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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gary Johnson
Gary Johnson campaign portrait.jpg
29th Governor of New Mexico
In office
January 1, 1995 – January 1, 2003
LieutenantWalter Bradley
Preceded byBruce King
Succeeded byBill Richardson
Personal details
Born
Gary Earl Johnson

(1953-01-01) January 1, 1953 (age 66)
Minot, North Dakota, U.S.
Political partyLibertarian (2011–present)
Other political
affiliations
Republican (before 2011)
Spouse(s)
Denise Simms
(m. 1977; div. 2005)
Domestic partnerKate Prusack (engaged 2009)
EducationUniversity of New Mexico, Albuquerque (BS)
Signature
WebsiteSenate campaign[dead link]

Gary Earl Johnson (born January 1, 1953) is an American businessman, author, and politician who served as the 29th governor of New Mexico from 1995 to 2003 as a member of the Republican Party. He was the Libertarian Party nominee for President of the United States in the 2012 and 2016 elections. He was also the Libertarian nominee for U.S. Senate in the 2018 New Mexico senate election.[1][2]

Johnson founded one of New Mexico's largest construction companies.[3] He entered politics for the first time by running for Governor of New Mexico in 1994 on a low-tax, anti-crime platform,[4] promising a 'common sense business approach'. He defeated incumbent Democratic governor Bruce King by 50% to 40%. He cut the 10% annual growth in the budget, in part due to his use of the gubernatorial veto 200 times during his first six months.[3]

Johnson sought re-election in 1998, winning by 55% to 45%. In his second term, he concentrated on the issue of school voucher reforms[5] as well as campaigning for cannabis decriminalization.[6] During his tenure as governor, Johnson adhered to an anti-tax policy, setting state and national records for the number of times he used his veto power:[3] more than the other 49 contemporary governors put together.[7][8] Term-limited, Johnson retired from front-line politics in 2003.

Johnson ran for president in 2012, initially as a Republican on a libertarian platform emphasizing the United States public debt and a balanced budget, protection of civil liberties, military non-interventionism, replacement of income tax with the FairTax, and opposition to the War on Drugs.[9] In December 2011, he withdrew his candidacy for the Republican nomination and stood for the Libertarian nomination instead,[10] winning the nomination in May 2012. Johnson received 1.3 million votes (1%), more than all other minor candidates combined.[11]

Johnson ran again for President in 2016,[12] once again winning the Libertarian nomination and naming former Republican Governor of Massachusetts Bill Weld as his running mate.[13] Johnson received nearly 4.5 million votes (3.27% of the total vote), which is the most for a third party presidential candidate since 1996 and the highest national vote share for a Libertarian candidate in history. After the 2016 presidential election, Johnson stated he will not run for the presidency again.[14] Johnson ran for the U.S. Senate in the 2018 New Mexico senate race against incumbent Democratic senator Martin Heinrich, coming third with 15.38% of the statewide vote (107,201 votes).[15][16]

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  • ✪ Gary Johnson - Liberty University Convocation

Transcription

>> JERRY FALWELL: Josh Rutledge is going come in just a minute and introduce Governor Gary Johnson. But before he comes up-Governor Johnson, you've got more than just a few supporters here. In 2012, when the Virginia Primary was held here in Virginia, the precinct here on campus, there were only two candidates on the Republican ballot. It was Mitt Romney and Ron Paul, and a Libertarian candidate won at Liberty, and so it's not—shouldn't be surprising that we have a group down front. And I felt the liberty to wear jeans since we have a libertarian candidate speaking, so—. But, Josh, I'd like you to come up and give the biographical information and welcome Governor Johnson. Thanks. >> JOSH RUTLEDGE: Well good morning. Like President Falwell said, today I have the pleasure of introducing you and telling you a little bit about our distinguished guest today, Governor Gary Johnson. Governor Johnson was the very popular two-term Republican governor of New Mexico. He cut taxes on 14 separate occasions. He balanced the budget, and left the state with a billion-dollar surplus. All this despite him leading in a state that leaned heavily democrat in its politics. His political leadership was influenced heavily—and always has been—by the years he spent as a businessman, as an entrepreneur. In college he started a door-to-door handyman business in New Mexico and grew it over the course of 20 years into one of the largest construction companies in the state of New Mexico with over a thousand employees today. On a personal level, just talking backstage with the Governor, he quickly loves to talk about his love of the outdoors, his love of working out, the amount of competitive skiing he does in New Mexico. He's a renowned outdoorsman. He's a competitive skier. He loves to bike. He's competed in iron man events across the world. He loves to hike, and he's climbed to the highest peak on all seven continents—including Mount Everest despite having broken his leg only about six weeks before he attempted the climb. He's a pretty impressive hiker. He's currently the Libertarian Party nominee. Governor Johnson is currently the Libertarian nominee for president of The United States in the 2016 presidential election, running on the same free market principles, ideology, and record that made him a successful governor in New Mexico. So without further Ado, Liberty University, it's my privilege to welcome to our convocation stage Governor Gary Johnson. >> GARY JOHNSON: Unbelievable. You honor me. I saw that this was like a 12,000-person auditorium. I'm thinking maybe 500 people might show up. Wow, thank you. You have no idea. You have no idea. Thank you. I'd like to share a few things about myself that maybe you don't know. I have a wonderful family, really a textbook family—daughter Seah, son Erik. I have a granddaughter Cora. I have a best friend-girlfriend, Kate, who shares in my passion for athletics and wellness, and we're planning a White House wedding when that happens. I grew up in the Dakotas. North Dakota, born in North Dakota, Aberdeen, South Dakota. I grew up with the church being a big part of my life. Along with the church, boy scouts. Boy scouts was a huge influence on my life. Hunting-huge influence on my life. Moved to New Mexico when I was 13-years-old, and fell in love with New Mexico—mountains, outdoors, skiing. Skiing became my passion. Growing up I have participated in every single sport. I've always said that I am the master of none. I'm a jack of all, master of none. But these are the things, these are the things that are my passion. The things that I've learned in life: always tell the truth. If you tell the truth, you don't have to remember anything. And we all make mistakes. All of us make mistakes. Life is about making mistakes every single day. It's how you deal with mistakes that ultimately determines success. Crawl up in a ball, declare yourself a victim, or just recognize that that's part of the process, and get up the next day with a smile on your face. That's me. And mistakes: if you tell the truth then you'll acknowledge those mistakes immediately. I have always been on time. I am on time to a fault. And what on time simply does, is it just shows respect for the person that you're dealing with. I've also lived the golden rule. Do unto others as you would have others do unto you. I think that the one unforgivable in life is hypocrisy—saying one thing and doing another. Myself and Bill Weld, as the Libertarian presidential nominees, presidential vice presidential nominees, we are not hypocrites. What we say is what we do. I have paid for everything that I've had in my life since I've been 17, and that was really by choice. I have been an entrepreneur my entire life, throwing newspapers, raking leaves, mowing lawns or whatever it was, but when I was 17, I started working construction jobs, because those were the highest paying jobs that were available, and when I was a junior in college I started a one-man handyman business—me—and grew that business to employ over 1000 people—electrical, mechanical, plumbing, pipe fitting. I learned some things doing that. One, is sharing in the profits. And it's amazing that when you share in the profits how big the pie grows. It's a magic formula getting everybody to pull in the same direction. Another thing that I learned was hiring and firing. It's incredible easy to hire people, and you only hire the best people, and you do that to the best of your ability, and it's extremely difficult to fire anybody. There is nothing more difficult than firing people, but if you can't fire people things just don't work. And it isn't necessarily the person that's on the other side of it. May be me. It just doesn't work out. But I really do believe that hiring and firing is something that has to be learned in the private sector. And in the public sector, I think that's an actual breakdown in the public sector—that in the public sector we elect a lot of people who have never hired and fired, and so they find it extremely easy to hire people, and because it's so difficult to fire anybody, in the public sector if you've never done it you don't do it. And that kind of becomes the dysfunctionality of the public sector, and in the public sector we elect a lot of people who have never hired and fired, and they hire people who have never hired and fired, and in a nutshell that's really the difference between the public sector and the private sector. Money for me, has always represented freedom, not things. For me, that freedom has represented being able to pursue my passions. I sold my business in 1999. Nobody lost their job, business went on to new heights, but like I said, it gave me the freedom to do what I want to do when I want to do it—money. Not about things, but just the freedom to be able to do what I want to do—my passions, athletics. I have competed in many, many competitions. If I am not elected president of the United States, next summer I plan to ride the divide which is a 3,000-mile mountain bike race on the continental divide from Banff, Canada to Antelope Wells, New Mexico. And it is a race. It's a little bit of an oxymoron—3,000-mile race unsupported. And I've had the good fortune to climb the highest mountain on each continent. I thought it would be a really cool way to see the planet, and it really has been a cool way to see the planet I have some advice for all of you here today, and my advice is worth exactly what you’re paying for it—which is nothing. But my advice is that apply whatever it is that you know entrepreneurially. There will never be a bigger reward in your life than applying what you know to creating your own job or creating jobs for others. It's a huge reward, and government plays a role in all this. They can make it easy, or they can make it difficult, and they're making it more and more difficult to be an entrepreneur. Another bit of advice wroth what you're paying for it: live debt free. The only reason, the only reason to take on any debt is arguably when you're taking on debt of an appreciating, which has historically been your home. So I understand the notion of going into debt, but if you're buying a home, pay it off. Get yourself debt free. I don't owe anybody anything. I don't owe any mortgages, I don't owe anybody anything, and I want you all to know that I have never received a penny from politics, and that gives me a unique opportunity to do, I think, do what's right. I became governor of New Mexico. It was something I always wanted to do. I always wanted to seek high political office, but I early on came to the understanding that to run for office you were going to have to have money to do that, and I just felt like you'd be indebted to the process if you went out and 'seeked' donations. So I waited until I could afford running for governor myself. I went, and I introduced myself to the Republican Party two weeks before I announced by governorship. And what they said was, "Hey, we like you. We like what you've got to say, but you just need to know you'll never get elected it. That it's not possible to come from completely out of politics and get elected governor—Republican governor in a state that's two to one Democratic. Well, I did. And I'd like to think it was based on what I had to say which was, hey, I'm just going to bring a common sense business approach to state government—best product, best service, lowest price. Because I'm not a politician, I'm going to put the issues that should be on the front burner on the front burner regardless of the political consequences, because there won't be any political consequences. Good government was easy. It wasn't hard. It was easy to do the right thing, and I understand too the whole notion about right thing. But as governor I was fiscally conservative. I was socially inclusive. As governor I was more outspoken than any governor in the country regarding school choice—believing that we needed to bring competition to public education. And in that regard, competition to anything is an improvement regarding anything. I was more, also, more outspoken than any governor in the country regarding the war on drugs—the fact that half of what we spend on law enforcement, the courts, and the prisons is drug-related, and what are we getting for that? Well, we're not getting anything for that. We need to first recognize drugs as a health issue rather than a criminal justice issue. So, myself and Bill Weld both, when I—Bill Weld being my running mate for president of The United States. Beyond my wildest dreams he was a role model for me when I became governor. We were not wallflowers. Bill Weld's first day of office in Massachusetts, a state that's four to one Democratic, he furloughed 8,000 state employees, and didn't even get a postcard over why he furloughed 8,000 state employees, and nobody noticed the difference. Well, small government—that is why we're doing this. We're running to make a difference. Libertarian candidates on the ballot in all 50 states—there are only three candidates on the ballot in all 50 states, and I'm one of those three candidates. We don't live in a democracy. We democratically elect our representatives, but we live in a republic, and a republic is a country, in this case governed by laws, and the law is the Constitution of the United States. And the Constitution of the United States, in a nutshell, is a document that limits the power and scope of government. And the Bill of Rights is a document that, bottom line, protects the minority against the will of the majority. In a democracy, people, at some point, vote themselves a raise, and that is not sustainable. So we are a country governed by laws. I don't think it's constitutional to have a $20 trillion debt. Right now in polls, for right now, I'm tied with Hillary Clinton among the millennial demographic—18 to 34. And I think what it has to do with is nobody is standing up and saying we have to reform Medicaid, and Medicare, and social security, and in the case of President Obama's affordable healthcare—that is a formula that relies on young, healthy people paying for those that aren't so healthy. So I'm going to give my healthcare, I'm going to give my retirement, I'm going to have health insurance on the backs of young people? It is not fair! These issues have to be reformed. They have to reformed. It's about the future of this country. And neither Hilary Clinton or Donald Trump are going to do anything about this. Hillary Clinton says she's going to grow Medicaid and Medicare. It's not an option. Military spending—look, we should have a military that has—we should have an invincible national defense. When we are attacked we should attack back, but when we involve ourselves in regime change—in my lifetime none of those regime changes have worked out. Do you know what the rule of 72 is? The rule of 72 is that if you take the inflation. How long does it take to double your money? It's the rule of 72 compounded on a daily basis. So at 72% interest, it takes one year to double your money. 36%, two years to double your money. 10%, 7.2 years to double your money. Well that also works when it comes to debt. So when President Bush doubled the national debt over his eight years, which would be 9% a year. Obama has doubled the national debt again, and Hillary Clinton is going to take that beyond that because of what she wants to grow government by. So the rule of 72, it's something that you should all be aware of, and when Hillary Clinton—if Hillary Clinton is elected—I think our national debt will be at 50 trillion dollars. It is just not sustainable, and it's not sustainable for young people. I think that the model of the future is “uber everything.” It's the sharing economy. It's eliminating the middle man. It's allowing for you and I as entrepreneurs to directly, directly give out the goods and services that we're providing to the end user, end user ends up paying less. You and I as the providers of those goods and services end up making more, because we eliminate the middle man. Airbnb—I think we'd just begun to see the tip of the sharing economy. Airbnb—I'm talking to a young woman in Baltimore who got her doctorate in science, and she said I have these horrific student loans, but I figured out a way to pay them back, and the way to pay them back is Airbnb. Oh my gosh, I was on track to pay back my student loans, but the city of Baltimore stepped in and banned Airbnb. Well this is the role that government can play. It can either promote these ideas that empower us, or they can get in the way of empowering us. Make it easy to be self-employed. Free markets—there is a magic to free markets. Free markets is the opposite of crony capitalism. Crony capitalism is when the government picks winners and losers. Healthcare reform has everything to do with opening up healthcare to free markets—bringing competition to healthcare. You and I would not have health insurance to cover ourselves for ongoing medical need in a free market approach to healthcare. We would have insurance to cover ourselves from catastrophic injury, and, listen, we would pay as you go in a system that would be incredibly affordable. I'm going to guess about 1/5th of what it currently cost. We would advertise pricing. We would have advertised outcomes, but this is free market. We would have gallbladders-r-us. We'd have stitches-r-us. We'd have x-rays-r-us. It would be incredible. I think having health insurance to cover us for ongoing need is analogous to having grocery insurance. Why don't we have grocery insurance? Imagine the shopping experience where you go in the grocery store and there's no advertised pricing whatsoever, because if I have grocery insurance it doesn't matter what the prices are-ground, round, or fillet. I think I'll choose fillet every single time. This country is a country of immigration. I think that we should embrace immigration in this country, and as a border state governor, we should make it as easy as possible for somebody that wants to come across the border and work to be able to get a work visa. And a work visa should entail a background check and social security card that applicable taxes can be paid. Let's not build a wall across the border. We will be on the wrong side of history building a wall across the border. I mentioned earlier, we should have an invincible national defense. Among the demographic of active military personnel, active military personnel, in poll after poll after poll overwhelmingly pick me as the next commander in chief, and I believe that's based on what I'm saying, which is judicious use of the military. Let's stop putting-and it's young people being put in harm’s way, dying, getting hurt, getting maimed, getting injured, psychologically damaged for the rest of their lives, because we put them in situations to be the world's policemen, as opposed to when we're attacked we should attack back. Afghanistan—great example of we were attacked; we attacked back. It was us going in in 2001 to get Al Qaeda, and guess what? After seven months of being involved in 2001 to go in and get Al Qaeda, we got them. We should've gotten out of Afghanistan in 2001. Here we are 15 years later. And for all the issues associated with getting out of Afghanistan, tomorrow those same issues are going to exist. Twenty years from now, or I guess for some we're going to be there for the rest of eternity. Iraq—great example of regime change. In 2003 I said let's not go into Iraq. We can see them roll out weapons of mass destruction and the military surveillance capability to see that happen, and if it does we can deal with it. If we go into Iraq we're going to find ourselves in a civil war that will be no end. And that, I'm afraid, is what has happened. I cannot tell you how honored I am to be here. I'm going to finish with Johnson's seven principles of good government. Number one, is always become reality driven. You've got to find out what's what, and base your decisions and actions on that. Number two, always be honest and tell the truth. You know it's extremely difficult to do any damage to somebody who's willing to tell the truth regardless of the consequences. Number three is always do what's right and fair. You need to learn to ignore your critics. Do what you know to be right. Determine your goal, develop a plan to reach that goal, and then act. Don't procrastinate. Number five, make sure everybody who ought to know what you're doing knows what you're doing, communicate. Number six, don't hesitate to deliver bad news. How often is the problem compounded, because there's not an acknowledgement of the problem in the first place, and it ends up to be the cover up that ends up to be the bigger problem than actually acknowledging the problem. And then lastly, be willing to do whatever it takes to get your job done. Get a job that you love. There is nothing better than waking up and enjoying every minute of the day that you spend. And that's getting back to being and entrepreneur—deciding your own future, making your own life the way that you see your life being able to live. Thank you very, very much. Thank you. >> NASSER: Thank you governor. Fantastic. We're going—if you'll have a seat. We're going to take just a few minutes to bring some questions to you. We asked our student government, our SGA, to come up with some questions from our student body. And these questions are right from our own students. They've been kind of compiled and compressed to bring before you. Thanks for taking the time to answer these questions, Governor. Governor, you've been quoted saying the two party system has failed the United States, and while you're expected to receive historic support as a Libertarian, there are critics wo claim that individuals voting for you would be a throw away vote. What do you say to those critics? >> JOHNSON: Look, um, throwing away your vote is voting for somebody that you don't believe in. That's throwing away your vote. 28% of America says they're Democrat. 26% of America says they're Republican. 50% of Americans going to register to vote right now are declaring themselves as independent. I am leading among independents right now. I am incredibly proud to offer independents, young people, military personnel their first vote in this election, and that's how you change things. You change things by voting for the person you believe in. >> NASSER: Thank you, Governor. Governor Johnson, across our nation we keep seeing instances of racial divide, whether it's Ferguson, Baltimore, Louisiana, and recently Charlotte. If you were elected president, what steps, sir, would you take to bring about healing? >> JOHNSON: So, racial divide—let me just say all lives matter, okay? All lives matter, but black lives matter. And black lives matter, because if you're black or you're of color there's a much more likelihood that you will be shot than if not. And in the case of this discrimination that does exist, I think its roots lie in the war on drugs, and I have been more outspoken regarding the war on drugs than anyone else. If you are of color, there's a four times more likelihood that you will end up behind bars than if you were not. So I think the roots of this do exist within the war on drugs, bringing an end to the war on drugs. I don't think life in this country has ever been better, okay? We get along with one another better; we communicate with one another better. Our kids are smarter than ever, and the number one law enforcement tool that we have are the smart phones in our pockets right now. I think we are going to come to grips with this discrimination that, in fact, does exist, and we're going to come to it very effectively and more quickly than we have regarding other issues in the history of this country. So this is an issue that we have. As president of the United States, I'd recognize this issue. >> NASSER: So if you were elected president, obviously recognition is a big part of it—getting that MRI, and then what would you do, sir, to begin to find remedy? >> JOHNSON: So within the Department of Justice, the Department of Justice—and not that they're not doing this currently—but the Department of Justice can determine the common threads where worse discrimination is occurring, worse violence is occurring. Within that same department, the Department of Justice, common threads can be found best, least discrimination, least amount of violence, and in Albuquerque specifically, there have been some very highly publicized incidents of police shootings, and the Department of Justice has come in, made recommendations, and that is a role that the federal government can and should play in all of this. >> NASSER: Thank you, Governor. Governor, on your website it states that you personally believe in the sanctity of life, but that individuals should have the right to choose, and that the government shouldn't be a part of that decision. How will this affect the kind of Supreme Court justices you will nominate if you were president, and why should someone who is a pro-life, a Christian, vote for you? >> JOHNSON: Well, first of all, how can there be a more difficult choice in anyone's life – and by anyone’s life, the woman involved? And I personally believe that that is a choice that lies with the woman involved. Now with regard to the law of the land, the law of the land is Casey Vs. Planned Parenthood, and the law of the land actually echoes my own beliefs on the issue, and came to them separately. I did not realize what the law of the land was, which was Casey Vs. Planned Parenthood, and the law of the land says that a woman has the right to an abortion up to the viability of the fetus. And the viability as defined by the fetus as defined by the Supreme Court is the ability to sustain the life of the fetus outside of the womb, even if by artificial means. So you can see there's a scientific component to all of this that's going to be moving going forward. Also, as a Libertarian, Libertarians are all about personal choice. It's all about personal liberty, all about personal freedom. So Libertarians, ideally, would have a tax form that would say check off what you'd like to fund—bonds, abortion. In that context, as Governor of New Mexico I did try and try to eliminate the funding from Medicaid to abortion as governor. The Supreme Court overruled me in that decision, but that was the recognition that so many people abhor the notion of government funds being used for abortion, and I did not find that to be an issue. So with regard to supreme court justices, it would be an issue of justices ruling on the basis of original intent of the Constitution. I think that judge Thomas has probably been at the forefront of the kind of judge that I would like to appoint. >> NASSER: Thank you, governor. That was probably our biggest question. We got more questions built around sanctity of human life than anything else. So do you see, sir, how, for us, a woman's right to choose also includes a baby's right to choose life? And so we see that as a vulnerable person, and that's why we have very passionate people who believe that—we do. Our students obviously (inaudible). That's their number one issue. Obviously they care about that one a lot! They care a lot about this one as well, governor. This was probably our second most visited question. Governor Johnson, you've stated that you will zealously defend religious liberty. And we appreciate that, that you would be a zealous defender of religious liberty, but you've also stated that religious freedom as a category can become a black hole as well. Because, in theory, anyone could justify an action on the basis of their religion. How would you respond to evangelical Christians who believe that they're being discriminated against in the public square because of their faith? So balancing wanting to see us defended, but in the same time not wanting to see us be offensive. How would you balance that? >> JOHNSON: Well, first of all, I do believe in religious freedom and defending religious freedom, so as model legislation I believe that has been passed has been in the state of Utah where the state of Utah has said that as a Christian church you don't have to conduct or host a Jewish wedding, or Jewish ceremony ,or Muslims, or vice versa, that if you are a Catholic church you don't have to conduct a gay wedding if that's against your religion—so fervently defending the rights of your religion to practice you religion as you see fit. After the Civil War, the blacks were discriminated against widely after the Civil War on the basis of religion—that it's against my religious beliefs to serve a black. And the court has ruled over, and over, and over again, that no. You do not have the right to discriminate against blacks on the basis of religion. So I don't want to bring back an entire category of discrimination that currently does not exist, and I think right now that a lot of the religious freedom legislation that is being passed is being passed under the guise of religious freedom when in fact it is discriminatory against the LGBT communities. So right of religion to practice their religion, but freedom of religion legislation would allow for discrimination in areas that it currently is not allowed to discriminate, I'm not in support of that. >> NASSER: Thank you, governor. I told you earlier that these questions are really, you know, a consolidation of questions from our student body, but we do have one question that is from the outside. We got ahold of the world's most famous undecided voter. I don't know if you guys have heard of Ken Bone, but we have him. Let's watch this video together. >> KEN BONE: Good morning Liberty University. This is Ken Bone. I really, really hope that during that applause break you all just stared and didn't know who I was. That would be the greatest if you were just staring at me that whole time. I'm really proud to be addressing you at Liberty University this morning. You have one of the greatest programs to get you involved in the political process that I've ever heard of. I had to be a part of it, but I've been so busy. I'm sorry I couldn't come and see you in person. Governor Johnson, I'm sorry I couldn't be there. I would have loved to have met you. I just want to ask Governor Johnson a question now if I could. Governor Johnson, what was, in your opinion, the highlight of last week's debate? All right, thank you very much Liberty University for your time. Remember to please get out and vote. You are the future generation of leaders in America. We need you to take care of the mistakes that my generation and the previous ones have made. And if you take anything away from the red sweater, and the mustache, and the craziness, please, please let it be get out and vote. Make your voice heard. Our voices are strong together. We are united not by what makes us the same, but by what makes us different. Keep your discussions civilized. I love you, and I will see you when I can. Thank you! >> NASSER: Give it up for the great Ken Bone, everybody! I think he's baiting you, Governor. What was the highlight of the debate? Obviously the world thought he was the highlight of the debate, but was the highlight of that debate for you? >> JOHNSON: The highlight of the debate had to be when the question was asked, what would you say positive about your opponent? As opposed to everything else. Thirty minutes of that debate went by without one single issue being mentioned whatsoever. And here's my pitch also in all of this. It is the agenda of both parties right now seems to be to kill one another. That seems to be the agenda, and does anybody believe that with either Hillary or Trump getting elected that the polarization of Congress is going to get any better? I don't think anybody believes that, anybody. How about third alternative? Libertarian candidates—big six-lane highway down the middle, representative of what I think are most Americans. And I think most Americans are fiscally conservative. I think most Americans are socially inclusive. I think most Americans are skeptical when it comes to our military interventions, regime change, and I think most Americans support free trade—the notion that that would be more US jobs, not less U.S. jobs. How about a couple of former Republican governors that were reelected in heavily Democrat states—not being wallflowers, but pushing the limits and what is possible when it comes to public policy and making things better—hiring Democrats, Republicans, Libertarians – really, it's not going to be a partisan administration either. Calling out both sides to come to the middle to deal with the issues that we face here in America. I'm hoping you could possibly see that third option as actually having some viability, the former two having no viability whatsoever. >> NASSER: Thank you Governor. Governor, you were telling me backstage that you were brought up Lutheran, and that you're a brother in Christ, and so we wanted to know how we could pray for you, sir. This is really the question we always ask. A lot of times at Q&A it's our final question. How can we pray for you and your family? I can't imagine how exhausting it must be for you right now to be out on the road, and so how can we pray for you? >> JOHNSON: Well, you've done it already. And as a Libertarian, look, Libertarians-individual Liberty and freedom—Libertarians are not going to tell you what you should or shouldn't do, but in that context obviously you had the option to be here today, and that you've come, and I am so grateful. I am so honored—. It's required? >> NASSER: It's mandatory, but Governor, they each get a couple skips a year, and so they could have used that skip today, and they chose not to use it, and so they are here for you. >> JOHNSON: The vibe that I have gotten has been very welcoming. Thank you to all of you. Your prayers emanate with me just sitting here, and I greatly, greatly appreciate it, thank you. >> NASSER: You bet. let's do this; let's pray together. Let's pray for Governor Johnson and his team. They really have been, by the way, they've been incredibly easy to work with. Your team has just been a blessing to us as we've prepared for this convocation. You have great people that represent you, sir. Thank you so much. Let's pray together. Father, thank you for this nation and different views, God, of how it should be led, but at the same time a real commonality in the fact that we want to see this nation continue to rise up as the nation, in this moment in history, that can stand for those who can't stand on their own, to be able to lead, God, in economy, and to be a real safe place, God, to those who are raised up here. Thank you, Lord for someone who would step into the arena and be willing to make his voice known and the freedom that you've granted him to do so. I do pray for stamina for Governor Johnson and his team. I pray, Father, that even today, while he's here in this platform of ideas that he would feel like he's been invested into, even while he's here giving that he would feel as if he's received. Father, thank you that we can disagree on certain degrees, but not disrespect. Thank you, Father, for this great opportunity you've given us to come to you and say, God, you lead this nation no matter who ends up becoming the president. We love you. We're honored, God, that we get to gather in your name. Amen. Can we thank Governor Johnson again for just doing a great job?

Contents

Early life and career

Johnson was born on January 1, 1953, in Minot, North Dakota, the son of Lorraine B. (née Bostow), who worked for the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and Earl W. Johnson, a public school teacher.[17] In 1971, Johnson graduated from Sandia High School in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where he was on the school track team.[18] He attended the University of New Mexico from 1971 to 1975 and graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in political science. While at UNM, he joined the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity.[19][20] It was there that he met his future wife, Denise "Dee" Simms.

While in college, Johnson earned money as a door-to-door handyman.[21] His success in that industry encouraged him to start his own business, Big J Enterprises, in 1976. When he started the business, which focused on mechanical contracting, Johnson was its only employee.[22] His firm's major break came when he received a large contract from Intel's expansion in Rio Rancho, which increased Big J's revenue to $38 million.[23]

To cope with the growth of the company, Johnson enrolled in a time management course at night school, which he credits with making him heavily goal driven.[23] He eventually grew Big J into a multimillion-dollar corporation with over 1,000 employees.[24] By the time he sold the company in 1999, it was one of New Mexico's leading construction companies.[25]

Governor of New Mexico

First term

Johnson entered politics in 1994 with the intention of running for governor and was advised by "Republican Elders"[23] to run for the State Legislature instead.[23] Despite their advice, Johnson spent $500,000 of his own money and entered the race with the intent of bringing a "common sense business approach" to the office.[26] Johnson's campaign slogan was "People before Politics".[27] His platform emphasized tax cuts, job creation, state government spending growth restraint, and law and order.[4] He won the Republican nomination, defeating state legislator Richard P. Cheney by 34% to 33%, with John Dendahl and former governor David F. Cargo in third and fourth. Johnson subsequently won a plurality in the three-way general election, defeating the incumbent Governor Bruce King (a relatively conservative Democrat) and the former Lieutenant Governor Roberto Mondragón (who ran as a Green) with just under 50% of the vote. Johnson was elected in a nationally Republican year, although party registration in the state of New Mexico at the time was 2-to-1 Democratic.[28]

As governor, Johnson followed a strict small-government approach. According to former New Mexico Republican National Committee member Mickey D. Barnett, "Any time someone approached him about legislation for some purpose, his first response always was to ask if government should be involved in that to begin with."[29] He vetoed 200 of 424 bills passed in his first six months in office—a national record of 47% of all legislation—and used the line-item veto on most remaining bills.[3] In office, Johnson fulfilled his campaign promise to reduce the 10% annual growth of the state budget.[3] In his first budget, Johnson proposed a wide range of tax cuts, including a repeal of the prescription drug tax, a $47 million income tax cut, and a 6-cents-per-gallon gasoline tax cut. However, of these, only the gasoline tax cut was passed.[30] During the November 1995 federal government shutdown, he joined 20 other Republican governors who called on the Republican leadership in Congress to stand firm against the Clinton administration in budget negotiations; in the article reporting on the letter and concomitant news conference he was quoted as calling for eliminating the budget deficit through proportional cuts across the budget.[31] Although Johnson worked to reduce overall state spending, in his first term he raised education spending by nearly a third.[32] When drop-out rates and test scores showed little improvement, Johnson changed his tactics and began advocating school vouchers—a key issue in budget battles of his second term as governor.[32]

Second term

In 1998, Johnson ran for re-election as governor against Democratic Albuquerque Mayor Martin Chávez. In his campaign, Johnson promised to continue the policies of his first term: improving schools; cutting state spending, taxes, and bureaucracy; and frequent use of his veto and line-item veto power.[33] Fielding a strong Hispanic candidate in a 40% Hispanic state, the Democrats were expected to oust Johnson,[32] but Johnson won by a margin of 55% to 45%.[34] This made him the first governor of New Mexico to serve two successive four-year terms after term limits were expanded to two terms in 1991.[26] Johnson made the promotion of a school voucher system a "hallmark issue" of his second term.[35] In 1999, he proposed the first statewide voucher system in America, which would have enrolled 100,000 students in its first year.[32]

That year, he vetoed two budgets that failed to include a voucher program and a government shutdown was threatened,[32] but ultimately yielded to Democratic majorities in both houses of the New Mexico Legislature, who opposed the plan. Johnson signed the budget, but line-item vetoed a further $21 million, or 1%, from the legislative plan.[36] In 1999, Johnson became one of the highest-ranking elected officials in the US to advocate the legalization of marijuana.[37] Saying the War on Drugs was "an expensive bust", he advocated the decriminalization of marijuana use and concentration on harm-reduction measures for all other illegal drugs.[38] He compared attempts to enforce the nation's drug laws with the failed attempt at alcohol prohibition. In remarks in 2011, he noted: "Half of what government spends on police, courts and prisons is to deal with drug offenders."[22] He suggested that drug abuse be treated as a health issue, not as a criminal issue. His approach to the issue garnered supportive notice from conservative icon William F. Buckley,[39] as well as the Cato Institute and Rolling Stone.[23][40]

In 2000, Johnson proposed a more ambitious voucher program than he had proposed the year before, under which each parent would receive $3,500 per child for education at any private or parochial school.[35] The Democrats sought $90m extra school funding without school vouchers, and questioned Johnson's request for more funding for state-run prisons, having opposed his opening of two private prisons.[41] Negotiations between the governor and the legislature were contentious, again nearly leading to a government shutdown. In 2000, New Mexico was devastated by the Cerro Grande Fire. Johnson's handling of the disaster earned him accolades from The Denver Post, which observed that:

Johnson.....was all over the Cerro Grande Fire last week. He helped reporters understand where the fire was headed when low-level Forest Service officials couldn't, ran herd over the bureaucratic process of getting state and federal agencies and the National Guard involved, and even helped put out some of the fire with his feet. On a tour of Los Alamos last Wednesday, when he saw small flames spreading across a lawn, he had his driver stop his car. He jumped out and stomped on the flames, as did his wife and some of his staffers.[38]

Johnson's leadership during the fire was praised by Democratic Congressman Tom Udall, who said: "I think the real test of leadership is when you have circumstances like this. He's called on his reserves of energy and has just been a really excellent leader under very difficult circumstances here."[38] Johnson rebuffed efforts by the Libertarian Party to draft him in the 2000 presidential election, stating himself to be a Republican with no interest in running for president.[42]

Reception

According to anonymous sources, Governor Johnson was known for a lack of interest in policy details[43] and those who worked with Johnson at the time "recall a chief executive who would speed through meetings and often preferred to discuss his fitness routine than focus on the minutiae of policymaking."[43] In his first term, he frequently clashed with the legislature, but in the second term, he "became more comfortable with the limits of his executive power" and took a more conciliatory approach.[43]

Johnson at Ron Paul's "Rally for the Republic"
Johnson at Ron Paul's "Rally for the Republic"

Commentator Andrew Sullivan quoted a claim that Johnson "is highly regarded in the state for his outstanding leadership during two terms as governor. He slashed the size of state government during his term and left the state with a large budget surplus."[44] In an interview in Reason in January 2001, Johnson's accomplishments in office were described as follows: "no tax increases in six years, a major road building program, shifting Medicaid to managed care, constructing two new private prisons, canning 1,200 state employees, and vetoing a record number of bills."[26] According to one New Mexico paper, "Johnson left the state fiscally solid" and was "arguably the most popular governor of the decade... leaving the state with a $1 billion budget surplus."[45] The Washington Times reported that when Johnson left office, "the size of state government had been substantially reduced and New Mexico was enjoying a large budget surplus."[29] In a 2016 National Review article, Johnson was criticised for claiming to have balanced New Mexico's budget every year.[46] The Constitution of New Mexico requires that the state budget be balanced,[46][47] with its debt in a separate "capital outlay" budget.[46] The article stated that under Johnson New Mexico's debt increased from $1.8 billion to $4.6 billion[46] and its budget increased from $4.397 billion to $7.721 billion.[46]

According to a 2011 profile of Johnson in the National Review, "During his tenure, he vetoed more bills than the other 49 governors combined—750 in total, one third of which had been introduced by Republican legislators. Johnson also used his line-item-veto power thousands of times. He credits his heavy veto pen for eliminating New Mexico's budget deficit and cutting the growth rate of New Mexico's government in half."[48] According to the Myrtle Beach Sun News, Johnson "said his numerous vetoes, only two of which were overridden, stemmed from his philosophy of looking at all things for their cost–benefit ratio and his axe fell on Republicans as well as Democrats."[22]

While in office, Johnson was criticized for opposing funding for an independent study of private prisons after a series of riots and killings at the facilities.[49] Martin Chavez, his opponent in the 1998 New Mexico gubernatorial race, criticized Johnson for his frequent vetoing of programs, suggesting that it resulted in New Mexico's low economic and social standing nationally.[33] Journalist Mark Ames described Johnson as "a hard-core conservative" who "ruled the state like a right-wing authoritarian" and only embraced marijuana legalization in his second term for populist gain.[50] This was mainly in reference to a commercial from Johnson's reelection campaign featuring Johnson saying that a felon in New Mexico would serve "every lousy second" of their prison sentence. Johnson insisted, however, that the commercial was directed at "the guy who's got his gun out" rather than nonviolent drug offenders.[50]

Post governorship

Johnson was term limited and could not run for a third consecutive term as governor in 2002.[51] In the 2008 presidential election campaign, Johnson endorsed Ron Paul for the Republican nomination, "because of his commitment to less government, greater liberty, and lasting prosperity for America."[52][53] Johnson spoke at Paul's "Rally for the Republic" on September 2, 2008.[54]

Johnson serves on the Advisory Council of Students for Sensible Drug Policy,[55] a student nonprofit organization which advocates for drug policy reform.

As of April 2011, he serves on the board of directors of Students For Liberty, a nonprofit libertarian organization.[56] His first book, Seven Principles of Good Government, was published on August 1, 2012.[57]

2012 presidential campaign

Early campaign

Logo of the Our America Initiative, which Johnson founded in 2009
Logo of the Our America Initiative, which Johnson founded in 2009
Johnson after a campaign rally in a photo shoot for Reason Magazine
Johnson after a campaign rally in a photo shoot for Reason Magazine

In 2009, Johnson began indicating interest in running for president in the 2012 election.[58][59] In the April 20, 2009 edition of The American Conservative magazine, Bill Kauffman told readers to "keep an eye out" for a Johnson presidential campaign in 2012, reporting that Johnson had told him that "he was keeping his options open for 2012" and that "he may take a shot at the Republican presidential nomination in 2012 as an antiwar, anti-Fed, pro-personal liberties, slash-government-spending candidate—in other words, a Ron Paul libertarian".[58] During a June 24, 2009 appearance on Fox News's Freedom Watch, host Judge Andrew Napolitano asked Johnson if he would run for president in 2012, to which Johnson responded that he thought it would be inappropriate to openly express his desires before President Obama is given the opportunity to prove himself, but he followed up that statement by saying "it appears personal freedoms are being shoveled out the window more and more."[60]

In an October 26, 2009, interview with the Santa Fe New Mexican's Steve Terrell, Johnson announced his decision to form an advocacy committee called the Our America Initiative to help him raise funds and promote small government ideas. In December 2009, Johnson asked strategist Ron Nielson of NSON Opinion Strategy, who has worked with Johnson since 1993 when he ran his successful gubernatorial campaign, to organize the Our American Initiative as a 501(c)(4) committee. Nielson serves as a senior advisor to Our America Initiative. The stated focus of the organization is to "speak out on issues regarding topics such as government efficiency, lowering taxes, ending the war on drugs, protecting civil liberties, revitalizing the economy and promoting entrepreneurship and privatization".[61] The move prompted speculation among media pundits and Johnson's supporters that he might be laying the groundwork for a 2012 presidential run.[62][63] Throughout 2010, Johnson repeatedly deflected questions about a 2012 presidential bid by saying his 501(c)(4) status prevented him from expressing a desire to run for federal office on politics.[64][65]

In February 2011, Johnson was a featured speaker at both the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) and the Republican Liberty Caucus.[citation needed] At CPAC, "the crowd liked him—even as he pushed some of his more controversial points."[66] Johnson tied with New Jersey Governor Chris Christie for third in the CPAC Straw Poll, trailing only Ron Paul and Mitt Romney (and ahead of such notables as former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich, former Minnesota Governor Tim Pawlenty, Indiana Governor Mitch Daniels and former Alaska Governor and 2008 vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin).[67] David Weigel of Slate called Johnson the second-biggest winner of the conference, writing that his "third-place showing in the straw poll gave Johnson his first real media hook ... He met tons of reporters, commanded a small scrum after the vote, and is a slightly lighter shade of dark horse now."[68]

Republican presidential candidacy

On April 21, 2011 Johnson announced via Twitter, "I am running for president."[69] He followed this announcement with a speech at the New Hampshire State House in Concord, New Hampshire.[9] He was the first of an eventually large field to announce his candidacy for the Republican presidential nomination.[70] Johnson again chose Ron Nielson of NSON Opinion Strategy, a director for both of his New Mexico gubernatorial campaigns, as his presidential campaign manager and senior advisor.[70] The campaign was headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah, where Nielson's offices are located.[70] Johnson's economics advisor was Harvard economics professor Jeffrey Miron.[71] Initially, Johnson hoped Ron Paul would not run for president so that Johnson could galvanize Paul's network of libertarian-minded voters, and he even traveled to Houston to tell Paul of his decision to run in person,[70] but Paul announced his candidacy on May 13, 2011.

Johnson participated in the first of the Republican presidential debates, hosted by Fox News in South Carolina on May 5, 2011, appearing on stage with Herman Cain, Ron Paul, Tim Pawlenty, and Rick Santorum. Mitt Romney and Michele Bachmann both declined to debate. Johnson was excluded from the next three debates on June 13 (hosted by CNN in New Hampshire), August 11 (hosted by Fox News in Iowa), and September 7 (hosted by CNN in California).[70] After the first exclusion, Johnson made a 43-minute video responding to each of the debate questions, which he posted on YouTube.[70][72] The first exclusion, which was widely publicized, gave Johnson "a little bump" in name recognition and produced "a small uptick" in donations.[70] But "the long term consequences were dismal."[70] For the financial quarter ending June 30, Johnson raised a mere $180,000.[70] Fox News decided that because Johnson polled at least 2% in five recent polls, he could participate in a September 22 debate in Florida, which it co-hosted with the Florida Republican Party (the party objected to Johnson's inclusion).[70] Johnson participated, appearing on stage with Michele Bachmann, Herman Cain, Newt Gingrich, Jon Huntsman, Ron Paul, Rick Perry, Mitt Romney, and Rick Santorum. During the debate, Johnson delivered what many media outlets, including the Los Angeles Times, and Time, called the best line of the night: "My next-door neighbor's two dogs have created more shovel ready jobs than this administration."[73][74] Entertainment Weekly opined that Johnson had won the debate.[75]

Libertarian presidential nomination and campaign

Although Johnson had focused the majority of his campaign activities on the New Hampshire primary, he announced on November 29, 2011 that he would no longer campaign there due to his inability to gain traction with less than a month until the primary.[76] There was speculation in the media that he might run as a Libertarian Party candidate instead. Johnson acknowledged that he was considering such a move.[77][78][79] In December, Politico reported that Johnson would quit the Republican primaries and announce his intention to seek the Libertarian Party nomination at a December 28 press conference.[80] He also encouraged his supporters to vote for Ron Paul in 2012 Republican presidential primaries.[citation needed]

On December 28, 2011, Johnson formally withdrew his candidacy for the Republican presidential nomination, and declared his candidacy for the 2012 presidential nomination of the Libertarian Party in Santa Fe, New Mexico.[10] On May 5, 2012, at the 2012 Libertarian National Convention, Johnson received the Libertarian Party's official nomination for president in the 2012 election, by a vote of 419 votes to 152 votes for second-place candidate R. Lee Wrights.[1][81] In his acceptance speech, Johnson asked the convention's delegates to nominate as his running mate Judge Jim Gray of California.[82] Gray subsequently received the party's vice-presidential nomination on the first ballot.[81]

Johnson spent the early months of his campaign making media appearances on television programs such as The Daily Show with Jon Stewart[83] and Red Eye w/Greg Gutfeld.[84] Starting in September 2012, Johnson embarked on a three-week tour of college campuses throughout the US.[85][86] On October 23, 2012, Gary Johnson participated in a third-party debate that was aired on C-SPAN, RT America, and Al Jazeera English.[87][88] A post-debate online election allowed people to choose two candidates from the debate they thought had won to face each other head to head in a run-off debate. Gary Johnson and Jill Stein won the poll.[89] They debated in Washington, D.C., on November 5, 2012.[90]

Johnson stated that his goal was to win at least 5 percent of the vote, as winning 5 percent would allow Libertarian Party candidates equal ballot access and federal funding during the next election cycle.[91][92] In a national Gallup poll of likely registered voters conducted June 7 through June 10, 2012, Johnson took 3% of the vote,[93] while a Gallup poll conducted September 6 through September 9, 2012, showed Johnson taking 1% of likely voters.[94]

The final results showed Johnson received 1% of the popular vote, a total of 1,275,971 votes.[95] This was the best result in the Libertarian Party's history by raw vote number, though under the 1.1 percentage of the vote won by Ed Clark in 1980.[11][96][97] Despite falling short of his stated goal of 5%, Johnson stated, "Ours is a mission accomplished."[98] In regards to a future presidential bid, he said "it is too soon to be talking about 2016".[98]

Inter-presidential campaign activities

After the 2012 elections, Johnson continued to criticize the Obama administration on various issues. In an article for The Guardian, Johnson called on United States Attorney General Eric Holder to let individual states legalize marijuana.[99] In a Google Hangout hosted by Johnson in June 2013, he criticized the US government's lack of transparency and due process in regards to the NSA's domestic surveillance programs. He also said that he would not rule out running as a Republican again in the future.[100]

Our America Initiative PAC

In December 2013, Johnson announced the founding of his own Super PAC, Our America Initiative PAC. The Super PAC is intended to support libertarian-minded causes. "From the realities of government-run healthcare setting in to the continuing disclosures of the breadth of NSA's domestic spying, more Americans than ever are ready to take a serious look at candidates who offer real alternatives to business-as-usual," the release announcing the PAC said.[101]

CEO of Cannabis Sativa Inc.

In July 2014, Johnson was named president and CEO of Cannabis Sativa Inc., a Nevada-based company that aims primarily to sell medical cannabis products in states where medicinal and/or recreational cannabis is legal.[102][103][104]

2016 presidential campaign

In an April 2014 "Ask Me Anything" session on Reddit, Johnson stated that he hoped to run for president again in 2016.[105] On whether he would run as a Libertarian or a Republican, he stated: "I would love running as a Libertarian because I would have the least amount of explaining to do."[105]

Gary Johnson speaking at the 2016 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in Washington, D.C.
Gary Johnson speaking at the 2016 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in Washington, D.C.

In November 2014, Johnson affirmed his intention to run for the 2016 Libertarian nomination.[106] In July 2015, Johnson reiterated his intentions for a presidential campaign but stated he was not announcing anything imminently: "I just think there are more downsides than upsides to announcing at this point, and, look, I don't have any delusions about the process. In retrospect, 90 percent of the time I spent [trying to become president] ended up to be wasted time."[107]

In January 2016, Johnson resigned from his post as CEO of Cannabis Sativa, Inc., to pursue political opportunities, hinting to a 2016 presidential run.[108][12]

On January 6, 2016, Johnson declared that he would seek the Libertarian nomination for the presidency.[12] On May 18, Johnson named former Massachusetts Governor William Weld as his running mate.[109] On May 29, 2016, Johnson received the Libertarian nomination on the second ballot.[13] Johnson was on the ballot in all 50 states.[110]

On September 8, Johnson drew widespread negative attention when he appeared on MSNBC's Morning Joe and was asked by panelist Mike Barnicle, "As president, what would you do about Aleppo?" Johnson responded, "And what is Aleppo?". After a clarification from Barnicle, Johnson answered by saying that "the only way that we deal with Syria is to join hands with Russia to diplomatically bring that at an end."[111] Johnson criticized U.S. support for the Free Syrian Army and Kurdish forces and stated that the "mess" in Syria was "the result of regime change that we end up supporting. And, inevitably, these regime changes have led to a less-safe world."[111] Johnson's "what is Aleppo?" question drew widespread attention, much of it negative.[112][113] In response to charges that he was uninformed, Johnson said that he had "blanked," that he did "understand the dynamics of the Syrian conflict," and that he had thought that Barnicle's reference to "Aleppo" was in relation to "an acronym, not the Syrian conflict."[113]

On September 23, in a MSNBC interview with Kasie Hunt, Gary Johnson noted the benefits of being invited to the 2016 Presidential Debates. While discussing this topic, Johnson stuck out his tongue through his teeth at the reporter while explaining that he could win a three-way debate, and ultimately the Presidency, versus Clinton and Trump while speaking in that manner. Johnson's spokesperson, John LaBeaume, later stated, "He was just having fun" and that it was "lighthearted".[114]

On September 28, in a MSNBC Town Hall, Johnson was asked by Chris Matthews to name a world leader he respected, he tried to name Vicente Fox, a former President of Mexico, but could not remember his name.[115][116][117] The following day, he tweeted, "It's been almost 24 hours...and I still can't come up with a foreign leader I look up to."[118] Later in a CNN interview, he expanded upon his reluctance to endorse political leaders, "I held a lot of people in this country on pedestals and then I get to meet them up front and personal and I find out that they're all about getting re-elected, that they're not about issues, a lot of empty suits that I held up on pedestals."[119]

When asked on October 5 by The New York Times if he knew the name of the leader of North Korea, Johnson said "yes," but declined to give the name despite being pressed.[120][121]

Johnson was not invited to participate in the presidential debates because he did not meet the criterion of 15% support in five polls set by the Commission on Presidential Debates. In 2015, Johnson and Green Party nominee Jill Stein filed a lawsuit against the commission, arguing that the commission and its rules violated antitrust law and the First Amendment. In August 2016, the lawsuit was dismissed.[122] Johnson's poll numbers had been averaging between 7 and 9 percent.[123] Johnson's campaign manager Ron Nielson argued for Johnson's inclusion, citing Ross Perot's admission to the debates in the 1992 debates, when Perot was polling at 8 percent.[124]

A Washington Post-SurveyMonkey 50-state poll, conducted online between August 9 and September 1 found Gary Johnson polling at 10% or higher in 42 states, and at 15% or higher in 15 states (Johnson received 25% in his home state of New Mexico and 23% in Utah).[125] Another poll conducted in mid-August by the Pew Research Center found Johnson supported by about 10% of registered voters. Of Johnson supporters, more than 60% identified as independent and more than 70% were younger than fifty years old. Johnson's supporters were evenly divided between men and women.[126]

After the election, Johnson stated in an interview with the Albuquerque Journal that he does not intend to run for public office again, saying, "Maybe I stay politically active, but not as a candidate. I will leave that to others."[14] He subsequently confirmed that he would not seek the Libertarian Party's nomination in 2020.

2018 U.S. Senate race

In late July 2018, Johnson was speculated to run in the 2018 U.S. Senate race in New Mexico after rumors emerged that the then-current Libertarian nominee, Land Commissioner Aubrey Dunn Jr., was dropping out of the race.[127] Dunn then formally withdrew from the race on July 30. On August 4, Johnson was formally nominated by the Libertarian Party of New Mexico as Dunn's replacement.[128]

Johnson formally launched his candidacy by accepting his party's nomination on August 14.[129][130]

Initial Polling

Shortly after Johnson declared his candidacy, Emerson College ran a poll that showed the former governor in second place, immediately behind incumbent Martin Heinrich.[131] He led Republican challenger by ten points. The 500 individuals polled voiced 39% support for Heinrich, 21% support for Johnson, and 11% for Republican challenger Mick Rich.[132]

Endorsements

Republican U.S. Senator Rand Paul crossed party lines to endorse Johnson's bid, stating "Gary Johnson is a true fiscal conservative. As Governor, he reduced the size of government while improving services. He cut taxes, and he set what may be a record by vetoing more than 700 unnecessary pieces of legislation. His leadership on issues of government overreach, protecting Americans' Fourth Amendment rights against mass surveillance, and common sense foreign policy is sorely needed in the United States Senate, for New Mexico and the nation."[133]

Republican nominee for the U.S. Senate in Maine, Eric Brakey, also crossed party lines to endorse Johnson's campaign, commenting "I think that Gary Johnson would be one of the best U.S. senators in the U.S. Senate were he to win."[134]

Political positions

Johnson speaking at an October 2016 rally in Phoenix, Arizona
Johnson speaking at an October 2016 rally in Phoenix, Arizona

Johnson's views have been described as fiscally conservative and socially liberal[135] with a philosophy of limited government[136] and military non-interventionism.[137][138] Johnson spoke at the 2016 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC),[139] a forum for conservative politicians. He has identified as a classical liberal.[140] He would repeal Obamacare.[141] Johnson has said he favors simplifying and reducing taxes.[142] During his governorship, Johnson cut taxes fourteen times and never increased them.[143] Due to his stance on taxes, political pundit David Weigel described him as "the original Tea Party candidate."[144] Johnson has advocated the FairTax as a template for tax reform. This proposal would abolish all federal income, corporate and capital gains taxes, and replace them with a 23% tax on consumption of all non-essential goods, while providing a regressive rebate to households according to household size, regardless of income level. He has argued that this would ensure transparency in the tax system and incentivize the private sector to create "tens of millions of jobs."[145] In June 2016, Johnson said that he supported the Trans-Pacific Partnership, stating that he previously was skeptical "because these trade agreements are just laden with crony capitalism," but is now informed it, in fact, fosters free trade.[146]

Environmental

Despite acknowledging the possibility that humans may be partially responsible for climate change, Johnson rejects government action to control or limit it - including cap and trade - as ineffective. "When you look at the amount of money we are looking to spend on global warming — in the trillions — and look at the result, I just argue that the result is completely inconsequential to the money we would end up spending," he said. "We can direct those moneys to other ways that would be much more beneficial to mankind."[147] Johnson has signed the Western Governors' Association resolution, which aims at "collaborative, incentive driven, locally-based solutions," and has advocated for free market solutions to environmental problems. He has stated that he will not "compromise when it comes to clean air, clean land, or clean water."[148] Johnson supports nuclear energy and fossil fuels, but has stated that the government has a role to protect Americans against businesses that would harm human health or property, including environmental harm.[149]

Campaign finance

Johnson opposed the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Citizens United v. FEC, allowing unlimited corporate independent expenditures on political campaigns, while also encouraging full disclosure of such expenditures.[150]

Fiscal

Johnson has said that he would immediately balance the federal budget, and would demand a balanced budget amendment.[151]

Healthcare

He has stated he supports "slashing government spending", including Medicare, Medicaid, and Social Security,[142] which would involve cutting Medicare and Medicaid by 43 percent and turning them into block grant programs, with control of spending in the hands of the states to create, in his words, "fifty laboratories of innovation."[151] He has referred to Social Security as a pyramid scheme. He has advocated passing a law allowing for state bankruptcy and expressly ruling out a federal bailout of any states.[136]

Federal Reserve

Johnson has expressed opposition to the Federal Reserve System, which he has cited as massively devaluing the strength of the U.S. dollar, and would not veto legislation to eliminate it - although he has stated that no such bill is likely to come out of Congress during his administration. He has also supported an audit of the central bank, and urged Members of Congress in July 2012 to vote in favor of Ron Paul's Federal Reserve Transparency Act.[152]

Foreign policy

In his campaign for the Libertarian Party nomination, he stated he opposed foreign wars and pledged to cut the military budget by 43 percent in his first term as president.[138] He would cut the military's overseas bases, uniformed and civilian personnel, research and development, intelligence, and nuclear weapons programs, while maintaining an "invincible defense."[153][154] Johnson opposes U.S. involvement in the War in Afghanistan and opposed the U.S. involvement in the Libyan Civil War.[155] He has stated that he does not believe Iran is a military threat, would use his presidential power to prevent Israel from attacking Iran, and would not follow Israel, or any other ally, into a war that it had initiated.[156] While Johnson views the Islamic threat to the US as overrated, he has been openly advocating for greater diplomacy with China regarding North Korea, which, in his view, "is the biggest threat in the world today," stating "...one of these days, one of their ICBMs is going to work."[157] However, he does support waging war for humanitarian reasons.[158][159][160]

Civil liberties

Johnson presents himself as a strong supporter of civil liberties and received the highest score of any candidate from the American Civil Liberties Union for supporting drug decriminalization while opposing censorship and regulation of the Internet, the Patriot Act, enhanced airport screenings, and the indefinite detention of prisoners.[161] He has spoken in favor of the separation of church and state, and has said that he does not "seek the counsel of God" when determining his political agenda.[162] Johnson endorsed same-sex marriage in 2011;[163] he has since called for a constitutional amendment protecting equal marriage rights,[163] and criticized Obama's position on the issue as having "thrown this question back to the states."[163] Johnson supports the enforcement of Protected Classes that was established by the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and believes that providers should be prohibited from discriminating between customers based on demographics, such as race or sexuality. This differentiated him from his Libertarian Party opponents in the party primary, especially Austin Petersen. He has been a longtime advocate of legalizing marijuana and has said that if he were president, he would remove it from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act as well as issue an executive order pardoning non-violent marijuana offenders.[164] Johnson has stated that he would pardon NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden.[165]

Abortion

Johnson supports current federal laws regarding abortion. He has stated he believes that "it's the woman's choice." His 2016 position page on abortion states the "woman must be allowed to make decisions about her own health" and "government should not be in the business of second guessing".[166]

Gun control

Johnson opposes federal and state gun control legislation, saying: "I'm a firm believer in the Second Amendment and so I would not have signed legislation banning assault weapons or automatic weapons."[167] Johnson says that the Second Amendment "was designed to protect us against a government that could be very intrusive. And in this country, we have a growing police state - if people can own assault rifles or automatic rifles, I think leads to a more civil government."[167] Johnson would, however, limit weapons such as rocket launchers.[167] Johnson believes that allowing concealed carrying of guns reduces crime and gun violence.[167][168] He opposes barring gun sales to individuals on the no-fly list, because he claims that such lists have a high error rate.[168] Johnson has called for a "thousand-person taskforce" or "hot line" to prevent terrorists from obtaining guns, and has questioned why the perpetrator of the Orlando nightclub shooting was not "deprived of his guns" after being interviewed three times.[169]

Personal life

Johnson running the 38th Annual Stratham Fair Road Race
Johnson running the 38th Annual Stratham Fair Road Race

Johnson was married to his college girlfriend, Dee Johnson (née Simms; 1952–2006) from 1977 to 2005.[170][171] As First Lady of New Mexico, she engaged in campaigns against smoking and for breast cancer awareness[172] and oversaw the expansion of the Governor's Mansion. He initiated a separation in May 2005, and four months later announced that they would divorce.[173] At the age of 54, Dee Johnson died unexpectedly on December 22, 2006,[172] her cause of death later attributed to hypertensive heart disease.[174] The couple had two children, now adults.[170] He also has a granddaughter, Cora, through his son Erik.[175]

Johnson lives in Taos, New Mexico,[176][177] in a home he built himself.[66] He is an avid triathlete who bikes extensively. During his term in office, he competed in several triathlons, marathons and bike races. He competed three times (1993, 1997, 1999) as a celebrity invitee at the Ironman World Championship in Hawaii, registering his best time for the 2.4-mile (3.9 km) swim, 112-mile (180 km) bike ride, and 26.2-mile (42.2 km) marathon run in 1999 with 10 hours, 39 minutes, and 16 seconds.[178][179] He once ran 100 miles (160 km) in 30 consecutive hours in the Rocky Mountains.[23] On May 30, 2003, he reached the summit of Mount Everest[180] "despite toes blackened with frostbite."[29] He has climbed all of the Seven Summits: Mount Everest, Mount Elbrus, Denali, Mount Kilimanjaro, Aconcagua, Mount Vinson, and Carstensz Pyramid—the tallest peaks in Asia, Europe, North America, Africa, South America, Antarctica, and Oceania respectively.[181] He completed the Bataan Memorial Death March at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, in which participants traverse a 26.2 mi (42.2 km) course through the desert, many of them in combat boots and wearing 35-pound (16 kg) packs.[182]

On October 12, 2005, Johnson was involved in a near-fatal paragliding accident when his wing caught in a tree and he fell approximately 50 feet (15 m) to the ground. He suffered multiple bone fractures, including a burst fracture to his twelfth thoracic vertebra, a broken rib, and a broken knee; the accident left him 1 12 inches (3.8 cm) shorter.[183][140][184] He used medicinal marijuana for pain control from 2005 to 2008.[185]

Johnson is a Lutheran and has said that his belief in God has given him "a very fundamental belief that we should do unto others as we would have others do unto us."[186]

Johnson has celiac disease and maintains a gluten-free diet.[187]

Electoral history

1994 New Mexico gubernatorial election[188]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Gary Johnson 232,945 49.8% +4.7%
Democratic Bruce King (inc.) 186,686 39.9% -14.7%
Green Roberto Mondragón 47,990 10.26%
Majority 46,259 9.9% +0.44%
Turnout 467,621
Republican gain from Democratic Swing
1998 New Mexico gubernatorial election[189]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Gary Johnson (inc.) 271,948 54.5% +4.7%
Democratic Martin Chávez 226,755 45.5% +5.6%
Majority 45,193 9.1% -0.8%
Turnout 498,703
Republican hold Swing
2012 United States presidential election[190] Election on November 6, 2012
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Barack Obama (inc.) 65,915,795 51.2% -1.8%
Republican Mitt Romney 60,933,504 47.3% +1.59%
Libertarian Gary Johnson 1,275,971 1.0% +0.59%
Green Jill Stein 469,627 0.4% +0.24%
Constitution Virgil Goode 121,616 0.1% -0.1%
Others Others 434,247 0.34% -0.52%
Majority (1,333,513) (1.0%)
Turnout 129,132,140 57.5%
Democratic hold Swing
2016 United States presidential election[191] Election on November 8, 2016
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Donald Trump 62,984,828 46.1% -1.1%
Democratic Hillary Clinton 65,853,514 48.2% -3%
Libertarian Gary Johnson 4,489,235 3.3% +2.3%
Green Jill Stein 1,457,226 1.1% +0.7%
Others Others 984,722 0.7% +0.4%
Republican gain from Democratic Swing
2018 United States Senate election in New Mexico
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Martin Heinrich 373,799 54.0%
Republican Mick Rich 211,301 30.6%
Libertarian Gary Johnson 106,524 15.4%

Books

  • Seven Principles of Good Government: Gary Johnson on liberty, people and politics. 2012. Aberdeen, WA: Silver Lake Publishing. ISBN 978-1563439131. OCLC 809701081
  • Common Sense for the Common Good; Libertarianism as the End of Two-Party Tyranny was published as an e-book on September 27, 2016. Johnson describes the book as an examination of "the root causes that have brought the two-party system to crisis."[192]
  • How Liberty Can Change the World. 2017

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Further reading

External links

Party political offices
Preceded by
Frank Bond
Republican nominee for Governor of New Mexico
1994, 1998
Succeeded by
John Sanchez
Preceded by
Bob Barr
Libertarian nominee for President of the United States
2012, 2016
Most recent
Preceded by
Aubrey Dunn Jr.
Withdrew
Libertarian nominee for U.S. Senator from New Mexico
(Class 1)

2018
Political offices
Preceded by
Bruce King
Governor of New Mexico
1995–2003
Succeeded by
Bill Richardson
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