To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Gabr (Persian: گبر‎) (also geuber, geubre, gabrak, gawr, gaur, gyaur, gabre) is a New Persian term originally used to denote a Zoroastrian.

Historically, gabr was a technical term synonymous with mōg, "magus", denoting a follower of Zoroastrianism, and it is with this meaning that the term is attested in very early New Persian texts such as the Shahnameh. In time, gabr came to have a pejorative implication and was superseded in literature by the respectable Zardoshti, "Zoroastrian".

By the 13th century the word had come to be applied to a follower of any religion other than Islam, and it has "also been used by the Muslim Kurds, Turks, and some other ethnic groups in modified forms to denote various religious communities other than Zoroastrians, sometimes even in the sense of unbeliever."[1] As a consequence of the curtailment of social rights, non-Muslims were compelled to live in restricted areas, which the Muslim populace referred to as Gabristans.[2]

In the Ottoman Empire, the Turkish version gâvur, borrowed into English via French as "giaour", was used to refer to Christians. This is sometimes still used today in former Ottoman territories and carries a strong pejorative meaning.[citation needed]

The etymology of the term is uncertain. "In all likelihood,"[1] gabr derives from the Aramaic gabrā, spelt GBRʼ, which – in written Middle Iranian languages – serves as an ideogram that would be read as an Iranian language word meaning "man." (for the use of ideograms in Middle Iranian languages, see Pahlavi scripts). During the Sasanian Empire (226-651), the ideogram signified a free (i.e. non-slave) peasant of Mesopotamia. Following the collapse of the empire and the subsequent rise of Islam, it "seems likely that gabr used already in Sassanian times in reference to a section of Zoroastrian community in Mesopotamia, had been employed by the converted Persians in the Islamic period to indicate their Zoroastrian compatriots, a practice that later spread throughout the country."[1]

It has also been suggested that gabr might be a mispronunciation of Arabic kafir "unbeliever," but this theory has been rejected on linguistic grounds both phonetic and semantic: "there is no unusual sound in kafir that would require phonetic modification",[1] and kafir as a generic word probably would not refer to a specific revealed religion such as Zoroastrianism.[1][3]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
    11 519
    1 211
    2 149
  • drugs in pregnancy and lactation Dr.attia gabr د.عطية جبر
  • CD[Metabolic bone diseases] Dr.Attia gabr
  • Ana Aly Gabr


See also


  1. ^ a b c d e Shaki, Mansour (2001), "Gabr", Encyclopedia Iranica, 10, Costa Mesa: Mazda
  2. ^ Savory, R. M. (2003), "Relations between the Safavid State and its Non-Muslim Minorities", Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 14 (4): 435–458, doi:10.1080/0959641032000127597
  3. ^ Bausani, A. (1965), "Gabr", Encyclopedia of Islam, II (2 ed.), Leiden: Brill

Further reading

  • "Gabars", Encyclopædia Britannica, Chicago: Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, 2007
This page was last edited on 12 June 2021, at 21:52
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.