To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Calle Dlugie Pobrzeze, Gdansk, Polonia, 2013-05-20, DD 06.jpg

Corte Artus, Gdansk, Polonia, 2013-05-20, DD 03.jpg
Gdansk Kosciol mariacki5.jpg

Gran Armería, Gdansk, Polonia, 2013-05-20, DD 08.jpg
7629vik Gdańsk, fontanna Neptuna. Foto Barbara Maliszewska.jpg

Politech gda elektrotech automat.jpg
Gdansk diabelski mlyn 1.jpg
Flag of Gdańsk

Coat of arms of Gdańsk

Coat of arms
Nec Temere, Nec Timide
(Neither rashly, nor timidly)
Gdańsk is located in Pomeranian Voivodeship
Location of Gdansk in Poland
Gdańsk is located in Poland
Gdańsk (Poland)
Coordinates: 54°22′N 18°38′E / 54.367°N 18.633°E / 54.367; 18.633
Country Poland
Voivodeship Pomeranian Voivodeship
Countycity county
Established10th century
City rights1263
 • MayorAleksandra Dulkiewicz (acting, PO)
 • City262 km2 (101 sq mi)
(30 June 2018)
 • City464,829 Increase (6th) [1]
 • Metro
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
80-008 to 80–958
Area code(s)+48 58
Car platesGD

Gdańsk (/ɡəˈdɑːnsk, ɡəˈdænsk/,[2] Polish: [ɡdaj̃sk] (About this soundlisten); German: Danzig [ˈdantsɪç] (About this soundlisten)) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast. With a population of 464,254, Gdańsk is the capital and largest city of the Pomeranian Voivodeship and the capital of Kashubia. It is Poland's principal seaport and the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area.[3]

The city lies on the southern edge of Gdańsk Bay (of the Baltic Sea), in a conurbation with the city of Gdynia, spa town of Sopot, and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the Tricity (Trójmiasto), with a population approaching 1.4 million.

Gdańsk is the capital of Gdańsk Pomerania and the largest city of Kashubia. With its origins as a Polish stronghold erected in the 980s by Mieszko I of Poland, the city's history is complex, with periods of Polish rule, periods of Prussian or German rule, and periods of autonomy or self-rule as a "free city". In the early-modern age Gdańsk was a royal city of Poland. It was considered the wealthiest and the largest city of Poland, prior to the 18th century rapid growth of Warsaw. Between the world wars, the Free City of Danzig was in a customs union with Poland and was located between German East Prussia and the so-called Polish Corridor.

Gdańsk lies at the mouth of the Motława River, connected to the Leniwka, a branch in the delta of the nearby Vistula River, which drains 60 percent of Poland and connects Gdańsk with the Polish capital, Warsaw. Together with the nearby port of Gdynia, Gdańsk is also a notable industrial center. In the late Middle Ages it was an important seaport and shipbuilding town and, in the 14th and 15th centuries, a member of the Hanseatic League.

In the interwar period, owing to its multi-ethnic make-up and history, Gdańsk lay in a disputed region between Poland and the Weimar Republic, which later became known as Nazi Germany. The city's ambiguous political status was exploited, furthering tension between the two countries, which would ultimately culminate in the Invasion of Poland and the first clash of the Second World War just outside the city limits. In the 1980s it would become the birthplace of the Solidarity movement, which played a major role in bringing an end to Communist rule in Poland and helped precipitate the collapse of the Eastern Bloc, the fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Gdańsk is home to the University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk University of Technology, the National Museum, the Gdańsk Shakespeare Theatre, the Museum of the Second World War, Polish Baltic Philharmonic and the European Solidarity Centre. The city also hosts St. Dominic's Fair, which dates back to 1260, and is regarded as one of the biggest trade and cultural events in Europe.[4]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    151 606
    9 106
    93 555
    65 137
    289 364
  • ✪ 10 Things to do in Gdańsk, Poland Travel Guide
  • ✪ Gdańsk w 1937 roku
  • ✪ Visit Gdansk Poland in 24 hours
  • ✪ Architektura na zgliszczach: czy Gdańsk został odbudowany? | Architecture is a good idea


Well good day good day. We have finally made it to Gdańsk and this is a city I was most excited about visiting in Poland. And we are here. Yeah, we are here. And this is also the most northernmost city we're going to be visiting in Poland as well. Oh my goodness on that note this morning we woke up at four thirty and the sun was already up. Like it is crazy how early the day starts here. You've gotta love that. Anyways, we are really excited and today we are going to go out and explore a lot. Let's go. Alright, so first up we're walking to the Basilica of Saint Mary (Bazylika Mariacka - St. Marienkirche) because it is just down the street from our Airbnb and it looks massive. It is huge. It is undergoing some renovations right now so there is a lot of scaffolding going on but hopefully we can still get in and maybe climb up the towers for some views. We'll see if that is even possible. Sam ready to climb the tower? Absolutely ready. It is a cool surprise. I didn't think we could even get in. I thought with all of the renovations. Yeah. We thought it would be closed. This is exciting. It is exciting. It is going to be 409 steps to the top. We paid 8 Zloty each and we are climbing up the spiraling tower. I'd like to point out that we're only at 130. Still a lot more to go. So we are out of the tower. We're somewhere in the ceiling I think. I have to say though size 10 feet for women that is a little too big for these stairs. I'm like tiptoeing up I feel like I'm a giant in Poland. My giant feet. Giant feet in Poland. I don't know if you guys can see that but the staircase continues all the way up there to that wooden platform. We're hardly done. Woo. After visiting the Basilica, we walked over to the main pedestrian street in Gdansk: Dluga, also known as Long Street (Ulica Długa - Langgasse). Unlike most Polish cities, Gdańsk doesn’t have a main square, but this stretch of road acts as the equivalent with lots of vendors and performers along the way. On the west end of Dluga (Dooga) we came across the Amber Museum (Muzeum Bursztynu), which sounded a little unusual, so we bought tickets and went up. Here we learned the history of Amber trade in the Baltic, and we also discovered that the tower that now houses the museum, was once a prison and torture chamber. But anyways this museum is pretty cool. So the first few levels like you get to see different exhibitions where you learn about amber and culture. Amber in jewelry because Gdansk is really known for amber jewelry. And they actually have one entire street dedicated to amber shops. So we're going to head there later but we're visiting the museum now and another cool thing is this museum has a lookout point so we're going to get more views of the Old Town. Alright Sam, so we've enjoyed two different vantage points of the city today. Which did you prefer? Our first two activities that we've done here basically we got amazing views of the city. I actually prefer this view from the museum. Yeah, same. You've kind of got a better like overview of the main pedestrian area and also you can see the church really well from there. Yeah. Plus there was less climbing involved. That is true. Wasn't quite as scary. Climbing up the church cathedral was more of an experience. Yeah. Yeah. Not done with museums just yet, our next stop was the Historical Museum of the City of Gdańsk (Muzeum Historyczne Gdanska). I think we spent more time staring at the ornate doorways, ceilings and staircases, than we did at the exhibit itself! And check out these ceilings. You don't see this every day. Alright so we're here on the river and there is lots going on. There is a lot going on. There is all kinds of boats out here. Yeah. There is people kayaking. Uh huh. There is people on these kind of like they look like motorized cars. Yeah. It is hilarious. And then you have like the big tour boats and we saw like a I don't know something that looked out of Pirates of the Caribbean. I know. Like an old ship. We've seen just about everything on this river. So yeah, we're just going to walk around and see what else we can find. And here we have Gdansk looking all postcard perfect. Here, we also saw the Medieval Crane (Żuraw), which was first mentioned in texts in 1367, and was at one point the biggest working crane in the world. It is open to visitors but we had already climbed up two viewing towers earlier that day so we decided to skip this one. Next, it was all aboard the SS Sołdek (Stanislaw Sołdek), a Polish coal and ore freighter which is now a ship-museum. Well ahoy ahoy Matie. How are things aboard your ship. Matie matie. This is my ship and I've let you come up to the top today only for a short tour. So let's make the most of it and then I'll kick you off. Okay, so Saturday night here in Gdańsk. Yeah. And we wanted to go to a local bar but it was packed. Yep. It was packed. So we've ended up on a boat. On a boat by the water. And I saw this place going for a walk actually this afternoon and it looked so cool. Yeah. Like they do fish and chips. I've also ordered that too. Yeah. But I've just been like thinking about beer all day. We've been doing a lot of walking and I've really wanted enjoy some nightlife here in the city. So yeah, I mean it is eight thirty but it is still daylight. Yep. So cheers to a Saturday night on a floating restaurants. Cheers. The fish and chips have arrived. Yeah, I mean how could we head this north and be right on the sea and not have fish and chips. I love fish and chips. Oh, drizzle that lemon. I've been eating fish and chips all my life. Especially when I've gone to Atlantic Canada they specialize in that too so I know what good fish and chips taste like. Yeah. Alright, hope these are up to standard. Let's dig in. The fries aren't bad. Let's try the fish. Oh, skin and all. Mmmmm. That is nice. Yeah? Yeah. Really tender. Mmmmm. Mmmm. He says. And since we’re on the topic of food, we need to show you a milk bar we really enjoyed. Alright guys so we've been meaning to take you to a Milk Bar for a while. There is a really famous one. It is called Neptunes. Neptune Bar (Bar Mleczny Neptun). We've been going to Milk Bars in every single Polish city we've visited. Yeah. And this one has some really good food. I know. Like we've been really impressed with the quality. This one is a little different in the sense that they have like a display menu that you can just point at. And so we're just like ooh that looks good. Oh that looks good. No guessing. Yeah, we don't have a great ideas of the names of some of these things but we can tell you what it looks like. Yeah. So this one is basically a cutlet. I think it is a pork cutlet with some cauliflower, carrots, potatoes with dill. We also got this creamy soup. It looks like a potato based soup with some green beans, dill, carrots and other veggies. Yep. Sam couldn't resist some cake this early in the morning. And this is breakfast. It is nine thirty in the morning. This is breakfast right now. Hahaha. This is pretty embarrassing but it is going to be more like a brunch right? And to drink yes. Compote. This one will last us a while. To drink we have compote. Yes. Which is I don't even know how to describe this it is kind of like if they made like strawberry jam and took the syrup and kind of added some water and turned it into juice. That is what it looks like. It is kind of a natural fruit juice that has been watered down a bit. It has like real chunks of strawberry in there and it is really good. But we just don't know how it is made. Mmmm. Is it good? So good. So good but yeah let's dig in. Alrighty Mister. Alrighty. So dig right in. Let's try let's try the cutlet first. Grab it with a bit of cauliflower. Nice little breakfast going on. Mmmm. That is a really nice cutlet. Check it out. That is quite creamy. Oh and we can hear the church bells tolling in the distance. It must be ten. Mmmmm. Is it good? I love the dill in creamy soups. It is just so nice. Is it fairly thick? Is it a thick soup? I mean it is not like the thickest cream soup but I mean it is not a broth that is for sure. It is good. Mmmm. And dessert wise. On to dessert. Check out that cake. Wow. That has got some meringue on top. I think it might have a fruit filling. Wow. Oh, is that good? Wow. That is very decadent. It does look decadent. I can't believe I'm having that. I know. In the morning. It is like a sponge-y cake on the bottom. You've got merengue and like some kind of cherry sauce drizzled all over. But anyways it has just been a fantastic meal and like you said earlier we've been eating a Milk Bars throughout our entire trip in Poland. Yeah. It is something we highly highly recommend. Yes. You get really good food, good prices and it is just very satisfy meals. On our last day in Gdansk, we walked over to the European Solidarity Centre (Europejskie Centrum Solidarności), which is about a 15-20 minute walk from the Old Town. The museum tells the story of Solidarity, a Polish trade union and civil resistance movement, founded in 1980 at the Lenin Shipyard. This was the first union not controlled by the communist party, and it’s a fascinating museum to learn a bit more about the history. And that’s a wrap for our Gdansk travel guide. We hope you guys enjoyed this video and that it gave you a few ideas of things to do in Gdańsk on you visit. You know the drill, if you have any other tips or suggestions to share with travellers, feel free to pop those in the comments section below. Happy travels and until next time!



The city's name is thought to originate from the Gdania River,[5] the original name of the Motława branch on which the city is situated. The name of a settlement was recorded after St. Adalbert's death in AD 997 as urbs Gyddanyzc[6] and later was written as Kdanzk in 1148, Gdanzc in 1188, Danceke[7] in 1228, Gdansk in 1236,[8] Danzc in 1263, Danczk in 1311,[9] Danczik in 1399,[6][10] Danczig in 1414, Gdąnsk in 1656. In Polish the modern name of the city is pronounced [ɡdaɲsk] (About this soundlisten). In English (where the diacritic over the "n" is frequently omitted) the usual pronunciation is /ɡəˈdænsk/ or /ɡəˈdɑːnsk/. The German name, "Danzig", is pronounced as [ˈdantsɪç] (About this soundlisten).

The city's Latin name may be given as either Gedania, Gedanum or Dantiscum; the variety of Latin names reflects the mixed influence of the city's Polish, German and Kashubian heritage. Other former spellings of the name include Dantzig, Dantsic and Dantzic.

Ceremonial names

On special occasions the city is also referred to as "The Royal Polish City of Gdańsk" (Polish Królewskie Polskie Miasto Gdańsk, Latin Regia Civitas Polonica Gedanensis, Kashubian Królewsczi Polsczi Gard Gduńsk).[11][12][13] In the Kashubian language the city is called Gduńsk. Kashubians also use the name "Our Capital City Gduńsk" (Nasz Stoleczny Gard Gduńsk) or "The Kashubian Capital City Gduńsk" (Stoleczny Kaszëbsczi Gard Gduńsk).


Early Poland

The medieval port crane, over the river Motława
The medieval port crane, over the river Motława

The first written record thought to refer to Gdańsk is the vita of Saint Adalbert. Written in 999, it describes how in 997 Saint Adalbert of Prague baptised the inhabitants of urbs Gyddannyzc, "which separated the great realm of the duke [i.e. Boleslaw the Brave of Poland] from the sea."[14] No further written sources exist for the 10th and 11th centuries.[14] Based on the date in Adalbert's vita, the city celebrated its millennial anniversary in 1997.[15]

Archaeological evidence for the origins of the town was retrieved mostly after World War II had laid 90 percent of the city center in ruins, enabling excavations.[16] The oldest seventeen settlement levels were dated to between 980 and 1308.[15] It is generally thought that Mieszko I of Poland erected a stronghold on the site in the 980s, thereby connecting the Polish state ruled by the Piast dynasty with the trade routes of the Baltic Sea.[17] Traces of buildings and housing from 10th century have been found in archaeological excavations of the city[18].

Pomeranian Poland

Excavated remains of Gdańsk buildings from the 12th century
Excavated remains of Gdańsk buildings from the 12th century

The site was ruled on behalf of Poland by the Samborides' duchy and consisted of a settlement at the modern Long Market, craftsmen settlements along the Old Ditch, German merchant settlements around the St Nicolas church and the old Piast stronghold.[19] In 1186, a Cistercian monastery was set up in nearby Oliwa, which is now within the city limits. In 1215, the ducal stronghold became the centre of a Pomerelian splinter duchy. At that time the area of the later city comprised different villages. At least since 1224/25 a German market settlement with merchants from Lübeck existed in the area of today's Long Market.[20] In 1224/25, merchants from Lübeck were invited as "hospites" (immigrants with specific privileges) but were soon forced to leave by Swantopolk II of the Samborides in 1238 during a war between Swantopolk and the Teutonic Knights, during which Lübeck supported the latter. Migration of merchants to the town resumed in 1257.[21] Significant German influence did not appear until the 14th century, after the takeover of the city by the Teutonic Knights.[22] At latest in 1263 Pomerelian duke, Swantopolk II. granted city rights under Lübeck law to the emerging market settlement.[20] It was an autonomy charter similar to that of Lübeck, which was also the primary origin of many settlers.[19] In a document of 1271 the Pomerelian duke Mestwin II. addressed the Lübeck merchants settled in the city as his loyal citizens from Germany.[23][24]

In 1300, the town had an estimated population of 2,000.[25] While overall the town was not a very important trade centre at that time, it had some relevance in the trade with Eastern Europe.[25] Low on funds, the Samborides lent the settlement to Brandenburg, although they planned to take the city back and give it to Poland. Poland threatened to intervene, and Brandenburg left the town. Subsequently, the city was taken by Danish princes in 1301. The Teutonic Knights were hired by the Polish nobles to clear out the Danes.

Teutonic Knights

Monument to defenders of Polish Gdańsk also commemorates the victims of the 1308 massacre carried out by the Teutonic Knights
Monument to defenders of Polish Gdańsk also commemorates the victims of the 1308 massacre carried out by the Teutonic Knights

In 1308, the town was taken by Brandenburg and the Teutonic Knights restored order. Subsequently, the Knights took over control of the town. Primary sources record a massacre carried out by the Teutonic Knights on the local population,[26] of 10,000 people, but the exact number killed is subject of dispute in modern scholarship.[27] Some authors accept the number given in the original sources,[28] while others consider 10,000 to have been a medieval exaggeration, although scholarly consensus is that a massacre of some magnitude did take place.[27] The events were used by the Polish crown to condemn the Teutonic Knights in a subsequent papal lawsuit.[27][29]

The knights colonised the area, replacing local Kashubians and Poles with German settlers.[28] In 1308, they founded Osiek Hakelwerk near the town, initially as a Slavic fishing settlement.[26] In 1340, the Teutonic Knights built a large fortress, which became the seat of the knights' Komtur.[30] In 1346 they changed the Town Law of the city, which then consisted only of the Rechtstadt, to Kulm law.[31] In 1358, Danzig joined the Hanseatic League, and became an active member in 1361.[32] It maintained relations with the trade centers Bruges, Novgorod, Lisboa and Sevilla.[32] Around 1377, the Old Town was equipped with city rights as well.[33] In 1380, the New Town was founded as the third, independent settlement.[26]

After a series of Polish-Teutonic Wars, in the Treaty of Kalisz (1343) the Order had to acknowledge that it would hold Pomerelia as a fief from the Polish Crown. Although it left the legal basis of the Order's possession of the province in some doubt, the city thrived as a result of increased exports of grain (especially wheat), timber, potash, tar, and other goods of forestry from Prussia and Poland via the Vistula River trading routes, although after its capture, the Teutonic Knights tried to actively reduce the economic significance of the town. While under the control of the Teutonic Order German migration increased. The Order's religious networks helped to develop Danzig's literary culture.[34] A new war broke out in 1409, culminating in the Battle of Grunwald (1410), and the city came under the control of the Kingdom of Poland. A year later, with the First Peace of Thorn, it returned to the Teutonic Order.[35]

Kingdom of Poland

Apotheosis of Gdańsk by Izaak van den Blocke. The Vistula-borne trade of goods in Poland was the main source of prosperity during the city's Golden Age.
Apotheosis of Gdańsk by Izaak van den Blocke. The Vistula-borne trade of goods in Poland was the main source of prosperity during the city's Golden Age.

In 1440, the city participated in the foundation of the Prussian Confederation which was an organisation opposed to the rule of the Teutonic Knights. This led to the Thirteen Years' War against the Teutonic Monastic State of Prussia (1454–1466). On 25 May 1457 the city gained its rights and independence as an autonomous city.[36][37]

On 15 May 1457, Casimir IV of Poland granted the town the Great Privilege, after he had been invited by the town's council and had already stayed in town for five weeks.[38] With the Great Privilege, the town was granted full autonomy and protection by the King of Poland.[39] The privilege removed tariffs and taxes on trade within Poland, Lithuania and Ruthenia (present day Belarus and Ukraine) and conferred on the town independent jurisdiction, legislation and administration of her territory, as well as the right to mint its own coin.[38] Furthermore, the privilege united Old Town, Osiek and Main Town, and legalised the demolition of New Town, which had sided with the Teutonic Knights.[38] By 1457, New Town was demolished completely, no buildings remained.[26]

Gaining free and privileged access to Polish markets, the seaport prospered while simultaneously trading with the other Hanseatic cities. After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466) with the Teutonic Monastic State of Prussia the warfare between the latter and the Polish crown ended permanently. After the Union of Lublin between Poland and Lithuania in 1569 the city continued to enjoy a large degree of internal autonomy (cf. Danzig Law). Being the largest and one of the most influential cities of Poland, it enjoyed voting rights during the royal election period in Poland.

Green Gate, inspired by the Antwerp City Hall,[40] was built to serve as the formal residence of the Polish monarchs.[41]
Green Gate, inspired by the Antwerp City Hall,[40] was built to serve as the formal residence of the Polish monarchs.[41]

In 1569 a Mennonite Church was founded here.

In the 1575 election of a king to the Polish throne, Danzig supported Maximilian II against Stephen Báthory. It was the latter who eventually became monarch but the city, encouraged by the secret support of Denmark and Emperor Maximilian, shut its gates against Stephen. After the Siege of Danzig (1577), lasting six months, the city's army of 5,000 mercenaries was utterly defeated in a field battle on 16 December 1577. However, since Stephen's armies were unable to take the city by force, a compromise was reached: Stephen Báthory confirmed the city's special status and her Danzig Law privileges granted by earlier Polish kings. The city recognised him as ruler of Poland and paid the enormous sum of 200,000 guldens in gold as payoff ("apology").

Around 1640, Johannes Hevelius established his astronomical observatory in the Old Town. Polish King John III Sobieski regularly visited Hevelius numerous times.

Beside the large numbers of German-speakers, whose elites sometimes distinguished their German dialect as Pomerelian,[42] the city was home to a large number of Polish-speaking Poles, Jewish Poles, Latvian speaking Kursenieki, Flemings and Dutch. In addition, a number of Scots took refuge or migrated to and received citizenship in the city. During the Protestant Reformation, most German-speaking inhabitants adopted Lutheranism. Due to the special status of the city and significance within the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the city inhabitants largely became bi-cultural sharing both Polish and German culture and were strongly attached to the traditions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.[43]

The city suffered a last great plague and a slow economic decline due to the wars of the 18th century. As a stronghold of Stanisław Leszczyński's supporters during the War of the Polish Succession, it was taken by the Russians after the Siege of Danzig in 1734.

The Danzig Research Society (in German Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Danzig) founded in 1743 was one of the first of its kind.

Prussia and Germany

Friedrich Eduard Meyerheim's painting of the waterfront (1850)
Friedrich Eduard Meyerheim's painting of the waterfront (1850)
Colorized photo, c. 1900, showing prewar roof of the Krantor (Brama Żuraw).
Colorized photo, c. 1900, showing prewar roof of the Krantor (Brama Żuraw).

Danzig was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1793,[44] in the Second Partition of Poland. An attempt of student uprising against Prussia led by Gottfried Benjamin Bartholdi was crushed quickly by the authorities in 1797.[45][46][47] During the era of Napoleon the city became a free city in the period extending from 1807 to 1814.

In 1815, after France's defeat in the Napoleonic Wars, it again became part of Prussia[44] and became the capital of Regierungsbezirk Danzig within the province of West Prussia. The city's longest serving president was Robert von Blumenthal, who held office from 1841, through the revolutions of 1848, until 1863. With the unification of Germany under Prussian hegemony, the city became part of Imperial Germany (the German Empire) in 1871, and remained so until 1919, after Germany's defeat in World War I.

Inter-war years and World War II

A 100 Danzig gulden banknote issued by the Bank of Danzig in 1931.
A 100 Danzig gulden banknote issued by the Bank of Danzig in 1931.

When Poland regained its independence after World War I with access to the sea as promised by the Allies on the basis of Woodrow Wilson's "Fourteen Points" (point 13 called for "an independent Polish state", "which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea"), the Poles hoped the city's harbour would also become part of Poland.

However, in the end - since Germans formed a majority in the city, with Poles being a minority (in the 1923 census 7,896 people out of 335,921 gave Polish, Kashubian or Masurian as their native language)[48] - the city was not placed under Polish sovereignty. Instead, in accordance with the terms of the Versailles Treaty, it became the Free City of Danzig (German: Freie Stadt Danzig), an independent quasi-state under the auspices of the League of Nations with its external affairs largely under Polish control, without however any public vote to legitimize Germany's loss of the city. Poland's rights also included free use of the harbour, a Polish post office, a Polish garrison in Westerplatte district, and customs union with Poland. This led to a considerable tension between the city and the Republic of Poland. The Free City had its own constitution, national anthem, parliament (Volkstag), and government (Senat). It issued its own stamps as well as its currency, the Danzig gulden.

In the early 1930s the local Nazi Party capitalised on pro-German sentiments and in 1933 garnered 50% of vote in the parliament. Thereafter, the Nazis under Gauleiter Albert Forster achieved dominance in the city government, which was still nominally overseen by the League of Nations' High Commissioner. The German government officially demanded the return of Danzig to Germany along with an extraterritorial (meaning under German jurisdiction) highway through the area of the Polish Corridor for land-based access from the rest of Germany. Hitler used the issue of the status of the city as a pretext for attacking Poland and on May 1939, during a high level meeting of German military officials explained to them: "It is not Danzig that is at stake. For us it is a matter of expanding our Lebensraum in the east", adding that there will be no repeat of the Czech situation, and Germany will attack Poland at first opportunity, after isolating the country from its Western Allies.[49][50][51][52][53] After the German proposals to solve the three main issues peacefully were refused and the sixteen point proposal has been undermined by the British Government (Navy Minister Cooper), German-Polish relations rapidly deteriorated. Germany attacked Poland on 1 September after having signed a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union (this includes the Secret Part with the upcoming treatment of the Baltic States) in late August and after postponing the attack three times due to needed time for diplomatic, peaceful solutions.

The German attack began in Danzig, with a bombardment of Polish positions at Westerplatte by the German battleship Schleswig-Holstein, and the landing of German infantry on the peninsula. Outnumbered Polish defenders at Westerplatte resisted for seven days before running out of ammunition. Meanwhile, after a fierce day-long fight (1 September 1939), defenders of the Polish Post office were tried and executed then buried on the spot in the Danzig quarter of Zaspa in October 1939. In 1998 a German court overturned their conviction and sentence.

Captured Polish defenders of the Polish Post Office in Danzig shortly before their trial and execution by the Wehrmacht
Captured Polish defenders of the Polish Post Office in Danzig shortly before their trial and execution by the Wehrmacht

The city was officially annexed by Nazi Germany and incorporated into the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia. About 50 percent of members of the Jewish Community of Danzig had left the city within a year after a Pogrom in October 1937,[54] after the Kristallnacht riots in November 1938 the community decided to organize its emigration[55] and in March 1939 a first transport to Palestine started.[56] By September 1939 barely 1,700 mostly elderly Jews remained. In early 1941, just 600 Jews were still living in Danzig, most of whom were later murdered in the Holocaust.[54][57] Out of the 2,938 Jewish community in the city 1,227 were able to escape from the Nazis before the outbreak of war.[58][dubious ] Nazi secret police had been observing Polish minority communities in the city since 1936, compiling information, which in 1939 served to prepare lists of Poles to be captured in Operation Tannenberg. On the first day of the war, approximately 1,500 ethnic Poles were arrested, some because of their participation in social and economic life, others because they were activists and members of various Polish organisations. On 2 September 1939, 150 of them were deported to the Sicherheitsdienst camp Stutthof some 30 miles (48 km) from Danzig, and murdered.[59] Many Poles living in Danzig were deported to Stutthof or executed in the Piaśnica forest.

In 1941, Hitler ordered the invasion of the Soviet Union, eventually causing the fortunes of war to turn against Germany. As the Soviet Army advanced in 1944, German populations in Central and Eastern Europe took flight, resulting in the beginning of a great population shift. After the final Soviet offensives began in January 1945, hundreds of thousands of German refugees converged on Danzig, many of whom had fled on foot from East Prussia, some tried to escape through the city's port in a large-scale evacuation involving hundreds of German cargo and passenger ships. Some of the ships were sunk by the Soviets, including the Wilhelm Gustloff after an evacuation was attempted at neighbouring Gdynia. In the process, tens of thousands of refugees were killed.

The city also endured heavy Allied and Soviet air raids. Those who survived and could not escape had to face the Soviet Army, which captured the heavily damaged city on 30 March 1945,[60] followed by large-scale rape[61] and looting.[62][63] In line with the decisions made by the Allies at the Yalta and Potsdam conferences, the city was annexed by Poland. The remaining German residents of the city who had survived the war fled or were forcibly expelled from their home city to postwar Germany, and the city was repopulated by ethnic Poles; up to 18 percent (1948) of them had been deported by the Soviets in two major waves from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union, i.e. from the eastern portion of pre-war Poland.[64]

Contemporary times

Example of Dutch-style buildings rebuilt after the war: The Old Arsenal by Anthony van Obberghen, Jan Strakowski and Abraham van den Blocke, 1602–1605.[65]
Example of Dutch-style buildings rebuilt after the war: The Old Arsenal by Anthony van Obberghen, Jan Strakowski and Abraham van den Blocke, 1602–1605.[65]

Parts of the historic old city of Gdańsk, which had suffered large-scale destruction during the war, were rebuilt during the 1950s and 1960s. The reconstruction was not tied to the city's pre-war appearance, but instead was politically motivated as a means of culturally cleansing and destroying all traces of German influence from the city.[66][67][68] Any traces of German tradition were ignored, suppressed, or regarded as "Prussian barbarism" only worthy of demolition,[69][70] while Flemish/Dutch, Italian and French influences were used to replace the historically accurate Germanic architecture which the city was built upon since the 14th century.[71]

Gdańsk Arkońska Business Park
Gdańsk Arkońska Business Park

Boosted by heavy investment in the development of its port and three major shipyards for Soviet ambitions in the Baltic region, Gdańsk became the major shipping and industrial center of the Communist People's Republic of Poland.

In December 1970, Gdańsk was the scene of anti-regime demonstrations, which led to the downfall of Poland's communist leader Władysław Gomułka. During the demonstrations in Gdańsk and Gdynia, military as well as the police opened fire on the demonstrators causing several dozen deaths. Ten years later, in August, 1980, Gdańsk Shipyard was the birthplace of the Solidarity trade union movement. In September 1981, in order to deter Solidarity, Soviet Union launched Exercise Zapad-81, the largest military exercise in human history, during which amphibious landings were conducted near Gdansk. Meanwhile, the Solidarity held its first national congress in Hala Olivia, Gdansk when more than 800 deputies participated. Its opposition to the Communist regime led to the end of Communist Party rule in 1989, and sparked a series of protests that successfully overturned the Communist regimes of the former Soviet bloc. Solidarity's leader, Lech Wałęsa, became President of Poland in 1990. In 2014 the European Solidarity Centre, a museum and library devoted to the history of the movement, opened in Gdańsk.[72]

Gdańsk native Donald Tusk became Prime Minister of Poland in 2007, and President of the European Council in 2014.[73] Today Gdańsk is a major shipping port and tourist destination.

In January 2019, the Mayor of Gdansk, Paweł Adamowicz, was assassinated by a man who had just been released from prison for some violent crimes; the man claimed after stabbing the mayor in the abdomen, near the heart, that the mayor's political party had been responsible for imprisoning him. Though Adamowicz was able to undergo a multi-hour surgery to try to treat his wounds, he died the next day.[74][75]



Gdańsk has a climate with both oceanic and continental influences. According to some categorizations, it has an oceanic climate (Cfb)[76], while others classify it as belonging to the continental climate zone (Dfb)[77]. It actually depends on whether the mean reference temperature for the coldest winter month is set at −3 °C (27 °F) or 0 °C (32 °F). Gdańsk's dry winters and the precipitation maximum in summer are indicators of continentality. However seasonal extremes are less pronounced than those in inland Poland.

The city has moderately cold and cloudy winters with mean temperature in January and February near or below 0 °C (32 °F) and mild summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms. Average temperatures range from −1.0 to 17.2 °C (30 to 63 °F) and average monthly rainfall varies 17.9 to 66.7 millimetres (1 to 3 in) per month with a rather low annual total of 507.3 millimetres (20 in). In general, it is damp, variable, and mild.

The seasons are clearly differentiated. Spring starts in March and is initially cold and windy, later becoming pleasantly warm and often very sunny. Summer, which begins in June, is predominantly warm but hot at times with temperature reaching as high as 30 to 35 °C (86 to 95 °F) at least once per year with plenty of sunshine interspersed with heavy rain. Gdańsk averages 1,700 hours of sunshine per year. July and August are the warmest months. Autumn comes in September and is at first warm and usually sunny, turning cold, damp, and foggy in November. Winter lasts from December to March and includes periods of snow. January and February are the coldest months with the temperature sometimes dropping as low as −15 °C (5 °F).

Climate data for Gdańsk (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 1.4
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.0
Average low °C (°F) −3.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 24.6
Average precipitation days 15 13 13 11 12 13 13 12 14 14 16 16 162
Mean monthly sunshine hours 39 70 134 163 244 259 236 225 174 105 45 32 1,726
Source: World Meteorological Organization[78]


The industrial sections of the city are dominated by shipbuilding, petrochemical & chemical industries, and food processing. The share of high-tech sectors such as electronics, telecommunications, IT engineering, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals is on the rise. Amber processing is also an important part of the local economy, as the majority of the world's amber deposits lie along the Baltic coast. The Pomeranian Voivodeship, including Gdańsk, is also a major tourist destination in the summer, as millions of Poles and other European tourists flock to the beaches of the Baltic coastline. Major companies in Gdańsk:

Main sights

View of Gdańsk's Main Town from the Motława River (2012)
View of Gdańsk's Main Town from the Motława River (2012)
The Highland Gate marks the beginning of the Royal Route
The Highland Gate marks the beginning of the Royal Route


The city has some buildings surviving from the time of the Hanseatic League. Most tourist attractions are located along or near Ulica Długa (Long Street) and Długi Targ (Long Market), a pedestrian thoroughfare surrounded by buildings reconstructed in historical (primarily during the 17th century) style and flanked at both ends by elaborate city gates. This part of the city is sometimes referred to as the Royal Route, since it was once the former path of processions for visiting Kings of Poland.

Long Lane filled with picturesque tenements is part of the Royal Route
Long Lane filled with picturesque tenements is part of the Royal Route
Neptune's Fountain in the centre of the Long Market, a masterpiece by architect Abraham van den Blocke, 1617.[79][80]
Neptune's Fountain in the centre of the Long Market, a masterpiece by architect Abraham van den Blocke, 1617.[79][80]
Royal Chapel of the Polish King – John III Sobieski was built in baroque style between 1678–1681 by Tylman van Gameren.[81]
Royal Chapel of the Polish King – John III Sobieski was built in baroque style between 1678–1681 by Tylman van Gameren.[81]
St. Mary's Church – the second largest brick church in the world
St. Mary's Church – the second largest brick church in the world

Walking from end to end, sites encountered on or near the Royal Route include:

Gdańsk has a number of historical churches:

  • St. Bridget
  • St. Catherine
  • St. John
  • St. Mary (Bazylika Mariacka), a municipal church built during the 15th century, is the largest brick church in the world.
  • St. Nicholas
  • St. James
  • St. Joseph
  • St. Peter and Paul
  • St. Barbara
  • Corpus Christi

The city's 17th-century fortifications represent one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments (Pomnik historii), as designated on 16 September 1994 and tracked by the National Heritage Board of Poland.

Other main sights in the historical city centre include:

  • Royal Chapel of the Polish King John III Sobieski
  • Żuraw – medieval port crane
  • Gradowa Hill
  • Granaries on the Ołowianka and Granary Islands
  • Great Armoury
  • John III Sobieski Monument
  • Old Town Hall
  • Jan Heweliusz Monument
  • Great Mill (1350)
  • Small Mill
  • House of Research Society
  • Polish Post Office, site of the 1939 battle
  • brick gothic town gates, i.e. Mariacka Gate, Straganiarska Gate, Cow Gate

Main sights outside the historical city centre include:




In 2011–2015 the Warsaw-Gdańsk-Gdynia railway route underwent a major upgrading costing $3 billion, partly funded by the European Investment Bank, including track replacement, realignment of curves and relocation of sections of track to allow speeds up to 200 km/h (124 mph), modernization of stations, and installation of the most modern ETCS signalling system, which was completed in June 2015. In December 2014 new Alstom Pendolino high-speed trains were put into service between Gdańsk, Warsaw and Kraków reducing the rail travel time from Gdańsk to Warsaw to 2 hours 58 minutes,[84][85] further reduced in December 2015 to 2 hours 39 minutes.[86]

Gdańsk is the starting point of the EuroVelo 9 cycling route which continues southward through Poland, then into the Czech Republic, Austria and Slovenia before ending at the Adriatic Sea in Pula, Croatia.


There are many popular professional sports teams in the Gdańsk and Tricity area. Amateur sports are played by thousands of Gdańsk citizens and also in schools of all levels (elementary, secondary, university).

The city's professional football club is Lechia Gdańsk. Founded in 1945, they play in the Ekstraklasa, Poland's top division. Their home stadium, Stadion Energa Gdańsk, was one of the four Polish stadiums to host the UEFA Euro 2012 competition. Other notable clubs include rugby club Lechia Gdańsk (12 times Polish Champion) and motorcycle speedway club Wybrzeże Gdańsk.

The city's Hala Olivia was a venue for the official 2009 EuroBasket.[87]

Politics and local government

Contemporary Gdańsk is the capital of the province called Pomeranian Voivodeship and is one of the major centers of economic and administrative life in Poland. Many important agencies of the state and local government levels have their main offices here: the Provincial Administration Office, the Provincial Government, the Ministerial Agency of the State Treasury, the Agency for Consumer and Competition Protection, the National Insurance regional office, the Court of Appeals, and the High Administrative Court.

Regional centre

Gdańsk Voivodeship was extended in 1999 to include most of former Słupsk Voivodeship, the western part of Elbląg Voivodeship and Chojnice County from Bydgoszcz Voivodeship to form the new Pomeranian Voivodeship. The area of the region was thus extended from 7,394 to 18,293 square kilometres (2,855 to 7,063 sq mi) and the population rose from 1,333,800 (1980) to 2,198,000 (2000). By 1998, Tricity constituted an absolute majority of the population; almost half of the inhabitants of the new region live in the centre.

Municipal government

Legislative power in Gdańsk is vested in a unicameral Gdańsk City Council (Rada Miasta), which comprises 34 members. Council members are elected directly every four years. Like most legislative bodies, the City Council divides itself into committees which have the oversight of various functions of the city government.

City Council in 2002–2006[88]
City Council in 2006–2010[89]
City Council in 2010–2014[90]
Gdansk City Council in 2014-2018
Gdansk City Council in 2014-2018
City Council in 2014–2018[91]


Gdańsk is divided into 34 administrative divisions: 6 dzielnicas and 28 osiedles. Gdańsk dzielnicas include: Chełm, Piecki-Migowo, Przymorze Wielkie, Śródmieście, Wrzeszcz Dolny, Wrzeszcz Górny.

Osiedles: Aniołki, Brętowo, Brzeźno, Jasień, Kokoszki, Krakowiec-Górki Zachodnie, Letnica, Matarnia, Młyniska, Nowy Port, Oliwa, Olszynka, Orunia-Św. Wojciech-Lipce, Osowa, Przeróbka, Przymorze Małe, Rudniki, Siedlce, Sobieszewo Island, Stogi, Strzyża, Suchanino, Ujeścisko-Łostowice, VII Dwór, Wzgórze Mickiewicza, Zaspa-Młyniec, Zaspa-Rozstaje, Żabianka-Wejhera-Jelitkowo-Tysiąclecia.

Education and science

Gdańsk University of Technology
Gdańsk University of Technology
Gdańsk Medical University
Gdańsk Medical University

There are 15 higher schools including 3 universities. In 2001 there were 60,436 students, including 10,439 graduates.

Scientific and regional organizations

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Gdańsk is twinned with:[96]

Partnerships and cooperation



Historical population

Notable people

See also



  1. ^ "Local Data Bank". Statistics Poland. Retrieved 10 November 2018. Data for territorial unit 2261000.
  2. ^ "the definition of gdansk".
  3. ^ "Poland – largest cities (per geographical entity)". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on December 26, 2008. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  4. ^ "Millions at Gdansk's St. Dominic's Fair". Article copied to 2016-08-21. Retrieved 2016-12-30.
  5. ^ From the history of Gdańsk city name, as explained at Gdańsk Guide
  6. ^ a b Tighe, Carl (1990). Gdańsk: national identity in the Polish-German borderlands. Pluto Press. ISBN 9780745303468. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  7. ^ Gumowski, Marian (1966). Handbuch der polnischen Siegelkunde (in German). Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  8. ^ Also in 1454, 1468, 1484, and 1590
  9. ^ Also in 1399, 1410, and 1414–1438
  10. ^ Also in 1410, 1414
  11. ^ Gdańsk, in: Kazimierz Rymut, Nazwy Miast Polski, Ossolineum, Wrocław 1987
  12. ^ Hubert Gurnowicz, Gdańsk, in: Nazwy miast Pomorza Gdańskiego, Ossolineum, Wrocław 1978
  13. ^ Baedeker's Northern Germany, Karl Baedeker Publishing, Leipzig 1904
  14. ^ a b Loew, Peter Oliver: Danzig. Biographie einer Stadt, Munich 2011, p. 24.
  15. ^ a b Wazny, Tomasz; Paner, Henryk; Golebiewski, Andrzej; Koscinski, Bogdan: Early medieval Gdansk/Danzig revisited (EuroDendro 2004), Rendsburg 2004, pdf-abstract Archived September 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine..
  16. ^ Loew (2011), p. 24; Wazny et al. (2004), abstract Archived September 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine..
  17. ^ Hess, Corina (2007). Danziger Wohnkultur in der frühen Neuzeit. Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: LIT Verlag. p. 39. ISBN 978-3-8258-8711-7.
  18. ^ admin2. "1000 LAT GDAŃSKA W ŚWIETLE WYKOPALISK". Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  19. ^ a b Hess, Corina (2007). Danziger Wohnkultur in der frühen Neuzeit. Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: LIT Verlag. p. 40. ISBN 978-3-8258-8711-7.
  20. ^ a b name="harlander">Harlander, Christa (2004). Stadtanlage und Befestigung von Danzig (zur Zeit des Deutschen Ordens). GRIN Verlag. p. 2. ISBN 978-3-638-75010-3.
  21. ^ Zbierski, Andrzej (1978). Struktura zawodowa, spoleczna i etnicza ludnosci. In Historia Gdanska, Vol. 1. Wydawnictwo Morskie. pp. 228–9. ISBN 978-83-86557-00-4.
  22. ^ Turnock, David (1988). The Making of Eastern Europe: From the Earliest Times to 1815. Routledge. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-415-01267-6.
  23. ^ name="lingenberg">Lingenberg, Heinz (1982). Die Anfänge des Klosters Oliva und die Entstehung der deutschen Stadt Danzig: die frühe Geschichte der beiden Gemeinwesen bis 1308/10. Klett-Cotta. p. 292. ISBN 978-3-129-14900-3.
  24. ^ ‘The Slippery Memory of Men’: The Place of Pomerania in the Medieval Kingdom of Poland by Paul Milliman page 73, 2013
  25. ^ a b Hess, Corina (2007). Danziger Wohnkultur in der frühen Neuzeit. Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: LIT Verlag. pp. 40–41. ISBN 978-3-8258-8711-7.
  26. ^ a b c d Hess, Corina (2007). Danziger Wohnkultur in der frühen Neuzeit. Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: LIT Verlag. p. 41. ISBN 978-3-8258-8711-7.
  27. ^ a b c Hartmut Boockmann, Ostpreussen und Westpreussen, Siedler, 2002, p.158, ISBN 3-88680-212-4
  28. ^ a b James Minahan, One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000, ISBN 0-313-30984-1, p.376 Google Books
  29. ^ Thomas Urban: "Rezydencja książąt Pomorskich". (in Polish) Archived August 25, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.
  30. ^ Hess, Corina (2007). Danziger Wohnkultur in der frühen Neuzeit. Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: LIT Verlag. pp. 41–42. ISBN 978-3-8258-8711-7.
  31. ^ Frankot, Edda (2012). 'Of Laws of Ships and Shipmen': Medieval Maritime Law and its Practice in Urban Northern Europe. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-7486-4624-1.
  32. ^ a b Hess, Corina (2007). Danziger Wohnkultur in der frühen Neuzeit. Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: LIT Verlag. p. 42. ISBN 978-3-8258-8711-7.
  33. ^ Loew, Peter O. (2011). Danzig: Biographie einer Stadt. München: C.H.Beck. p. 43. ISBN 978-3-406-60587-1.
  34. ^ Sobecki, Sebastian (2016). Danzig. Europe: A Literary History, 1348–1418, Ed. David Wallace. Oxford University Press. pp. 635–41. ISBN 9780198735359.
  35. ^ "II Pokój Toruński i przyłączenie Gdańska do Rzeczpospolitej".
  36. ^ Cahoon, Ben. "Poland".
  37. ^ Danzig – Gdańsk until 1920[dead link]
  38. ^ a b c Hess, Corina (2007). Danziger Wohnkultur in der frühen Neuzeit. Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: LIT Verlag. p. 45. ISBN 978-3-8258-8711-7.
  39. ^ Hess, Corina (2007). Danziger Wohnkultur in der frühen Neuzeit. Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: LIT Verlag. p. 45. ISBN 978-3-8258-8711-7.: "Geben wir und verlehen unnsir Stadt Danczk das sie zcu ewigen geczeiten nymands for eynem herrn halden noc gehorsam zcu weszen seyn sullen in weltlichen sachen."
  40. ^ Juliette Roding, Lex Heerma van Voss (1996). The North Sea and culture (1550–1800): proceedings of the international conference held at Leiden 21–22 April 1995. Uitgeverij Verloren. p. 103. ISBN 978-90-6550-527-9.
  41. ^ "Zielona Brama w Gdańsku". (in Polish). 2007-02-18. Archived from the original on 2007-12-29. Retrieved 2008-12-29.
  42. ^ Bömelburg, Hans-Jürgen, Zwischen polnischer Ständegesellschaft und preußischem Obrigkeitsstaat: vom Königlichen Preußen zu Westpreußen (1756–1806), München: Oldenbourg, 1995, (Schriften des Bundesinstituts für Ostdeutsche Kultur und Geschichte (Oldenburg); 5), zugl.: Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-Univ., Diss., 1993, 549 pp.
  43. ^ Historia Polski 1795–1815 Andrzej Chwalba Kraków 2000, page 441
  44. ^ a b Planet, Lonely. "History of Gdańsk – Lonely Planet Travel Information".
  45. ^ Dzieje Gdańska Edmund Cieślak, Czesław Biernat Wydawn. Morskie, 1969 page 370
  46. ^ Dzieje Polski w datach Jerzy Borowiec, Halina Niemiec page 161
  47. ^ Polska, losy państwa i narodu Henryk Samsonowicz 1992 Iskry page 282
  48. ^ Ergebnisse der Volks- und Berufszählung vom 1. November 1923 in der Freien Stadt Danzig (in German). Verlag des Statistischen Landesamtes der Freien Stadt Danzig. 1926.. Polish estimates of the Polish minority during the interwar era, however, range from 37,000 to 100,000 (9%–34%). Studia historica Slavo-Germanica, Tomy 18–20page 220 Uniwersytet Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu. Instytut Historii Wydawnictwo Naukowe imienia. Adama Mickiewicza, 1994.
  49. ^ The history of the German resistance, 1933–1945 Peter Hoffmann page 37 McGill-Queen's University Press 1996
  50. ^ Hitler Joachim C. Fest page 586 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2002
  51. ^ Blitzkrieg w Polsce wrzesien 1939 Richard Hargreaves page 84 Bellona, 2009
  52. ^ A military history of Germany, from the eighteenth century to the present dayMartin Kitchen page 305 Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1975
  53. ^ International history of the twentieth century and beyond Antony Best page 181 Routledge; 2 edition (July 30, 2008)
  54. ^ a b "Gdansk". Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  55. ^ Bauer, Yehuda (1981). American Jewry and the Holocaust. Wayne State University Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-8143-1672-6. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  56. ^ "Die "Lösung der Judenfrage" in der Freien Stadt Danzig". (in German). 2018-11-30. Archived from the original on 2011-06-29.
  57. ^ "Gdansk, Poland".
  58. ^ Żydzi na terenie Wolnego Miasta Gdańska w latach 1920–1945:działalność kulturalna, polityczna i socjalnaGrzegorz Berendt Gdańskie Tow. Nauk., Wydz. I Nauk Społecznych i Humanistycznych, 1997 page 245
  59. ^ Museums Stutthof in Sztutowo. Retrieved January 31, 2007. Archived August 24, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.
  60. ^ "Gdań". 3 March 2006. Archived from the original on 3 March 2006.
  61. ^ Grzegorz Baziur, OBEP IPN Kraków (2002). "Armia Czerwona na Pomorzu Gdańskim 1945–1947 (Red Army in Gdańsk Pomerania 1945–1947)". Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej (Institute of National Remembrance Bulletin). 7: 35–38.
  62. ^ Biskupski, Mieczysław B. The History of Poland. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, p. 97.
  63. ^ Tighe, Carl. Gdańsk: National Identity in the Polish-German Borderlands. London: Palgrave Macmillan, p. 199.
  64. ^ Loew, Peter Oliver (2011). Danzig – Biographie einer Stadt (in German). C.H. Beck. p. 232. ISBN 978-3-406-60587-1. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  65. ^ Lech Krzyżanowski; Michał Wożniak; Marek Źak; Wacław Górski (1995). Beautiful historic Gdańsk. Excalibur. p. 769.
  66. ^ Kozinska, Bogdana; Bingen, Dieter (2005). Die Schleifung – Zerstörung und Wiederaufbau historischer Bauten in Deutschland und Polen (in German). Deutsches Polen-Institut. p. 67. ISBN 978-3-447-05096-8. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  67. ^ Loew, Peter Oliver (2011). Danzig – Biographie einer Stadt (in German). C.H. Beck. p. 146. ISBN 978-3-406-60587-1.
  68. ^ Kalinowski, Konstanty; Bingen, Dieter (2005). Die Schleifung – Zerstörung und Wiederaufbau historischer Bauten in Deutschland und Polen (in German). Deutsches Polen-Institut. p. 89. ISBN 978-3-447-05096-8. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  69. ^ Friedrich, Jacek (2010). Neue Stadt in altem Glanz – Der Wiederaufbau Danzigs 1945–1960 (in German). Böhlau. pp. 30, 40. ISBN 978-3-412-20312-2.
  70. ^ Czepczynski, Mariusz (2008). Cultural landscapes of post-socialist cities: representation of powers and needs. Ashgate publ. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-7546-7022-3.
  71. ^ Friedrich, Jacek (2010). Neue Stadt in altem Glanz – Der Wiederaufbau Danzigs 1945–1960 (in German). Böhlau. pp. 34, 102. ISBN 978-3-412-20312-2.
  72. ^ "W Gdańsku otwarto Europejskie Centrum Solidarności" (in Polish). 31 August 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2015.[dead link]
  73. ^ "Italy's Mogherini and Poland's Tusk get top EU jobs". BBC. 30 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
  74. ^ "Gdansk mayor Pawel Adamowicz dies after being stabbed in heart on stage". CNN. 14 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  75. ^
  76. ^ "Gdansk". Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  77. ^ "Köppen climate classification". Britannica. Retrieved 14 February 2018
  78. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Gdańsk". WMO. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  79. ^ Russell Sturgis; Arthur Lincoln Frothingham (1915). A history of architecture. Baker & Taylor. p. 293.
  80. ^ Paul Wagret; Helga S. B. Harrison (1964). Poland. Nagel. p. 302.
  81. ^ ROBiDZ w Gdańsku. "Kaplica Królewska w Gdańsku". (in Polish). Archived from the original on February 10, 2015. Retrieved 2008-12-29.
  82. ^ Snow, Georgia (3 September 2014). "Elizabethan playhouse in Poland to host work by Shakespeare's Globe". The Stage. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  83. ^ SKM Passenger Information, Map
  84. ^ Polish Pendolino launches 200 km/h operation, Railway Gazette International, 15 December 2014
  85. ^ "Pendolino z Trójmiasta do Warszawy. Więcej pytań niż odpowiedzi". 2013-07-30.
  86. ^ ';Jeszcze szybciej z Warszawy do Gdańska,' Kurier Kolejowy 9 01 2015
  87. ^ 2009 EuroBasket,, Retrieved 5 June 2016.
  88. ^ "Państwowa Komisja Wyborcza: Wybory samorządowe". Retrieved 2015-10-09.
  89. ^ "Geografia wyborcza – Wybory samorządowe – Państwowa Komisja Wyborcza". Retrieved 2015-10-09.
  90. ^ "Wybory Samorządowe 2010 – Geografia wyborcza – Województwo pomorskie – – m. Gdańsk". Retrieved 2015-10-09.
  91. ^ "Państwowa Komisja Wyborcza | Gdańsk". Archived from the original on 2014-12-18. Retrieved 2015-10-09.
  92. ^ "Akademia Sztuk Pięknych w Gdańsku".
  93. ^ "Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery of the Polish Academy of Sciences".
  94. ^ WSB University in Gdańsk Archived 2016-02-14 at the Wayback Machine. – WSB Universities
  95. ^ "The Gdańsk Institute for Market Economics". Archived from the original on 2008-02-09. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  96. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Partner Cities" (in Polish and English). City of Gdańsk. 27 May 2008. Retrieved 2015-01-04.
  97. ^ Frohmader, Andrea. "Bremen – Referat 32 Städtepartnerschaften / Internationale Beziehungen" [Bremen – Unit 32 Twinning / International Relations]. Das Rathaus Bremen Senatskanzlei [Bremen City Hall – Senate Chancellery] (in German). Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
  98. ^ "Sister Cities International (SCI)". Archived from the original on 2015-06-13. Retrieved 2013-04-21.
  99. ^ "Villes jumelées avec la Ville de Nice" (in French). Ville de Nice. Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
  100. ^ "Saint Petersburg in figures – International and Interregional Ties". Saint Petersburg City Government. Archived from the original on 2009-02-24. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
  101. ^ "Le Havre – Les villes jumelées" [Le Havre – Twin towns]. City of Le Havre (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-07-29. Retrieved 2013-08-07.


External links

This page was last edited on 17 January 2019, at 00:59
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.