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Fyodor Sergeyev

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fyodor Sergeyev
Фёдор Серге́ев
Fyodor Sergeyev.JPG
Chairman of CVRK in Ukraine
In office
September 18, 1918 – March 10, 1919
Preceded byAndrei Bubnov
Succeeded byGrigoriy Petrovskiy as head of CIKUk
Chairman of the Provisional Workers-Peasants Government of Ukraine
In office
January 16, 1919 – January 28, 1919
Preceded byYuri Pyatakov
Succeeded byGovernment dissolved, replaced by Council of People's Commissars
Chairman of Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic
In office
February 14, 1918 – February 17, 1919
Chairman of the Kharkov Military Revolutionary Committee
In office
September 24, 1917 – February 17, 1919
Personal details
Born
Fyodor Andreyevich Sergeyev

(1883-03-19)March 19, 1883
Glebovo, Kursk Governorate, Russian Empire
DiedJuly 24, 1921(1921-07-24) (aged 38)
Tula, Russian SFSR
Resting placeKremlin Wall Necropolis, Moscow
NationalityRussian
Political partyRSDLP (1902–1903)
RSDLP (Bolsheviks) (1903–1918)
Russian Communist Party (1918–1921)
Spouse(s)Yelizaveta Lvovna Repelskaya
ChildrenArtyom Sergeyev (later adopted by Stalin)
Alma materBauman Moscow State Technical University
OccupationRevolutionary, Politician, Communist agitator

Fyodor Andreyevich Sergeyev (Russian: Фёдор Андре́евич Сергéeв, Ukrainian: Фе́дір Андрі́йович Сергє́єв; March 19, 1883 – July 24, 1921), better known as Comrade Artyom (това́рищ Артём), was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary, Soviet politician, agitator, and journalist. He was a close friend of Sergei Kirov and Joseph Stalin. Sergeyev was an ideologist of the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic.

Early life

Young Artyom in student uniform
Young Artyom in student uniform

Fyodor Artyom was born in the village of Glebovo, Kursk Governorate, Russian Empire near the city of Fatezh to a family of peasants. His father Andrey Arefyevich Sergeyev was a contractor to a construction porter, who in 1888 moved the family to Yekaterinoslav. In 1901 Fyodor finished studies at the Yekaterinoslav realschule. He went on to attend the Imperial Moscow Technical College. Sergeyev joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party and became interested in revolutionary thinking, adopting the nickname 'Artyom'.[1]

Party career

In 1901, Artyom was arrested for taking part in a student demonstration, and spent four months in Voronezh prison. After his release, he emigrated to Paris, where he studied at the 'Russian Higher Free School'.[2] From 1902 he was a member of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, later remaining with the Bolshevik faction of the party. He returned to Russia in 1903, and was a prominent party agitator in Yekaterinoslav, where he moved from factory to factory, finding work as a stoker. In 1905, he moved to Kharkiv, where he headed the Bolshevik organisation and in December, he led an armed rebellion by factory workers. This made him well known to the police, but he was able to evade arrest until later in 1906, when he was interned in Kharkov prison, but escaped.[3] He was assigned by the Bolsheviks to run the organisation in Perm, where he was arrested again. After nearly three years in prison, he was deported to Siberia.

In 1910 he escaped through Korea and Japan to Brisbane, Australia where he organized the Union of Russian Emigrants. In 1912 Sergeyev receiving a British citizenship was a chief-editor of "Echo of Australia" and was better known as "Big Tom". He joined the Australian Socialist Party and was involved in trade-unionist opposition to the First World War.[1] In 1917, after the February revolution, he returned to Russia, becoming a leader of the Bolshevik faction in the Kharkiv council.

Artyom while commanding in Donbass
Artyom while commanding in Donbass

In October 1917 he was organizer of a military coup-d'etat in Kharkiv and the whole Donets basin region. At the 1st congress of Soviets in Ukraine he was elected to the Central Executive Committee of Ukraine and later appointed the Ukrainian Narkom of Trade and Industry. In 1918, while Ukraine was under German occupation, Artyom was a chairman of the Sovnarkom of the unrecognized Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic in Ukraine and Narkom of Public Economy. His actions secured the nationalization of industrial centers concentrated in the eastern Ukraine. Sergeyev became one of the organizers of Ukrainian Central Military-Revolutionary Committee in resistance to the Central Powers and Kaledin's Cossacks. On March 27 he organized the Donetsk Army by the order of Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko, however by the end of April 1918 that army was integrated into the 5th Army of Red Army headed by Kliment Voroshilov.

Political career

Artyom in 1921
Artyom in 1921

In 1919, when Ukraine was under communist rule again, Artyom was appointed People's Commissar for Agitation and Propaganda, but later in the year he was transferred to Bashkiria (modern name Bashkortostan), as Chairman of the Society for Aid to Bashkiria. He was therefore one of the first Bolsheviks to hold power in a predominantly Moslem part of the former Russian empire.

In April 1920, he was again elected chairman of the Donetsk Provincial Executive Committee. From March 1919 to March 1920 he was a candidate member of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party (b). At the 9th and 10th congresses of the RCP (b), he was elected a member of the Central Committee. From November to December 1920  Artyom was executive secretary of the Moscow Committee of the RCP (b), then chairman of the Central Committee of the All-Russian Union of Miners and simultaneously a member of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.[4]

Death

Fyodor Sergeyev died in 1921 during the test of the Aerowagon and was buried in Mass Grave No. 12 of the Kremlin Wall Necropolis in Red Square, Moscow.

The city of Bakhmut (now in Ukraine), former center of Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic, was renamed in his honor as Artemivsk in 1924. His infant son Artyom Fyodorovich was adopted by Joseph Stalin.

On 15 May 2015 President of Ukraine Petro Poroshenko signed a bill into law that started a six-month period for the removal of communist monuments and the mandatory renaming of settlements with a name related to Communism.[5] Hence in February 2016 the city of Artemivsk returned to its original name: Bakhmut.[6][7]

Artemivsk of Luhansk region is named in honor of Artem.[8]

In fiction

In Thomas Keneally's novel The People's Train, the lead character, Artem — aka "Tom" — Samsurov, is loosely based on the life of Sergeyev.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Fried, Eric, 'Sergeyev, Fedor Andreyevich (1883–1921)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/sergeyev-fedor-andreyevich-8386/text14723, accessed 27 October 2011.
  2. ^ Shmidt. O.Yu (chief editor), Bukharin, N.I. et al (eds) Большая советская энциклопедиа (1926) volume 3 Moscow pp 475-6
  3. ^ Shmidt. O.Yu (chief editor), Bukharin, N.I. et al (eds) Большая советская энциклопедиа (1926) volume 3 Moscow pp 476
  4. ^ "Handbook of the History of the Communist Party and the Soviet Union. Artyom (Sergeev, Fyodor Andreevich)".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. ^ Poroshenko signed the laws about decomunization. Ukrayinska Pravda. 15 May 2015
    Poroshenko signs laws on denouncing Communist, Nazi regimes, Interfax-Ukraine. 15 May 20
    Goodbye, Lenin: Ukraine moves to ban communist symbols, BBC News (14 April 2015)
  6. ^ Decommunisation continues: Rada renames several towns and villages, UNIAN (4 February 2016)
  7. ^ "Rada de-communized Artemivsk as well as over hundred cities and villages" (in Ukrainian). Ukrayinska Pravda. 4 February 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  8. ^ Petro Tronko: Istoriya mist i sil Ukrainskoi RSR. Luhanksa oblast. (Kiev 1968). P. 651
This page was last edited on 6 May 2022, at 16:25
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