To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

George Fenton
George Fenton in 1969
George Fenton in 1969
Background information
Birth nameGeorge Richard Ian Howe
Born (1950-10-19) 19 October 1950 (age 70)
Bromley, Kent, England

George Fenton (born George Richard Ian Howe; 19 October 1949)[1] is an English composer best known for his work writing film scores and music for television. He composed the themes for several programmes on the BBC, including Newsnight (1980), Bergerac (1981), The Blue Planet (2001) and Planet Earth (2006). He is also known for his work on the films Gandhi (1982), Dangerous Liaisons (1988), The Fisher King (1991), Groundhog Day (1993), You've Got Mail (1998), The Wind That Shakes The Barley (2006) and The Bounty Hunter (2010). He is a frequent collaborator of directors Ken Loach, Richard Attenborough, Nicholas Hytner, Stephen Frears and Terry Gilliam.

Early career

George Fenton was born in 1949 in Bromley, Kent,[2] one of five siblings. His father was a mechanical engineer, and his mother had been a dancer and dance teacher before becoming a nurse during the war. Both his parents were musical – his mother played the piano and his father the drums – but weren't professional musicians. However, his great grandfather on his father's side was a conductor, and as a child had been a chorister and had even sung at the funeral of the first Duke of Wellington. George sang in church choirs as a boy, but it was the electric guitar – a Rosetti Lucky 7 – that first won his heart at the age of 7.[3] Fenton attended St Edward's School in Oxford where "he learnt his music" from Peter Whitehouse.[4] He has no further formal training in music.[5] Fenton's involvement with St Edward's continued as an adult and he has been a governor of the school since 1998.[4]

Fenton initially worked as an actor, changing his name as there was already a George Howe, and getting an early break in 1968 with a part in Alan Bennett's first West End play Forty Years On.[6][7] He had some success as an actor in the early 1970s appearing in the film Private Road, in Alan Bennett's first television play A Day Out directed by Stephen Frears, and in the soap opera Emmerdale Farm.[8] In 1969, Fenton tried his hand as a recording artist with a cover of The Beatles song "Maxwell's Silver Hammer"[9][10] and recorded piano for the folk group The Peelers on their Polydor LP "Banished Misfortune". In 1973 he dabbled in band management helping to get the folk-rock band Hunter Muskett a recording contract with Bradley's Records.[citation needed] While working as an actor Fenton was frequently asked by directors to play an instrument and he decided on a career switch to composing music.[7]


In 1974, Fenton received his first major commission, as composer and musical director for Peter Gill's theatre production of Twelfth Night by the Royal Shakespeare Company in Stratford-upon-Avon.[7]

Throughout the rest of the 1970s and early 1980s Fenton worked frequently as a composer for theatre productions.[11][12] He continued to collaborate regularly with Peter Gill. Between 1974 and 1981 Fenton composed for 9 of Gill's productions; 4 of these were at the Riverside Studios theatre where Gill was appointed artistic director in 1976,[13] while the following 3 were at the National Theatre after Gill became Associate Director in 1980.[14]

During this period Fenton also worked regularly at the Belgrade Theatre, composing for 3 of their productions in 1976 and another 3 in 1978, and in 1981 he collaborated with Adrian Noble on 3 productions at the Royal Exchange Theatre, Manchester.[11][12]

He continued to work with the prestigious Royal Shakespeare Company composing for 4 of their productions between 1981 and 1985, working again with Adrian Noble on Anthony and Cleopatra in 1982, and most recently with Othello in 1999 directed by Michael Attenborough.[11][12]

Since the mid 1980s Fenton's theatre work has become sporadic, just 7 productions since 1987,[11][12] as opposed to over 100 television and film scores.[8] From time to time he still composes for the theatre, often when working with long-term collaborators such as Richard Eyre (The Judas Kiss, 1998 and Last Cigarette, 2009), and Nicholas Hytner (Untold Stories, 2013, based on Alan Bennett's autobiographical work of the same name). His most unusual theatre work occurred in 1992 when he wrote the music for Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, a dinner theater show at Disneyland Paris[11][12] which The New York Times described as a "fake-rodeo-cum-dinner-theater" and the "indisputable highlight in the live performance category".[15]

In 2015, he teamed up with Simon Chamberlain, to compose the music for Mrs Henderson Presents, with lyrics by Don Black.[16][17]

Television drama

Fenton wrote his first television score in 1976.[18] This was a continuation of his collaboration with Peter Gill and it was for Gill's production of Hitting Town written by Stephen Poliakoff.

By the late 1970s Fenton was working regularly in television, becoming a popular choice of composer for dozens of television productions. These included Shoestring, a BBC crime drama which ran for 21 episodes in 1979–80, and Bergerac,[19] which ran for a decade from 1981 to 1991, and for which he won a BAFTA in 1982.

He composed the music for all six of the LWT television plays by Alan Bennett, which were broadcast during 1978 and 1979 and are collectively known as Six Plays by Alan Bennett.[20] Their collaboration continued with the TV series Objects of Affection in 1982. A year later he composed the score of Bennett's TV film An Englishman Abroad (1983) which was directed by John Schlesinger. Fenton also composed for all of the episodes of Bennett's acclaimed Talking Heads series in 1988 and, a decade later, Talking Heads 2 in 1998.

During this period Fenton also frequently collaborated with the director Stephen Frears, composing for his television productions of Bloody Kids (1980), Going Gently (1981), Walter (1982) and Saigon: Year of the Cat (1983).

By the mid-1980s Fenton was composing for big budget TV series including the multi BAFTA winning The Jewel in the Crown (1984) and The Monocled Mutineer (1986).

Wildlife television

Fenton has composed for a number of notable wildlife television programmes, often collaborating with the wildlife broadcaster David Attenborough and nature documentary filmmaker Alastair Fothergill. He started on the BBC's long-running series Wildlife on One and Natural World, and continued with specials such as Polar Bear.

He has spoken of how much he likes composing for wildlife programmes. In 2012 he said with reference to The Blue Planet: "The minute I heard the title I was sold. I just thought it was so great that I turned down the offer of doing another film in the States and flew straight back home."[21]

Since 1990 he has written the music for a number of big budget wildlife series.[22]

His track record in this genre has placed him firmly as the BBC's composer of choice for its flagship wildlife programmes.[23]

Television and radio jingles

Fenton has composed the jingles or theme music to dozens of British television and radio programs, mostly for the BBC.[7] Some of these are; the BBC's One O'Clock News, Six O'Clock News, and Nine O'Clock News, Newsnight and Newsnight Review, On the Record, Omnibus, BBC Breakfast Time, BBC World News, Westminster – In The House, Reporting Scotland, London Plus, Midday News, Telly Addicts and Daily Politics. For the radio, he composed the old theme for BBC Radio 4's PM programme.[24]

Feature films

George Fenton is also known as a composer of film scores. He has written the music for over one hundred feature films and has collaborated with some of the most influential film makers of the late 20th century.[25]

Together with Michael Feast and David Dundas he co-wrote the music for Private Road (1971), a film he and Feast also starred in.

His film scoring as a professional composer began in 1982[25] with Richard Attenborough's biopic Gandhi for which he was nominated—with his collaborator, Ravi Shankar—for the Academy Award for Original Music Score. Fenton's career as a composer of film scores owes a debt of gratitude to Attenborough's asking him to compose for Gandhi.[26] Fenton said of him in a 2014 interview: "He always made me feel incredibly secure with what he was doing. He loves music, and he’s very musical."[26] Fenton wrote another four film scores for Attenborough's films; Cry Freedom (1987), Shadowlands (1993), In Love and War (1996), and Grey Owl (1999).[26]

He has also frequently worked with the theatre and film director Nicholas Hytner, writing the score for all six of the movies that Hytner has directed. These are: The Madness of King George (1994), The Crucible (1996), The Object of My Affection (1998), Center Stage (2000), The History Boys (2006), and The Lady in the Van (2015). The latter three of these allowed Fenton to collaborate once again with their writer Alan Bennett. Although Fenton composed the original music of five of these films, for The Madness of King George he instead adapted and arranged the music of Handel.[27]

Fenton's long-standing collaboration with Stephen Frears has not been limited to television productions. Fenton has scored four of Frear's feature films: Dangerous Liaisons (1988), Hero (1992), Mary Reilly (1996), and Mrs Henderson Presents (2005). He has also worked with director Neil Jordan; scoring The Company of Wolves (1984), High Spirits (1988), and We're No Angels (1989).

Fenton has scored more feature films for Ken Loach than for any other filmmaker; by 2015, a total of fourteen. This started in 1994 with Ladybird, Ladybird; then, in chronological order: Land and Freedom (1995), Carla's Song (1996), My Name Is Joe (1998), Bread and Roses (2000), The Navigators (2001), Sweet Sixteen (2002), Ae Fond Kiss... (2004), The Wind That Shakes the Barley (2006) which won the Palme d'Or at the 2006 Cannes Film Festival, It's a Free World... (2007), Looking for Eric (2009), The Angels' Share (2012), the documentary film The Spirit of '45 (2013), and, most recently, Jimmy's Hall (2014).

Fenton has developed other long-standing collaborations with filmmakers, scoring several films each for directors as diverse as: Harold Ramis, Nora Ephron, Phil Joanou, Andy Tennant, and many others. These include Hussy (1980), Runners (1983), Clockwise (1986), 84 Charing Cross Road (1987), White Mischief (1987), A Handful of Dust (1988), The Dressmaker (1988), Memphis Belle (1990), The Long Walk Home (1990), The Fisher King (1991), Final Analysis (1992), Groundhog Day (1993), Born Yesterday (1993), Mixed Nuts (1994), Heaven's Prisoners (1996), Multiplicity (1996), You've Got Mail (1998), Anna and the King (1999), Bewitched (2005), Fool's Gold (2008), and The Bounty Hunter (2010).


In 1990, Fenton scored his first natural history documentary series, David Attenborough's The Trials of Life, and followed it up with Attenborough's next series, Life in the Freezer. This led to the producer Alastair Fothergill asking Fenton to compose the music for The Blue Planet in 2001, which began a 10-year period of writing for natural history television programmes, including Planet Earth, Frozen Planet, and Life. Fenton went on to turn The Blue Planet's score into the concert series The Blue Planet Live!, in which an orchestra played live to sections of the cinematic footage. In 2003, he scored and conducted the music for the documentary film Deep Blue, which was performed by the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra – the first film score the orchestra had recorded in its history. In 2007, they repeated the collaboration for the documentary film, Earth. With the producer Jane Carter, Fenton turned each of the scores into concert works. His live film scores continue to be performed by orchestras worldwide.[28]



Year Title Director Studio(s) Notes
1971 Private Road Barney Platts-Mills N/A N/A
1977 A Lustful Lady Hal E. Woode N/A Short film
1978 Me! I'm Afraid of Virginia Woolf Stephen Frears N/A Television film
1978 Doris and Doreen Stephen Frears N/A Television film
1978 The Waterloo Bridge Handicap Ross Cramer N/A Short film
1979 Afternoon Off Stephen Frears N/A Television film
1980 Bloody Kids Stephen Frears N/A
1980 Hussy Matthew Chapman First Run Features
1980 Rain on the Roof Alan Bridges Pennies From Heaven Ltd. Television film
1980 The Tumour Principle Arthur Ellis N/A Short film
1980 Dead End Alan Birkinshaw N/A Short film
1981 No Country for Old Men Tristram Powell N/A Television film
1982 Walter Stephen Frears N/A Television film
1982 Parole Michael Tuchner N/A Television film
1983 Walter and June Stephen Frears N/A Television film
1983 Runners Charles Sturridge N/A N/A
1983 Saigon: Year of the Cat Stephen Frears N/A Television film
1983 An Englishman Abroad John Schlesinger N/A Television
1984 The Company of Wolves Neil Jordan ITC Entertainment N/A
1985 Past Caring Richard Eyre N/A Television
1986 Clockwise Christopher Morahan Universal Pictures N/A
1987 84 Charing Cross Road David Jones Columbia Pictures N/A
1987 Billy the Kid and the Green Baize Vampire Alan Clarke ITC Entertainment N/A
1987 Cry Freedom Richard Attenborough Universal Pictures N/A
1987 White Mischief Michael Radford Columbia Pictures N/A
1988 A Handful of Dust Charkes Sturridge New Line Cinema N/A
1988 High Spirits Neil Jordan Palace Pictures N/A
1988 Dangerous Liaisons Stephen Frears Warner Bros. Pictures N/A
1988 The Dressmaker Jim O'Brien Euro American Pictures N/A
1989 We're No Angels Neil Jordan Paramount Pictures N/A
1990 Memphis Belle Michael Caton-Jones Warner Bros. Pictures N/A
1990 The Long Walk Home Richard Pearce Miramax Films N/A
1990 White Palace Luis Mandoki Universal Pictures N/A
1991 The Fisher King Terry Gilliam TriStar Pictures N/A
1992 Final Analysis Phil Joanou Warner Bros. Pictures N/A
1992 Hero Stephen Frears Columbia Pictures N/A
1993 Groundhog Day Harold Ramis Columbia Pictures N/A
1993 Born Yesterday Luis Mandoki Hollywood Pictures N/A
1993 Shadowlands Richard Attenborough Savoy Pictures N/A
1994 China Moon John Mailey Orion Pictures N/A
1994 Ladybird, Ladybird Ken Loach Samuel Goldwyn Company N/A
1994 Mixed Nuts Nora Ephron TriStar Pictures N/A
1995 Land and Freedom Ken Loach Gramercy Pictures N/A
1996 Mary Reilly Stephen Frears TriStar Pictures N/A
1996 Heaven's Prisoners Phil Joanou New Line Cinema N/A
1996 Multiplicity Harold Ramis Columbia Pictures N/A
1996 Carla's Song Ken Loach Universal Pictures N/A
1996 The Crucible Nicholas Hytner 20th Century Fox N/A
1996 In Love and War Richard Attenborough New Line Cinema N/A
1997 The Woodlanders Phil Agland N/A N/A
1998 Dangerous Beauty Marshall Herskovitz Warner Bros. Pictures
20th Century Fox
1998 The Object of My Affection Nicholas Hytner 20th Century Fox N/A
1998 My Name Is Joe Ken Loach Artisan Entertainment N/A
1998 Ever After Andy Tennant 20th Century Fox N/A
1998 Living Out Loud Richard LaGravenese New Line Cinema N/A
1998 You've Got Mail Nora Ephron Warner Bros. Pictures N/A
1999 Entropy Phil Joanou Warner Bros. Pictures N/A
1999 Grey Owl Richard Attenborough 20th Century Fox N/A
1999 Anna and the King Andy Tennant 20th Century Fox N/A
2000 Bread and Roses Ken Loach Lionsgate N/A
2000 Center Stage Nicholas Hytner Columbia Pictures N/A
2000 Lucky Numbers Nora Ephron Paramount Pictures N/A
2001 Summer Catch Mike Tollin Warner Bros. Pictures N/A
2001 The Navigators Ken Loach N/A N/A
2002 Sweet Sixteen Ken Loach Icon Film Distribution N/A
2002 Sweet Home Alabama Andy Tennant Touchstone Pictures N/A
2003 Imagining Argentina Christopher Hampton Arenas Entertainment N/A
2003 Deep Blue Alastair Fothergill
Andy Byatt
Miramax Films N/A
2004 Ae Fond Kiss... Ken Loach Icon Film Distribution N/A
2004 Stage Beauty Richard Eyre Lionsgate
2005 Hitch Andy Tennant Columbia Pictures
2005 Tickets Ermanno Olmi
Abbas Kiarostami
Ken Loach
2005 Valiant Gary Chapman Bueva Vista Pictures N/A
2005 Bewitched Nora Ephron Columbia Pictures N/A
2005 Mrs Henderson Presents Stephen Frears Pathé
The Weinstein Company
2006 Last Holiday Wayne Wang Paramount Pictures N/A
2006 The Wind That Shakes the Barley Ken Loach Pathé
IFC First Take
2006 The History Boys Nicholas Hytner Fox Searchlight Pictures N/A
2007 Earth Alastair Fothergill
Mark Linfield
Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures N/A
2007 It's a Free World... Ken Loach N/A N/A
2008 Fool's Gold Andy Tennant Warner Bros. Pictures N/A
2009 Looking for Eric Ken Loach Icon Film Distribution N/A
2010 The Bounty Hunter Andy Tennant Columbia Pictures N/A
2011 One Life Michael Gunton
Martha Holmes
Magic Light Pictures N/A
2012 The Angels' Share Ken Loach Entertainment One N/A
2013 The Spirit of '45 Ken Loach N/A N/A
2013 Muhammad Ali's Greatest Fight Stephen Frears HBO Films N/A
2013 The Zero Theorem Terry Gilliam Stage 6 Films N/A
2014 Bears Alastair Fothergill
Keith Scholey
Disneynature N/A
2014 Jimmy's Hall Ken Loach Entertainment One N/A
2015 Absolutely Anything Terry Jones Lionsgate N/A
2015 The Lady in the Van Nicholas Hytner TriStar Pictures N/A
2016 I, Daniel Blake Ken Loach eOne Films N/A
2016 Wild Oats Andy Tennant The Weinstein Company
2017 Woman Walks Ahead Susanna White A24
DirecTV Cinema
2018 Red Joan Trevor Nunn Lionsgate N/A
2019 Cold Pursuit Hans Petter Moland Summit Entertainment N/A
2019 Sorry We Missed You Ken Loach N/A N/A
2020 The Secret: Dare to Dream Andy Tennant N/A N/A
2020 The Duke Roger Michell N/A N/A

Awards and nominations

Academy Awards

BAFTA Awards

  • 1981 Nominated BAFTA TV Award Best Original Television Music for: Shoestring (Also for: Bloody Kids, Fox)
  • 1982 Won BAFTA TV Award Best Original Television Music for: Bergerac (Also for: The History Man, Going Gently, the BBC news theme)
  • 1983 Nominated BAFTA Film Award Best Score for: Gandhi
  • 1985 Nominated BAFTA TV Award Best Original Television Music for: The Jewel in the Crown
  • 1987 Won BAFTA TV Award Best Original Television Music for: The Monocled Mutineer
  • 1988 Nominated BAFTA Film Award Best Score for: Cry Freedom
  • 1989 Nominated BAFTA TV Award Best Original Television Music for: Talking Heads
  • 1990 Nominated BAFTA Film Award Best Original Film Score for: Dangerous Liaisons
  • 1991 Nominated BAFTA Film Award Best Original Film Score for: Memphis Belle
  • 1991 Nominated BAFTA TV Award Best Original Television Music for: The Trials of Life
  • 1994 Nominated BAFTA TV Award Best Original Television Music for: Life in the Freezer
  • 1996 Nominated Anthony Asquith Award for Film Music for: The Madness of King George
  • 2002 Won BAFTA TV Award Best Original Television Music for: The Blue Planet
  • 2006 Nominated Anthony Asquith Award for Film Music for: Mrs Henderson Presents

Emmy Awards

Golden Globes

  • 1988 Nominated Golden Globe Best Original Score – Motion Picture for: Cry Freedom
  • 2000 Nominated Golden Globe Best Original Score – Motion Picture for: Anna and the King
  • 2000 Nominated Golden Globe Best Original Song – Motion Picture for: Anna and the King

Grammy Awards

  • 1984 Nominated Grammy Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture or Television Special for: Gandhi
  • 1989 Nominated Grammy Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or for Television for: Cry Freedom

Ivor Novello Awards

  • Nominated Best Film Score for: Anna and the King
  • Nominated Best Film Score for: Ever After
  • Won Best Film Score for: Shadowlands
  • Nominated Best Film Score for: Final Analysis
  • Won Best Film Score for: Cry Freedom
  • Nominated Best Film Score for: The Company of Wolves
  • Won Best Film Score for: Gandhi
  • Nominated Best Original TV Music for: The Blue Planet
  • Won Best Original TV Music for: The Monocled Mutineer
  • Won Best Original TV Music for: The Jewel in the Crown
  • Nominated Best Original TV Music for: No Country for Old Men
  • Nominated Best Original TV Music for: Omnibus
  • Nominated Best Original TV Music for: Fox
  • Nominated Best Original TV Music for: Shoestring

Film & TV Music Awards

  • 2007 Won Film & TV Music Award for Best Score for a Documentary Film or Television Program (Planet Earth)
  • In 2007 Fenton was awarded a fellowship of the British Academy of Composers & Songwriters, which presents the Ivor Novello awards.


Fenton founded the Association of Professional Composers which later amalgamated with the British Academy of Songwriters, Composers and Authors and with the Composers' Guild of Great Britain to become the British Academy of Composers & Songwriters. He is a member of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and is a visiting professor at the Royal College of Music and the University of Nottingham.

He composed the score for "Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show" – a dinner show recreating the experience of the famous world travelling show of Buffalo Bill. The dinner show was created exclusively for the Disneyland Resort Paris and opened together with the resort (then EuroDisney Resort) on 12 April 1992. A recording was released by Walt Disney Records/Sony Records in France but is long out of print.


  1. ^ "George Fenton Official Website Biography". Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  2. ^ "George Fenton Official Website Biography". Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  3. ^ "George Fenton Official Website Biography". Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  4. ^ a b St Edward's Oxford – Governors,, retrieved 16 December 2015
  5. ^ "Frozen Planet Composer Comes to Ballymena". Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  6. ^ "Hymn". Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  7. ^ a b c d "George Fenton, Desert Island Discs – BBC Radio 4", BBC, retrieved 16 December 2015
  8. ^ a b George Fenton, IMDb, retrieved 16 December 2015
  9. ^ "George Howe – Maxwell's Silver Hammer". Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  10. ^ "GEORGE HOWE – Maxwell's Silver Hammer (1969) – Beatles cover". Retrieved 16 December 2015.
  11. ^ a b c d e Recordings :: George Fenton,, retrieved 18 December 2015
  12. ^ a b c d e Eaton Music – George Fenton, Theatre Credits,, retrieved 18 December 2015
  13. ^ "Riverside Studios – Our History". Retrieved 18 December 2015.
  14. ^ "The people's playwright". The Guardian Newspaper. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
  15. ^ "CULTURAL VIEW; At Euro Disney, Mickey Mouse Takes a Back Seat". The New York Times. 6 December 1992. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
  16. ^ "Mrs Henderson Presents at Theatre Royal, Bath". The Times. 27 August 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  17. ^ "Stage Version of Mrs. Henderson Presents Will Premiere in Summer 2015". Playbill. 17 October 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
  18. ^ "Stephen Poliakoff on Hitting Town". 6 September 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  19. ^ Stoner, David (5 August 2013), George Fenton on the Company of Wolves, CinemaScore
  20. ^ "Bennett, Alan (1934–)". Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  21. ^ "Acclaimed composer George Fenton on why he likes it when no one remembers his music". 7 September 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  22. ^ "George Fenton brings his acclaimed score for The Blue Planet to London for one-off Live Show". BBC. 8 November 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  23. ^ "George Fenton – films spanning the Atlantic". Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  24. ^ "How writing PM theme made composer 'very nervous'". Retrieved 29 February 2016.
  25. ^ a b Film Scores,, retrieved 15 December 2015
  26. ^ a b c Greiving, Tim (21 January 2014), The Music of Shadowlands: A 20th Anniversary Interview with George Fenton, Tim Greiving, retrieved 15 December 2015
  27. ^ "The Madness of King George (1994)". IMDb. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  28. ^ "George Fenton Official Website Biography". Retrieved 1 October 2018.

External links

This page was last edited on 10 November 2020, at 12:57
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.