To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Furnifold McLendel Simmons

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Furnifold McLendel Simmons
Simmons seated in a suit
United States Senator
from North Carolina
In office
March 4, 1901 – March 4, 1931
Preceded byMarion Butler
Succeeded byJosiah Bailey
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from North Carolina's 2nd district
In office
March 4, 1887 – March 3, 1889
Preceded byJames E. O'Hara
Succeeded byHenry P. Cheatham
Personal details
Born(1854-01-20)January 20, 1854
Pollocksville, North Carolina
DiedApril 30, 1940(1940-04-30) (aged 86)
New Bern, North Carolina
Political partyDemocratic

Furnifold McLendel Simmons (January 20, 1854 – April 30, 1940) was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from March 4, 1887 to March 4, 1889 and U.S. senator from the state of North Carolina between March 4, 1901 and March 4, 1931. He served as chairman of the powerful Committee on Finance from March 4, 1913 to March 4, 1919. He was an unsuccessful contender for the 1920 Democratic Party nomination for president. Simmons was a staunch segregationist, white supremacist and a leading perpetrator of the Wilmington insurrection of 1898.

Life and career

Simmons was born in Pollocksville, North Carolina, the son of Mary McLendel (Jerman) and Furnifold Greene Simmons.[1][2] After Republicans won control of North Carolina legislature in 1894, Simmons led efforts to disenfranchise black voters and return Democrats to power across the state. He allied with white supremacist newspapers to stoke fears of black men as predators of white women and too incompetent to be trusted as office holders or voters. Simmons also set up hundreds of "White Government Unions," which aimed to "announce on all occasions that they would succeed if they had to shoot every negro in the city."[3] As a result, Democrats swept the 1898 election, and the Wilmington Insurrection of 1898 broke out the following day.

In 1901 Simmons won the Democratic nomination for the US Senate. From his Senate seat, he then ran a powerful political machine, using A. D. Watts "to keep the machine oiled back home," in the words of one journalist.[4] Simmons remained in office for the next thirty years.

Senator Simmons refused to endorse Al Smith, the Democratic nominee for president in 1928 and the first Catholic nominated by a major party, winning him praise from members of the Ku Klux Klan.[5] Still, rejecting the Democratic nominee in 1928, together with the Great Depression, led to Simmons being defeated in the 1930 Democratic primary by Josiah W. Bailey, who was backed by Governor O. Max Gardner.

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov.

  1. ^ Leonard, John William (1907). "Men of America: A Biographical Dictionary of Contemporaries".
  2. ^ https://www.ncpedia.org/biography/simmons-furnifold
  3. ^ Zucchino, David (2020). Wilmington's Lie: The Murderous Coup of 1898 and the Rise of White Supremacy. Atlantic Monthly Press. pp. 65–69, 75, 96. ISBN 978-0-8021-2838-6.
  4. ^ News & Observer: "What the obituary didn't say" by Rob Christensen Archived July 18, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Chiles, Robert (2018). The Revolution of '28: Al Smith, American Progressivism, and the Coming of the New Deal. Cornell University Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-1-5017-0550-2.

External links

Party political offices
First Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from North Carolina
(Class 2)

1918, 1924
Succeeded by
Josiah Bailey
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
James E. O'Hara
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from North Carolina's 2nd congressional district

March 4, 1887 – March 4, 1889
Succeeded by
Henry P. Cheatham
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Marion Butler
 U.S. senator (Class 2) from North Carolina
March 4, 1901 – March 4, 1931
Served alongside: Jeter Connelly Pritchard, Lee Slater Overman, Cameron A. Morrison
Succeeded by
Josiah William Bailey
Political offices
Preceded by
Boies Penrose
Pennsylvania
Chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on Finance
March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1919
Succeeded by
Boies Penrose
Pennsylvania
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Francis E. Warren
Dean of the United States Senate
November 24, 1929 – March 4, 1931
Succeeded by
Reed Smoot
Preceded by
Obadiah Gardner
Oldest living U.S. Senator
July 24, 1938 – April 30, 1940
Succeeded by
Fountain L. Thompson
Preceded by
Henry Heitfeld
Most Senior Living U.S. Senator 
 (Sitting or Former)

October 21, 1938 – April 30, 1940
Succeeded by
Reed Smoot
This page was last edited on 24 March 2021, at 20:28
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.