GNU Octave 4.3.0+ running on Linux  
Developer(s)  John W. Eaton and many others^{[1]} 

Initial release  1988 
Stable release  5.1
/ February 23, 2019 ^{[2]} 
Repository  
Written in  C, C++, Fortran^{[3]} 
Available in  19 languages^{[citation needed]} 
Type  Scientific computing 
License  GNU GPLv3 
Website  gnu 
GNU Octave is software featuring a highlevel programming language, primarily intended for numerical computations. Octave helps in solving linear and nonlinear problems numerically, and for performing other numerical experiments using a language that is mostly compatible with MATLAB. It may also be used as a batchoriented language. Since it is part of the GNU Project, it is free software under the terms of the GNU General Public License.
Octave is one of the major free alternatives to MATLAB, others being Scilab and FreeMat.^{[4]}^{[5]}^{[6]}^{[7]} Scilab, however, puts less emphasis on (bidirectional) syntactic compatibility with MATLAB than Octave does.^{[4]}^{[8]}^{[9]}
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✪ GNU Octave Tutorial 1: Introduction to Octave, download and installing

✪ How To Install Octave In Ubuntu Linux

✪ Octave Tutorial #2  Basic Operation

✪ Reading Data and Using Matrix Operations in Octave/MATLAB

✪ Octave Tutorial #1  Introduction & Setup
Transcription
Contents
History
The project was conceived around 1988.^{[10]} At first it was intended to be a companion to a chemical reactor design course. Real development was started by John W. Eaton in 1992. The first alpha release dates back to January 4, 1993 and on February 17, 1994 version 1.0 was released. Version 4.0.0 was released on May 29, 2015.
The program is named after Octave Levenspiel, a former professor of the principal author. Levenspiel was known for his ability to perform quick backoftheenvelope calculations.^{[11]}
Development History
Time  Action 

1988/1989  1st discussions (Book and Software) 
February 1992  Begin of Development 
January 1993  News in Web (Version 0.60) 
February 1994  1st Publication (Version 1.0.0 to 1.1.1)^{[12]} 
December 1996  2nd Publication (Version 2.0.x) with Windows Port (Cygwin) ^{[13]} 
March 1998  Version 2.1 
November 2004  Version 2.9 (DEV Version of 3.0) ^{[14]} 
December 2007  Publication of Version 3.0 (Milestone)^{[15]} 
June 2009  Publication of Version 3.2 (Milestone) ^{[16]} 
8. February 2011  Version 3.4.0 (Milestone)^{[17]} 
22. February 2012  Publication of Octave 3.6.1 (Milestone)^{[18]}^{[19]} 
31. December 2013  Publication of Octave 3.8.0 (experimentell GUI) ^{[20]}^{[21]}^{[22]} 
29. May 2015  Version 4.0.0 (stable GUI und new Syntax for OOP) ^{[23]}^{[24]}^{[25]}^{[26]} 
14. November 2016  Version 4.2.0 (gnuplot 4.4+)^{[27]}^{[28]}^{[29]}^{[30]} 
30. April 2018  Version 4.4.0 (new Goal for GUI QT Toolkit, FLTK deprecating in future) ^{[31]}^{[32]}^{[33]} 
1. March 2019  Publication of Octave 5.1.0 (QT5 preferred) ^{[34]} 
Developments
In addition to use on desktops for personal scientific computing, Octave is used in academia and industry. For example, Octave was used on a massive parallel computer at Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center to find vulnerabilities related to guessing social security numbers.^{[35]}
Dramatic acceleration with OpenCL or CUDA is also possible with use of GPUs.^{[36]}
Technical details
 Octave is written in C++ using the C++ standard library.
 Octave uses an interpreter to execute the Octave scripting language.
 Octave is extensible using dynamically loadable modules.
 Octave interpreter has an OpenGLbased graphics engine to create plots, graphs and charts and to save or print them. Alternatively, gnuplot can be used for the same purpose.
 Octave includes a Graphical User Interface (GUI) in addition to the traditional Command Line Interface (CLI); see #User interfaces for details.
Octave, the language
The Octave language is an interpreted programming language. It is a structured programming language (similar to C) and supports many common C standard library functions, and also certain UNIX system calls and functions.^{[37]} However, it does not support passing arguments by reference.^{[38]}
Octave programs consist of a list of function calls or a script. The syntax is matrixbased and provides various functions for matrix operations. It supports various data structures and allows objectoriented programming.^{[39]}
Its syntax is very similar to MATLAB, and careful programming of a script will allow it to run on both Octave and MATLAB.^{[40]}
Because Octave is made available under the GNU General Public License, it may be freely changed, copied and used.^{[11]} The program runs on Microsoft Windows and most Unix and Unixlike operating systems, including macOS.^{[41]}^{[42]}
Notable features
Command and variable name completion
Typing a TAB character on the command line causes Octave to attempt to complete variable, function, and file names (similar to Bash's tab completion). Octave uses the text before the cursor as the initial portion of the name to complete.^{[43]}
Command history
When running interactively, Octave saves the commands typed in an internal buffer so that they can be recalled and edited.
Data structures
Octave includes a limited amount of support for organizing data in structures. In this example, we see a structure "x" with elements "a", "b", and "c", (an integer, an array, and a string, respectively):
octave:1> x.a = 1; x.b = [1, 2; 3, 4]; x.c = "string";
octave:2> x.a
ans = 1
octave:3> x.b
ans =
1 2
3 4
octave:4> x.c
ans = string
octave:5> x
x =
{
a = 1
b =
1 2
3 4
c = string
}
Shortcircuit boolean operators
Octave's '&&
' and '
' logical operators are evaluated in a shortcircuit fashion (like the corresponding operators in the C language), in contrast to the elementbyelement operators '&
' and '
'.
Increment and decrement operators
Octave includes the Clike increment and decrement operators '++
' and '
' in both their prefix and postfix forms.
Octave also does augmented assignment, e.g. 'x += 5
'.
Unwindprotect
Octave supports a limited form of exception handling modelled after the 'unwind_protect
' of Lisp. The general form of an unwind_protect block looks like this:
unwind_protect
body
unwind_protect_cleanup
cleanup
end_unwind_protect
As a general rule, GNU Octave recognizes as termination of a given 'block
' either the keyword 'end
' (which is compatible with the MATLAB language) or a more specific keyword 'end_block
'. As a consequence, an 'unwind_protect
' block can be terminated either with the keyword 'end_unwind_protect
' as in the example, or with the more portable keyword 'end
'.
The cleanup part of the block is always executed. In case an exception is raised by the body part, cleanup is executed immediately before propagating the exception outside the block 'unwind_protect
'.
GNU Octave also supports another form of exception handling (compatible with the MATLAB language):
try
body
catch
exception_handling
end
This latter form differs from an 'unwind_protect
' block in two ways. First, exception_handling is only executed when an exception is raised by body. Second, after the execution of exception_handling the exception is not propagated outside the block (unless a 'rethrow( lasterror )
' statement is explicitly inserted within the exception_handling code).
Variablelength argument lists
Octave has a mechanism for handling functions that take an unspecified number of arguments without explicit upper limit. To specify a list of zero or more arguments, use the special argument varargin
as the last (or only) argument in the list.
function s = plus (varargin)
if (nargin==0)
s = 0;
else
s = varargin{1} + plus (varargin{2:nargin});
end
end
Variablelength return lists
A function can be set up to return any number of values by using the special return value varargout
. For example:
function varargout = multiassign (data)
for k=1:nargout
varargout{k} = data(:,k);
end
end
C++ integration
It is also possible to execute Octave code directly in a C++ program. For example, here is a code snippet for calling rand([10,1])
:
#include <octave/oct.h>
...
ColumnVector NumRands(2);
NumRands(0) = 10;
NumRands(1) = 1;
octave_value_list f_arg, f_ret;
f_arg(0) = octave_value(NumRands);
f_ret = feval("rand", f_arg, 1);
Matrix unis(f_ret(0).matrix_value());
C and C++ code can be integrated into GNU Octave by creating oct files, or using the MATLAB compatible MEX files.
MATLAB compatibility
Octave has been built with MATLAB compatibility in mind, and shares many features with MATLAB:
 Matrices as fundamental data type.
 Builtin support for complex numbers.
 Powerful builtin math functions and extensive function libraries.
 Extensibility in the form of userdefined functions.
Octave treats incompatibility with MATLAB as a bug; therefore, it could be considered a software clone, which does not infringe software copyright as per Lotus v. Borland court case.
MATLAB scripts from the MathWorks' FileExchange repository in principle are compatible with Octave. However, while they are often provided and uploaded by users under an Octave compatible and proper open source BSD license, the fileexchange's Terms of use prohibit any usage beside MathWorks' proprietary MATLAB.^{[44]}^{[45]}^{[46]}
Syntax compatibility
There are a few purposeful, albeit minor, syntax additions:
 Comment lines can be prefixed with the # character as well as the % character;
 Various Cbased operators ++, , +=, *=, /= are supported;
 Elements can be referenced without creating a new variable by cascaded indexing, e.g. [1:10](3);
 Strings can be defined with the doublequote " character as well as the singlequote ' character;
 When the variable type is single (a singleprecision floatingpoint number), Octave calculates the "mean" in the singledomain (MATLAB in doubledomain) which is faster but gives less accurate results;
 Blocks can also be terminated with more specific Control structure keywords, i.e., endif, endfor, endwhile, etc.;
 Functions can be defined within scripts and at the Octave prompt;
 Presence of a dountil loop (similar to dowhile in C).
Function compatibility
Many, but not all, of the numerous MATLAB functions are available in GNU Octave, some of them accessible through packages in Octave Forge. The functions available as part of either core Octave or Forge packages are listed online.
A list of unavailable functions is included in the Octave function __unimplemented.m__. Unimplemented functions are also listed under many Octave Forge packages in the Octave Wiki.
When an unimplemented function is called the following error message is shown:
octave:1> quad2d
warning: quad2d is not implemented. Consider using dblquad.
Please read <http://www.octave.org/missing.html> to learn how you can
contribute missing functionality.
warning: called from
__unimplemented__ at line 523 column 5
error: 'quad2d' undefined near line 1 column 1
User interfaces
Octave comes with an official graphical user interface (GUI) and a integrated development environment (IDE) based on Qt. It has been available since Octave 3.8,^{[47]} and has become the default interface (over the command line interface) with the release of Octave 4.0.^{[48]} It was wellreceived by EDN contributor, who said "[Octave] now has a very workable GUI."^{[49]}
Several 3rdparty graphical frontends have also been developed, like ToolboX for coding education.
GUI applications
With Octave code, the user can create GUI applications [1]. Here are some examples.
Button, edit control, checkbox
% create figure and panel on it
f = figure;
% create a button (default style)
b1 = uicontrol (f, "string", "A Button", "position",[10 10 150 40]);
% create an edit control
e1 = uicontrol (f, "style", "edit", "string", "editable text", "position",[10 60 300 40]);
% create a checkbox
c1 = uicontrol (f, "style", "checkbox", "string", "a checkbox", "position",[10 120 150 40]);
Textbox
prompt = {"Width", "Height", "Depth"};
defaults = {"1.10", "2.20", "3.30"};
rowscols = [1,10; 2,20; 3,30];
dims = inputdlg (prompt, "Enter Box Dimensions", rowscols, defaults);
Listbox with message boxes.
my_options = {"An item", "another", "yet another"};
[sel, ok] = listdlg ("ListString", my_options, "SelectionMode", "Multiple");
if (ok == 1)
msgbox ("You selected:");
for i = 1:numel (sel)
msgbox (sprintf ("\t%s", my_options{sel(i)}));
endfor
else
msgbox ("You cancelled.");
endif
Radiobuttons
% create figure and panel on it
f = figure;
% create a button group
gp = uibuttongroup (f, "Position", [ 0 0.5 1 1])
% create a buttons in the group
b1 = uicontrol (gp, "style", "radiobutton", "string", "Choice 1", "Position", [ 10 150 100 50 ]);
b2 = uicontrol (gp, "style", "radiobutton", "string", "Choice 2", "Position", [ 10 50 100 30 ]);
% create a button not in the group
b3 = uicontrol (f, "style", "radiobutton","string", "Not in the group","Position", [ 10 50 100 50 ]);
Packages
Octave also has packages available for free. Those packages are located at OctaveForge [2]. Available packages are:
 bim  Package for solving Diffusion Advection Reaction (DAR) Partial Differential Equations
 bsltl  The BSLTL package is a free collection of OCTAVE/MATLAB routines for working with the biospeckle laser technique
 cgi  Common Gateway Interface for Octave
 communications  Digital Communications, Error Correcting Codes (Channel Code), Source Code functions, Modulation and Galois Fields
 control  ComputerAided Control System Design (CACSD) Tools for GNU Octave, based on the proven SLICOT Library
 datasmoothing  Algorithms for smoothing noisy data
 database  Interface to SQL databases, currently only postgresql using libpq
 dataframe  Data manipulation toolbox similar to R data
 dicom  Digital communications in medicine (DICOM) file io
 divand  divand performs an ndimensional variational analysis (interpolation) of arbitrarily located observations
 doctest  The OctaveForge Doctest package finds speciallyformatted blocks of example code within documentation files
 econometrics  Econometrics functions including MLE and GMM based techniques
 femfenics  pkg for the resolution of partial differential equations based on fenics
 financial  Monte Carlo simulation, options pricing routines, financial manipulation, plotting functions and additional date manipulation tools
 fits  The OctaveFITS package provides functions for reading, and writing FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) files
 fpl  Collection of routines to export data produced by Finite Elements or Finite Volume Simulations in formats used by some visualization programs
 fuzzylogic toolkit  A mostly MATLABcompatible fuzzy logic toolkit for Octave
 ga  Genetic optimization code
 general  General tools for Octave
 generate_html  This package provides functions for generating HTML pages that contain the help texts for a set of functions
 geometry  Library for geometric computing extending MatGeom functions
 gsl  Octave bindings to the GNU Scientific Library
 image  The Octaveforge Image package provides functions for processing images
 imageacquisition  The Octaveforge Image Acquisition package provides functions to capture images from connected devices
 instrumentcontrol  Low level I/O functions for serial, i2c, parallel, tcp, gpib, vxi11, udp and usbtmc interfaces
 interval  The interval package for realvalued interval arithmetic allows one to evaluate functions over subsets of their domain
 io  Input/Output in external formats e.g. Excel
 levelset  Routines for calculating the timeevolution of the levelset equation and extracting geometric information from the levelset function
 linearalgebra  Additional linear algebra code, including general SVD and matrix functions
 lssa  A package implementing tools to compute spectral decompositions of irregularlyspaced time series
 ltfat  The Large Time/Frequency Analysis Toolbox (LTFAT) is a MATLAB/Octave toolbox for working with timefrequency analysis, wavelets and signal processing
 mapping  Simple mapping and GIS .shp and raster file functions
 mataveid  System identification package for both MATLAB and GNU Octave
 matavecontrol  Control toolbox for both MATLAB and GNU Octave
 miscellaneous  Miscellaneous tools that would fit nowhere else
 mpi  Octave bindings for basic Message Passing Interface (MPI) functions for parallel computing
 msh  Create and manage triangular and tetrahedral meshes for Finite Element or Finite Volume PDE solvers
 mvn  Multivariate normal distribution clustering and utility functions
 nan  A statistics and machine learning toolbox for data with and w/o missing values
 ncarray  Access a single or a collection of NetCDF files as a multidimensional array
 netcdf  A MATLAB compatible NetCDF interface for Octave
 nurbs  Collection of routines for the creation, and manipulation of NonUniform Rational BSplines (NURBS), based on the NURBS toolbox by Mark Spink
 ocs  Package for solving DC and transient electrical circuit equations
 octclip  This package allows users to do boolean operations with polygons using the GreinerHormann algorithm
 octproj  This package allows users to call functions of PROJ
 optics  Functions covering various aspects of optics
 optim  Nonlinear optimization toolkit
 optiminterp  An optimal interpolation toolbox for octave
 parallel  Parallel execution package
 quaternion  Quaternion package for GNU Octave, includes a quaternion class with overloaded operators
 queueing  The queueing package provides functions for queueing networks and Markov chains analysis
 secs1d  A DriftDiffusion simulator for 1d semiconductor devices
 secs2d  A DriftDiffusion simulator for 2d semiconductor devices
 secs3d  A DriftDiffusion simulator for 3d semiconductor devices
 signal  Signal processing tools, including filtering, windowing and display functions
 sockets  Socket functions for networking from within octave
 sparsersb  Interface to the librsb package implementing the RSB sparse matrix format for fast sharedmemory sparse matrix computations
 splines  Additional spline functions
 statistics  Additional statistics functions for Octave
 stk  The STK is a (not so) Small Toolbox for Kriging
 strings  Additional functions for manipulation and analysis of strings
 struct  Additional structure manipulation functions
 symbolic  The OctaveForge Symbolic package adds symbolic calculation features to GNU Octave
 tisean  Port of TISEAN 3
 tsa  Stochastic concepts and maximum entropy methods for time series analysis
 vibes  The VIBes API allows one to easily display results (boxes, pavings) from interval methods
 video  A wrapper for ffmpeg's libavformat and libavcodec, implementing addframe, avifile, aviinfo and aviread
 vrml  3D graphics using VRML
 windows  Provides COM interface and additional functionality on Windows
 zeromq  ZeroMQ bindings for GNU Octave
See also
 List of numerical analysis software
 Comparison of numerical analysis software
 List of statistical packages
 List of numerical libraries
References
 ^ Rik (10 June 2015). "contributors.in". Retrieved 14 June 2015.
 ^ "GNU Octave 4.4.1 Released". Aug 9, 2018.
 ^ "Building  Octave". wiki.octave.org. GNU. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Trappenberg, Thomas (2010). Fundamentals of Computational Neuroscience. Oxford University Press. p. 361. ISBN 9780199568413.
 ^ Muhammad, A; Zalizniak, V (2011). Practical Scientific Computing. Woodhead Publishing. p. 3. ISBN 9780857092267.
 ^ Megrey, Bernard A.; Moksness, Erlend (2008). Computers in Fisheries Research. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 345. ISBN 9781402086366.
 ^ Kapuno, Raul Raymond (2008). Programming for Chemical Engineers Using C, C++, and MATLAB. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 365. ISBN 9781934015094.
 ^ Herman, Russell L. (2013). A Course in Mathematical Methods for Physicists. CRC Press. p. 42. ISBN 9781466584679.
 ^ Wouwer, Alain Vande; Saucez, Philippe; Vilas, Carlos (2014). Simulation of ODE/PDE Models with MATLAB, Octave and Scilab: Scientific and Engineering Applications. Springer. pp. 114–115. ISBN 9783319067902.
 ^ "About GNU Octave". www.gnu.org. GNU. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Eaton, John W. "About Octave". Retrieved 20090628.
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/NEWS1.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/NEWS2.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/news/2012/12/31/newsarchive.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/NEWS3.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/NEWS3.2.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/NEWS3.4.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/NEWS3.6.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/news/release/2013/02/21/octave3.6.4released.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/NEWS3.8.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/news/release/2013/12/31/octave3.8.0released.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/news/release/2014/03/04/octave3.8.1released.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/NEWS4.0.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/news/release/2015/05/29/octave4.0.0released.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/news/release/2016/03/23/octave4.0.1released.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/news/release/2016/07/02/octave4.0.3released.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/news/2016/11/14/octave4.2.0released.html  text=Release Notes Version 4.2.0}}
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/NEWS4.2.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/news/release/2017/02/24/octave4.2.1released.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/news/release/2018/03/13/octave4.2.2released.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/NEWS4.4.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/news/release/2018/04/30/octave4.4.0released.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/news/release/2018/08/09/octave4.4.1released.html
 ^ https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/NEWS5.1.html
 ^ "Social Security Number Vulnerability Findings Relied on Supercomputing". 8 July 2009. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012.
 ^ https://devblogs.nvidia.com/parallelforall/dropinaccelerationgnuoctave/
 ^ "GNU Octave  Controlling subprocesses". 14 November 2008. Retrieved 20090128.
 ^ "GNU Octave". Retrieved 20090128.
 ^ "Summary of important uservisible changes for version 3.2". Retrieved 20120105.
 ^ "FAQ: MATLAB compatibility". Retrieved 20090404.
 ^ "FAQ: Getting Octave". Retrieved 20090404.
 ^ https://octave.org/doc/interpreter/
 ^ Eaton, John W. "Letting Readline Type For You". GNU Octave Reference Manual.
 ^ Why can't I use code from File Exchange in Octave? It's released under a BSD license! on octave.org
 ^ terms of use on mathworks.com "Content that you submit must not directly compete with products offered by MathWorks. Content submitted to File Exchange may only be used with MathWorks products."
 ^ File Exchange Licensing Transition FAQ on mathworks.com
 ^ "Summary of important uservisible changes for version 3.8".
 ^ "Summary of important uservisible changes for version 4.0".
 ^ GNU Octave hits a high note, Steve Hageman  February 07, 2014
Further reading
 Hansen, Jesper Schmidt (June 2011). GNU Octave. Beginner's Guide. Packt Publishing. ISBN 9781849513326.
External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to GNU Octave. 
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Octave Programming Tutorial 