Wigan Pier and cites various extracts from the Scrapbooks which display Saintbury's class-based disdain for the welfare state and paupers.


  1. ^ Graves, Charles (1974), Men of Letters, in The Scottish Arts Club, Edinburgh, 1874 - 1974, The Scottish Arts Club, Edinburgh, p. 51
  2. ^ Lowndes, William (1981). The Royal Crescent in Bath. Redcliffe Press. ISBN 978-0-905459-34-9.
  3. ^ Bourget, Paul (10 February 1883). "Saintsbury's Short History of French Literature". The Academy (in French). 23 (562): 98–99.
  4. ^ Important Contributors to the Britannica, 9th and 10th Editions, Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  5. ^ George Saintsbury, The Earlier Renaissance, Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  6. ^ William Sitwell (18 June 2013). A History of Food in 100 Recipes. Little, Brown. pp. 135–. ISBN 978-0-316-25570-7.
  7. ^ Orwell, George (1937). The Road to Wigan Pier. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-018238-1.

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 29 October 2020, at 09:50
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.