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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gedimin
(Gediminaičiai, Gedėmėnātē, Giedyminowicze, Гедзімінавічы, Гедиміновичі, Гедиминовичи)
COA of Gediminaičiai dynasty Lithuania.svg
CountryGrand Duchy of Lithuania
Founded1315 or 1316
FounderGediminas
Final rulerŽygimantas Augustas
TitlesKing/Grand Duke of Lithuania

The Gediminids (Lithuanian: Gediminaičiai, Samogitian: Gedėmėnātē, Polish: Giedyminowicze, Belarusian: Гедзімінавічы, Ukrainian: Гедиміновичі, Russian: Гедиминовичи) were a dynasty of monarchs in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania that reigned from the 14th to the 16th century. Cadet branch of this family, known as the Jagiellonian dynasty, reigned also in the Kingdom of Poland, Kingdom of Hungary and Kingdom of Bohemia. Several other branches ranked among the leading aristocratic dynasties of Russia and Poland into recent times.

Their monarchical title in Lithuanian primarily was, by some folkloristic data, kunigų kunigas ("Duke of Dukes"), and later on, didysis kunigas ("Great/High Duke") or, in a simple manner, karalius or kunigaikštis.[citation needed] In the 18th century, the latter form was changed into tautological didysis kunigaikštis, which nevertheless would be translated as "Grand Duke" (for its etymology, see Grand Prince).

Origin

The origin of Gediminas himself is much debated. Some sources say he was Vytenis' ostler, others that he was of peasant stock. Some historians consider him as the son or grandson of Lithuanian or Yatvingian (Iazyge) King/duke Skalmantas. Most scholars agree, however, that Gediminas was Vytenis' brother (the parentage of Vytenis is explained differently in various fake genealogies, compiled from the 16th century onwards; according to the latest Polish research, his parentage cannot be established).[1]

Confirmed Gediminid rulers

Branches of the dynasty

The Gediminid symbol in Rambynas Hill, Lithuania
The Gediminid symbol in Rambynas Hill, Lithuania

The Eastern Orthodox branches of the family were mostly Ruthenian, which also was one of the two main languages of their established state. Some of these families (e.g., Czartoryski) later converted to Roman Catholicism and became Polonized. Others (e.g., Galitzine) moved to Muscovy and became thoroughly Russified.

In Poland, most Gediminid families (such as Olelkowicz-Słucki, Wiśniowiecki, Zbaraski) are extinct, but at least some families survive to the present: Khovanski, Czartoryski, Sanguszko, and Koriatowicz-Kurcewicz.[citation needed].

The Russian Gediminid families include Bulgakov, Golitsin, Kurakin, Khovansky, Trubetskoy, Mstislavsky, Belsky, and Volynsky.[citation needed] Some of these families also survive as of 2020.

Gediminid descendants

I. The descendants of* Bujwid Vytianis Rex. King Lithuainia.

    1. Dukes Prince of Bujwid

I. The descendants of Narimantas:

  1. Dukes of Pinsky (nobility) [ru] (faded at the end of the 15th century)
    1. Dukes of Kurcewicze [pl]
      1. Dukes of Buremscy [pl]
  2. Dukes of Patrikeyev [ru]
    1. Dukes of Bulgakov (nobility) [ru]
    2. Dukes of Kurcewicze [pl]|ru|3=Булгаковы_(князья)|vertical-align=sup}}
      1. Dukes of Golitsyn
      2. Dukes of Kurakin
    3. Dukes of Schentyatev (nobility) [ru]
    4. Dukes of Khovansky (nobility) [ru]
  3. Dukes of Korecki
    1. Dukes of Ruzhinsky (nobility) [ru]

II. The descendants of Algirdas:

  1. Duke Andrei of Polotsk
    1. Dukes of Polubinsky (nobility) [ru]
    2. Dukes of Lukomsky (nobility) [ru]
  2. Dmitrijus Algirdaitis
    1. Dukes of Trubetskoy (Trubchevsk)
  3. Konstantinas Algirdaitis [ru]
    1. Dukes of Czartoryski
  4. Vladimiras Algirdaitis
    1. Olelkaičiai (descendants of Aleksandras Olelka [ru])
      1. Dukes of Slutsky (nobility) [ru] (faded at the end of the 16th century)
    2. Dukes of Belsky
  5. The descendants of Kaributas
    1. Dukes of Zbarazhsky (nobility) [ru]
      1. Dukes of Wiśniowiecki
      2. Dukes of Voronetsky (nobility) [ru]
      3. Dukes of Nesvisky [pl]
      4. Dukes of Porytskie (nobility) [ru]
  6. The descendants of Fiodoras Algirdaitis [ru]
    1. Dukes of Hurkowicze (nobility) [pl]
    2. Dukes of Kobryn
    3. Dukes of Sanguszko
  7. Jagiellonians
  8. The descendants of Lengvenis
    1. Dukes of Mstislavsky

III. The descendants of Kęstutis

    1. Patrikas Kęstutaitis
    2. Vaidotas Kęstutaitis
    3. Butautas Kęstutaitis
    4. Vytautas the Great
    5. Tautvilas Kęstutaitis
    6. Žygimantas Kęstutaitis

IV. The descendants of Jaunutis:

    1. Dukes of Zaslavsky
      1. Dukes of Mstislavsky

V. The descendants of Liubartas (faded in the first half of the 15th century)

VI. Koriatowicz [uk], descended from Karijotas

  1. Dukes of Podilskyi (nobility)
  2. Dukes of Volynsky (nobility) [ru]

Family tree

Butegeidis Bujwid
(? – c. 1292)
King/G. Duke of Lith., c. 1285 – c. 1292
Budvydas-Pukuveras Bujwid
(? – c. 1296)
King/G. Duke of Lith., c. 1292 – c. 1296
Vytenis Bujwid
(? – 1316)
King/G. Duke of Lith., c. 1296–1316
Gediminas
(c. 1275–1341)
King/G. Duke of Lith., 1316–1341
Jaunutis
(?)
G. Duke of Lith., 1341–1345
Algirdas
(c. 1296–1377)
King/G. Duke of Lith., 1345–1377
Kęstutis
(1297–1382)
Ladislaus (Jogaila)
(c. 1351–1434)
King/G. Duke of Lith., 1377–1401
King of Poland, 1386–1434
Švitrigaila
(c. 1370–1452)
King/G. Duke of Lith., 1430–1432
Vytautas
(1352–1430)
King/G. Duke of Lith., 1401–1430
Žygimantas Kęstutaitis
(? – 1440)
King/G. Duke of Lith., 1432–1440
Jagiellon branch
(Jogailaičiai)

See also

References

  1. ^ Jan Tęgowski, "Pierwsze pokolenia Gedyminowiczów", 1999

External links

  • Marek, Miroslav. "Genealogy of the House of Gediminas". Genealogy.EU.
This page was last edited on 8 February 2021, at 14:36
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