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George D. Wise

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

George Douglas Wise
GeorgeDWise.jpg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Virginia's 3rd district
In office
March 4, 1891 – March 3, 1895
Preceded byEdmund Waddill, Jr.
Succeeded byTazewell Ellett
In office
March 4, 1881 – April 10, 1890
Preceded byJoseph E. Johnston
Succeeded byEdmund Waddill, Jr.
Chairman of the House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce
In office
March 28, 1892 – March 3, 1895
Preceded byRoger Quarles Mills
Succeeded byWilliam Peters Hepburn
Chairman of the House Committee on Manufactures
In office
March 4, 1887 – March 3, 1889
Preceded byJohn Holroyd Bagley, Jr.
Succeeded byHenry Bacon
Personal details
BornJune 4, 1831
Deep Creek, Accomack County, Virginia
DiedFebruary 4, 1906(1906-02-04) (aged 74)
Richmond, Virginia
Resting placeHollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia
Political partyDemocratic
Alma materIndiana University
College of William and Mary
Professionlawyer
Military service
Allegiance Confederate States of America
Branch/service Confederate States Army
Rank
Confederate States of America Captain.png
Captain
Battles/warsAmerican Civil War

George Douglas Wise (June 4, 1831 – February 4, 1906) was a U.S. Representative from Virginia, cousin of John Sergeant Wise and Richard Alsop Wise and nephew of Henry Alexander Wise.

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Transcription

Created by logician Raymond Smullyan and popularized by his colleague George Boolos, this riddle has been called the hardest logic puzzle ever. You and your team have crash-landed on an ancient planet. The only way off is to appease its three alien overlords, Tee, Eff, and Arr, by giving them the correct artifacts. Unfortunately, you don't know who is who. >From an inscription, you learn that you may ask three yes or no questions, each addressed to any one lord. Tee's answers are always true, Eff's are always false, and Arr's answer is random each time. But there's a problem. You've deciphered the language enough to ask any question, but you don't know which of the two words 'ozo' and 'ulu' means yes and which means no. How can you still figure out which alien is which? Pause here if you want to figure it out for yourself! Answer in: 3 2 1 At first, this puzzle seems not just hard, but downright impossible. What good is asking a question if you can neither understand the answer nor know if it's true? But it can be done. The key is to carefully formulate our questions so that any answer yields useful information. First of all, we can get around to not knowing what 'ozo' and 'ulu' mean by including the words themselves in the questions, and secondly, if we load each question with a hypothetical condition, whether an alien is lying or not won't actually matter. To see how that could work, imagine our question is whether two plus two is four. Instead of posing it directly, we say, "If I asked you whether two plus two is four, would you answer 'ozo'?" If 'ozo' means yes and the overlord is Tee, it truthfully replies, "ozo." But what if we ask Eff? Well, it would answer "ulu," or no to the embedded question, so it lies and replies 'ozo' instead. And if 'ozo' actually means no, then the answer to our embedded question is 'ulu,' and both Tee and Eff still reply 'ozo,' each for their own reasons. If you're confused about why this works, the reason involves logical structure. A double positive and a double negative both result in a positive. Now, we can be sure that asking either Tee or Eff a question put this way will yield 'ozo' if the hypothetical question is true and 'ulu' if it's false regardless of what each word actually means. Unfortunately, this doesn't help us with Arr. But don't worry, we can use our first question to identify one alien lord that definitely isn't Arr. Then we can use the second to find out whether its Tee or Eff. And once we know that, we can ask it to identify one of the others. So let's begin. Ask the alien in the middle, "If I asked you whether the overlord on my left is Arr, would you answer 'ozo'?" If the reply is 'ozo,' there are two possibilities. You could already be talking to Arr, in which case the answer is meaningless. But otherwise, you're talking to either Tee or Eff, and as we know, getting 'ozo' from either one means your hypothetical question was correct, and the left overlord is indeed Arr. Either way, you can be sure the alien on the right is not Arr. Similarly, if the answer is 'ulu,' then you know the alien on the left can't be Arr. Now go to the overlord you've determined isn't Arr and ask, "If I asked 'are you Eff?' would you answer 'ozo'?" Since you don't have to worry about the random possibility, either answer will establish its identity. Now that you know whether its answers are true or false, ask the same alien whether the center overlord is Arr. The process of elimination will identify the remaining one. The satisfied overlords help you repair your ship and you prepare for takeoff. Allowed one final question, you ask Tee if it's a long way to Earth, and he answers "ozo." Too bad you still don't know what that means.

Contents

Biography

The son of Tully Robinson and Margaret Douglas Pettitt (Wise) Wise, he was born at "Deep Creek," the Wise estate in Accomack County, near Onancock, Virginia, Wise was graduated from Indiana University at Bloomington. He studied law in the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia. He was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Richmond, Virginia. He served as captain in the Confederate States Army during the Civil War. He was Commonwealth's attorney of the city of Richmond from 1870 to 1889, when he resigned.

Wise was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-seventh and to the three succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1881 – March 3, 1889). He served as chairman of the Committee on Manufactures (Forty-ninth Congress). Presented credentials as a Member-elect to the Fifty-first Congress and served from March 4, 1889, to April 10, 1890, when he was succeeded by Edmund Waddill, Jr., who contested his election.

Wise embraced ideas of a master race, once telling the House of Representatives that "if I could I would not have the mingling of Caucasian blood with that of any inferior race."[1] He referred to Chinese immigrants as "this indigestible mass . . . inferior in mental and moral qualities . . . a continual menace to the existence of republican institutions.”[2]

Wise was elected to the Fifty-second and Fifty-third Congresses (March 4, 1891 – March 3, 1895). He served as chairman of the committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce (Fifty-second and Fifty-third Congresses). Wise was a delegate to the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1901-1902. He died in Richmond, Virginia, February 4, 1906. He was interred in Hollywood Cemetery.

Electoral History

  • 1880; Wise was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives with 55.94% of the vote, defeating Readjuster John Sergeant Wise and Republican H.L. Pelonze.
  • 1882; Wise was re-elected with 57.12% of the vote, defeating Readjuster John Ambler Smith.
  • 1884; Wise was re-elected with 52.4% of the vote, defeating Republican Robert T. Hubbard.
  • 1886; Wise was re-elected with 52.73% of the vote, defeating Republican Edmund Waddill, Jr.
  • 1888; Wise was re-elected with 50.42% of the vote, however the results were contested and Republican Waddill, Jr. was seated.
  • 1890; Wise was re-elected unopposed.
  • 1892; Wise was re-elected with 63.94% of the vote, defeating Republican Walter E. Grant.

References

  1. ^ 13 Cong. Rec Appendix 64
  2. ^ 13 Cong. Rec Appendix 64

Sources

  • United States Congress. "George D. Wise (id: W000648)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.

External links

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Joseph E. Johnston
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Virginia's 3rd congressional district

1881–1890
Succeeded by
Edmund Waddill, Jr.
Preceded by
Edmund Waddill, Jr.
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Virginia's 3rd congressional district

1891–1895
Succeeded by
Tazewell Ellett
Political offices
Preceded by
Roger Quarles Mills
Texas
Chairman of the House Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee
1892–1895
Succeeded by
William Peters Hepburn
Iowa
Preceded by
John Holroyd Bagley, Jr.
New York
Chairman of the House Manufactures Committee
1887–1889
Succeeded by
Henry Bacon
New York
This page was last edited on 4 June 2019, at 03:23
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