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Fundraising for the 2008 United States presidential election

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In the 2008 United States presidential election, fundraising increased significantly compared to the levels achieved in previous presidential elections.

According to required campaign filings as reported by the Federal Election Commission (FEC), 148 candidates for all parties collectively raised $1,644,712,232 and spent $1,601,104,696 for the primary and general campaigns combined through November 24, 2008. The amounts raised and spent by the major candidates, according to the same source, were as follows:

Candidate (Party) Amount raised Amount spent Votes Average spent per vote
Barack Obama (D) $778,642,962 $760,370,195 69,498,215 $10.94
John McCain (R) $383,913,834 $358,008,447 59,948,240 $5.97
Ralph Nader (I) $4,496,180 $4,187,628 738,720 $5.67
Bob Barr (L) $1,383,681 $1,345,202 523,713 $2.57
Chuck Baldwin (C) $261,673 $234,309 199,437 $1.17
Cynthia McKinney (G) $240,130 $238,968 161,680 $1.48
Excludes spending by independent expenditure concerns.
Source: Federal Election Commission[1]

Democratic Party candidate Barack Obama created a broad grassroots movement and a new method of campaigning by courting and mobilizing activists, donations, and voters through the Internet (see grassroots fundraising). It was part of a campaign that mobilized grassroots workers in every state. Obama also set fundraising records in more than one month by gaining support from a record-breaking number of individual small donors.[2]

The reported cost of campaigning for president has increased significantly in recent years. One source reported that if the costs for both Democratic and Republican campaigns were added together (for the presidential primary election, general election, and the political conventions), the costs have more than doubled in only eight years ($448.9 million in 1996, $649.5 million in 2000, and $1.01 billion in 2004).[3] In January 2007, Federal Election Commission Chairman Michael E. Toner estimated that the 2008 race would be a $1 billion election, and that to be taken seriously, a candidate would have needed to raise at least $100 million by the end of 2007.[4]

Although he had said he would not be running for president, published reports in 2007 indicated that billionaire and New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg had been considering a presidential bid as an independent with up to $1 billion of his own fortune to finance it.[5] Bloomberg ultimately ended this speculation by unequivocally stating that he would not run.[6] Had Bloomberg decided to run, he would not have needed to campaign in the primary elections or participate in the conventions, reducing both the necessary length and cost of his campaign.

With the increase in money expenditures, many candidates did not use the public financing system funded by the presidential election campaign fund checkoff. John McCain,[7] Tom Tancredo,[8] John Edwards,[9] Chris Dodd,[10] and Joe Biden[11] qualified for and elected to take public funds throughout the primary process. Major Democratic candidates Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama chose not to participate in the public financing system.[12]

Howard Dean collected large contributions through the Internet in his 2004 primary run. In 2008, candidates went even further to reach out to Internet users through their own sites and such sites as YouTube, MySpace, and Facebook.[13][14]

On December 16, 2007, Ron Paul collected $6 million, more money on a single day through Internet donations than any presidential candidate to date,[15][16][17] though this was exceeded with a $10 million day in September 2008 by Barack Obama.

Fundraising plays a central role in many presidential campaigns and is a key factor in determining the viability of candidates. Money raised is applied in many ways, such as for the salaries of non-volunteers in the campaign, transportation, campaign materials, and media advertisements. Under United States law, candidates are required to file campaign finance details with the Federal Elections Commission (FEC) at the end of every calendar quarter. Summaries of these reports are made available to the public shortly thereafter, revealing the relative financial situations of all the campaigns.

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  • ✪ Political Campaigns: Crash Course Government and Politics #39

Transcription

Hi I'm Craig and this is Crash Course Government and Politics. And today we're going to try and untangle the mess that is the American political campaign. One of the things about the American political system that often confuses people who don't live in America is the way that our politicians run for office. There are two aspects in particular that stand out about American political campaigns: their length and their expense. We're going to look at both of these today and see that they're related but before we do we are going to answer a burning question: why do we need political campaigns anyway? [Theme Music] If you ask one hundred people about the reason why we have political campaigns, you'll get well, not a hundred but at least more than one answer. And you might work for Family Feud. Probably the best answer to this question though, is that we have political campaigns to provide voters with information they need to choose a candidate to represent them. So how do political campaigns provide information? And what is a political campaign anyway? Let's go to the Thought Bubble. A campaign is an organized drive on the part of a candidate to get elected to an office. It's also the way we refer to the organization itself. For example, in 2012 we had the Obama campaign and the Romney campaign. And each consisted of a campaign organization made up of thousands of staffers and volunteers and all of their activities. Most campaigns are temporary, geared towards an election although both parties do have permanent professional campaign organizations. At the top level are the national committees, the DNC and the RNC. Can you guess what they stand for? These organizations coordinate all national campaigns, especially those for President. Each house of congress has a Republican and Democratic campaign committee. The individual Senate and Congressional committees are headed up by sitting members of the Senate and the House, and because these committees give money to candidates, their leaders are very popular. I find that I'm popular when I make it rain at parties. Campaigns provide information in a number of ways. The main thing they do is communicate with the public, usually through the media which we'll discuss in greater depth in future episodes. The main stage of political campaigns is the organized event where candidates can present information about themselves and their policies directly through voters and speeches. These are known as stump speeches, although only rarely these days do candidates actually speak on stumps, they have podiums and stages now. In addition to these events, candidates present the information by appearing on the TV, in debates, at town meetings, and in "impromptu" photo opportunities. They like to appear with military hardware, too, although sometimes this can backfire, as in the case of Michael Dukakis in 1988. Campaigns can spread their messages through direct mail, press releases, news coverage, and through advertisements, often on the TV, which is like the internet, only less interactive and has a lot of real housewives on it. Thanks, thought bubble. Nowadays, there are many more ways that candidates can reach out to voters. One way is through email. If you've ever given money to a candidate or a campaign, you can expect emails in ever-increasing numbers as election day approaches, and we all love that. Candidates now take to Twitter to blast out information and individual candidates and their campaigns often have Facebook pages. There are even campaign ads made specifically for YouTube, although how their advertising algorithm works is beyond me. It's weird to get a campaign ad for the Michigan Senate if you don't live in Michigan. One other way that campaigns communicate information is through raising money. Of course, they need money to pay for all the campaign ribbons and buttons and PA systems and folding chairs and tour buses and stump speeches and axes to chop down trees so they have stumps to speak on. These things ain't cheap. Even more expensive are advertisements on the TV. A sitting president has an advantage here in that he can usually get on TV whenever he wants and he'll have a chance to clarify his positions in the State of the Union Address. But even he has to spend money on ads. And raising money is another way to present voters with information because campaign solicitations usually come with some policy piece attached to them. Almost every solicitation you get will be somewhat targeted to one of your interests and tell you, or try to tell you, where the candidate asking for your money stands on that issue. So you may have gotten a campaign solicitation and wondered, "Hey, why you need my money?" The unhelpful answer is that they need your money because campaigns are expensive. But then you might ask, "why are they so expensive?" Good question. Campaigns are expensive because they're huge, especially presidential campaigns; they need to reach 220 million people of voting age. Another reason they're expensive is because they're super long. Democrat and Republican candidates raise money, give speeches and create political action committees years before the election. It's ridiculous. I blame the eagle. Campaigns are also expensive because Americans expect them to be personal and this takes time and money. We like to see our candidates in person and have them show up in small towns in Iowa and New Hampshire, even though those states don't matter all that much in the grand electoral picture. Another reason campaigns are so expensive is that they rely increasingly on the TV and other visual media that cost a lot of money to produce. Gone are the days when William McKinley could sit on his porch in Ohio and have reporters come to him. Nowadays, even when candidates get free exposure by appearing on nightly comedy shows, like The Daily Show, it still costs the campaign in terms of time, travel and probably wardrobe and makeup so that they can look as good as I do. No makeup. Minimal wardrobe: no pants. Sorry, Stan. How expensive are campaigns anyway? Eh...very! In the 2008 presidential campaign both candidates together spent three billion dollars. In 2012 the candidates spent about a billion dollars each, and outside groups spent a further four billion. And congressional elections weren't much cheaper, except when you consider that there were a lot more of them. Combined, congressional races in 2008 cost about one billion dollars. All the money that gets spent on campaigns leads us inevitably to campaign finance rules, which were set up by Congress after 1970 and refined by the courts. We have campaign finance legislation because all that money pouring into campaigns sure looks like it raises the potential for corruption. Whether or not an individual's campaign contributions can sway a congressman's vote is highly debatable but it certainly gives the appearance of impropriety when a congressman who receives millions of dollars from the oil industry then works hard to weaken regulations on oil companies so that they can make more profit. Campaign contributions are not bribes, but they sure look like them to lots of people. Recognizing that campaign contributions could potentially influence the political process, congress passes the Federal Election Campaign act of 1971. This was the first law that put limits on campaign spending and donations. It was further refined by the McCain-Feingold Campaign Law in 2002, and by court decisions that refined the rules for campaign spending and donations and provided a legal rationale for these limits. Until recently, the most important case on campaign finance was Buckley V Valleo. This case established the idea that limits on campaign spending were problematic under the first amendment because limiting the amount someone could spend on politics was basically limiting what that person could say about politics. Freedom of speech, y'all! According to the rules, individuals were allowed to donate up to $2500 per candidate and their was a total limit to the amount an individual could give. Donations to a party committee, which because they don't go to a specific candidate and thus seem less like bribes, were limited to $28,500. Individual donors were also allowed to give up to $5,000 to a political action committee, or PAC. But it gets more complicated. Individuals and PACs are allowed to give unlimited funds to a 527 group, named after its designation in the tax code, that focuses on issue advocacy. The most famous 527 group in recent political memory is probably Swift Boat Veterans for Truth, which spent more than 22 million dollars to raise awareness around the issue of whether 2004 presidential candidate, and later Secretary of State John Kerry was completely honest about his Vietnam War record. If this sounds like it was more of an organization against the candidate himself, well you can see why the line between "issue advocacy" and support for a political campaign can be kind of blurry. Now here's something important: these limits are on contributions to candidates and campaigns, not on spending by candidates and campaigns. What this means is that a candidate and their campaign can spend however much they raise. So if a candidate running for office has one billion dollars, they can spend one billion trying to win. There's no concern about self-funded candidates bribing themselves, and you often see very rich people spending a lot of their own money trying to win office. So Buckley Vs. Valleo set up the basic distinction between campaign donations, which could be limited, and campaign spending, which couldn't. This distinction was undercut by the Supreme Court in the case of Citizens United Vs. the Federal Election Commission in 2009. This reaffirmed the idea that money is the equivalent of speech and struck down many of the limitations on campaign donations. The Citizens United decision cleared the way for Super PACs. These organizations are allowed to raise and spend unlimited amounts of money to promote a candidate or publicize a cause, but they may not directly contribute to a candidate or coordinate with a campaign. In the 2012 election, there were over 500 registered super PACs and 41 of them spent over half a million dollars. The largest seven had spent over 256 million by the end of August, one of the reasons that the 2012 election was the most expensive ever, clocking in at around 6 billion. Now this sounds like a lot of money, right? It is. Gimme it. But a little context: the total spent on house and senate races was around 3.6 billion dollars, which was less than half of what Americans spend annually on potato chips. So when you look at it this way, the amount we spend on elections doesn't seem like so much, which may make us rethink the idea that money is corrupting American politics. Or maybe not. Maybe potato chips are corrupting American politics. Certainly corrupting my belly. American political campaigns are big and high stakes and raise questions about the influence of money in politics that are tough to answer. On the one hand, it does seem like there's the potential for very rich people to have a lot of influence on the elections. On the other hand, limiting a person's ability to register his or her preference of a candidate through spending on that candidate does seem like a limitation on their political speech. One of the arguments for limits on campaign contributions is that forcing candidates to raise money in small amounts from a large number of donors will make them reach out to larger numbers of constituents, and appealing to large numbers is the essence of Democracy. But it's also time consuming for a politician to reach out to all those potential donors and congressmen already spend a considerable amount of time raising money when they should be legislating. And watching Real Housewives. And eating Little Caesar's. There's a lot to do. But this is the system we have, and unless congress passes a law limiting campaign expenditures, or shortening the campaign season, we can expect campaigns to remain long and get more and more expensive. Thanks for watching, I'll see you next time. Crash Course Government and Politics is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios. Support for Crash Course US Government comes from Voqal. Voqal supports non-profits that use technology and media to advance social equity. Learn more about their mission and initiatives at Voqal.org. Crash Course was made with the help of all of these campaign financiers. Thanks for watching.

Contents

Election cycle summary

On February 22, 2008, the New York Times reported for the period through January 31, 2008, with Hillary Clinton's campaign spending $106 million, Barack Obama's campaign spending $115 million and John McCain's committee $41 million."[18] In general, the current Federal Election Commission election cycle-to-date statistics may be viewed online, in summary and tablular form.[19]

Through December 31, 2007

Quarterly FEC reports summarize the total contributions (from individuals, political party committees, other political committees, and the candidate), loans, receipts (incoming money), and disbursements (outgoing money) for the election cycle. The tables immediately below include finance totals from the start of the election cycle up to December 31, 2007. All values in US dollars. Candidates sorted by total campaign contributions. Another key factor in the Presidential Campaign finance is the so called "Individual Financing"

Democrats

Candidate Contributions Loans Received All Receipts Operating Expenditures All Disbursements
Hillary Clinton 107,056,586 0 118,301,659 77,804,197 106,000,000
Barack Obama 102,092,819 0 103,802,537 84,497,445 85,176,289
John Edwards 34,986,088 8,974,714 44,259,386 33,513,005 36,468,929
Bill Richardson 22,421,742 1,000,000 23,671,031 21,401,414 21,857,565
Chris Dodd 10,414,392 1,302,811 16,547,015 14,040,555 14,057,455
Joe Biden 8,245,241 1,132,114 11,405,771 9,518,537 9,538,687
Dennis Kucinich 3,869,613 0 3,870,840 3,638,219 3,641,234
Combined Total 289,086,481 12,409,639 321,858,239 244,413,372 251,093,944

† This candidate has withdrawn their presidential bid.

‡ This candidate has suspended their presidential bid.

Republicans

Candidate Contributions Loans Received All Receipts Operating Expenditures All Disbursements
Rudy Giuliani 58,789,214 0 61,645,421 48,197,458 48,868,609
Mitt Romney 53,915,464 35,350,000 90,076,402 86,670,597 87,644,955
John McCain 37,480,640 2,971,697 42,094,078 30,721,676 39,145,650
Ron Paul 28,146,661 0 28,219,301 20,262,288 20,380,121
Fred Thompson 21,740,757 0 21,812,645 19,495,821 19,672,378
Mike Huckabee 8,990,477 0 9,003,810 7,090,971 7,107,365
Sam Brownback 3,653,570 0 4,374,058 4,295,606 4,368,746
Duncan Hunter 2,321,563 130,000 2,496,085 2,275,986 2,299,490
Tommy Thompson 1,024,992 196,000 1,226,129 1,213,274 1,223,567
Jim Gilmore 357,986 34,804 404,881 384,026 388,426
Tom Tancredo
Combined Total 216,421,324 38,682,501 261,352,810 220,607,703 231,099,307

† This candidate has withdrawn their presidential bid.

‡ This candidate has suspended their presidential bid.

4th quarter 2007

This is a summary of campaign finance for the fourth quarter of 2007, spanning from October 1, 2007 to December 31, 2007. All data has been extracted from reports provided by the Federal Elections Commission.[20]

By default, the tables below sort the candidates by Receipts without loans for the 4th quarter of 2007. These values are largely composed of campaign contributions, but also include offsets to expenditures (refunds, rebates, etc.) and other receipts (dividents, interest, etc.). To sort by another value, click the column's icon. All values in US Dollars.

Democrats

Candidate Total Receipts Money Raised
Primaries
Money Raised
General
Loans Received Receipts w/o Loans Money Spent Cash On Hand Total Debt Cash on Hand Minus Debt
Hillary Clinton 27,339,347 19,954,747 3,119,909 0 26,776,409 39,886,410 37,947,874 4,987,425 32,960,449
Barack Obama 23,526,004 15,117,691 920,081 0 22,847,568 40,896,076 18,626,248 792,681 17,833,567
John Edwards 13,900,622 8,974,714 4,834,761 18,537,625 7,790,458 9,067,278 -1,276,820
Joe Biden 3,190,122 1,132,114 2,055,971 3,209,364 1,867,392 2,073,418 -206,026
Bill Richardson 4,971,095 1,000,000 3,898,226 8,979,217 1,813,466 374,164 1,439,302
Dennis Kucinich 1,738,916 0 1,738,679 1,785,429 282,826  – 282,826

† This candidate has withdrawn his presidential bid.

‡ This candidate has suspended his/her presidential bid.

Republicans

Candidate Total Receipts Loans Received Receipts w/o Loans Money Spent Cash On Hand Total Debt Cash on Hand Minus Debt
Rudy Giuliani 14,391,901 0 14,177,287 18,264,914 12,776,812 1,166,509 11,610,303
Ron Paul 19,951,290 0 19,951,290 17,556,672 7,839,421 0 7,839,421
Mitt Romney 27,247,333 18,000,000 9,068,011 34,032,404 2,431,447 35,350,000 -32,918,553
Fred Thompson 8,984,534 0 8,925,284 13,966,011 2,140,267 404,221 1,736,046
John McCain 9,969,292 2,971,697 6,836,072 10,509,492 2,948,428 4,516,030 -1,567,602
Mike Huckabee 6,651,957 0 6,642,586 5,406,812 1,896,446 97,676 1,798,770
Sam Brownback 136,944 0 110,773 226,871 5,324 32,208 -26,884
Tommy Thompson 63,722 28,500 32,756 61,740 2,562 197,912 -195,350

† This candidate has withdrawn his presidential bid.

‡ This candidate has suspended his presidential bid.

3rd quarter 2007

Campaign Finance Information according to the Federal Elections Commission for the end of the third calendar quarter, 2007, ending September 30, 2007. The committees reporting may have amended their filings in the months following the initial reporting deadlines.[21]

Democrats

Candidate Money Raised, 3Q Money Raised
Primaries
Money Raised
General
Loans Received, 3Q Money Spent, 3Q Total Receipts Cash On Hand Total Debt After Debt
Hillary Clinton $27,859,861 $18,903,993.69 $4,088,969.66  – $22,623,680 $90,935,788 $50,463,013 $2,347,486 $48,115,527
Barack Obama $21,343,291 $14,429,487 $1,156,525  – $21,519,789 $80,256,426 $36,087,190 $1,409,739 $34,677,451
John Edwards $7,157,232  – $8,271,937 $30,329,151 $12,397,048  – $12,397,048
Bill Richardson $5,358,585  – $6,666,681 $18,699,936 $5,821,587 $75,222 $5,746,365
Christopher Dodd $1,522,061  – $4,025,458 $13,598,152 $3,874,874 - $3,874,874
Joe Biden $1,757,394  – $2,635,896 $8,215,739 $1,886,340 $128,210 $1,758,130
Dennis Kucinich $1,011,696  – $888,773 $2,130,200 $327,094 - $327,094
Mike Gravel $130,598  – $144,225 $379,794 $17,527 $85,853 -$68,326

Republicans

Candidate Money Raised, 3Q Loans Received, 3Q Money Spent, 3Q Total Receipts Cash On Hand Total Debt After Debt
Rudy Giuliani $11,624,255  – $13,300,649 $47,253,520 $16,649,825 $169,256 $16,480,569
Mitt Romney $9,896,719 $8,500,000 $21,301,755 $62,829,068 $9,216,517 $17,350,000 - $8,133,483
Fred Thompson $9,750,820 †  – $5,706,366 $12,828,110 $7,121,744 $678,432 $6,443,312
Ron Paul $5,258,455  – $2,169,644 $8,268,452 $5,443,667  – $5,443,667
John McCain $5,734,477  – $5,470,277 $32,124,785 $3,488,627 $1,730,691 $1,757,936
Mike Huckabee $1,034,486  – $819,376 $2,345,797 $651,300 $47,810 $603,490
Duncan Hunter $486,356 $50,000 $618,117 $1,890,873 $132,741 $50,000 $82,741
Tom Tancredo $767,152  – $1,209,583 $3,538,244 $110,079 $295,603 - $185,524
Sam Brownback $925,745  – $1,278,856 $4,235,333 $94,653  – $94,653

† Number equals third quarter totals only. Friends of Fred Thompson Inc. received $3,077,290 covering period 06/04/2007 to 06/30/2007, and reported $12,828,110 in total receipts for the third quarter report.[22]

2nd quarter 2007

Campaign Finance Information according to the Federal Elections Commission as of July 17, 2007.[23]

Democrats

Candidate Money Raised, 2Q Money Raised
Primaries
Money Raised
General
Loans Received, 2Q Money Spent, 2Q Total Receipts Cash On Hand
Hillary Clinton $27,021,358 $18,799,440.01 $5,860,372.50  – $12,769,306 $63,075,927 $45,226,832
Barack Obama $33,120,440 $23,502,207 $2,134,666  – $16,042,388 $58,912,520 $36,263,689
John Edwards $9,097,495  – $6,485,422 $23,129,158 $13,242,954 Bill Richardson $7,090,278  – $4,983,067 $13,339,633 $7,129,684
Christopher Dodd $3,280,284  – $4,384,580 $12,076,091 $6,378,271
Joe Biden $2,451,180  – $2,517,654 $6,461,745 $2,772,442
Dennis Kucinich $757,035  – $707,653 $1,117,566 $213,269
Mike Gravel $140,510 -$10,000 $99,866 $238,745 $31,141

Republicans

Candidate Money Raised, 2Q Loans Received, 2Q Money Spent, 2Q Total Receipts Cash On Hand
Rudy Giuliani $17,599,292  – $11,222,806 $35,269,625 $18,326,820
Mitt Romney $14,275,263 $6,500,000 $20,739,814 $44,432,350 $12,121,554
John McCain $11,591,044  – $13,071,657 $25,328,694 $3,224,428
Ron Paul $2,369,453  – $539,517 $3,009,997 $2,354,855
Tom Tancredo $1,466,188  – $1,474,791 $2,807,879 $598,451
Mike Huckabee $765,873  – $702,622 $1,310,753 $437,169
Sam Brownback $1,425,767  – $1,798,493 $3,321,965 $433,900
Duncan Hunter $814,417  – $874,042 $1,352,941 $212,927
Tommy Thompson $461,555 $25,000 $504,631 $890,398 $121,648

1st quarter 2007

Campaign Finance Information according to the Federal Elections Commission as of March 31, 2007.[24]

Democrats

Candidate Money Raised Money Raised
Primaries
Money Raised
General
Money Spent Cash On Hand
Hillary Clinton $36,054,569 $16,709,691.30 $6,986,340.00 $5,079,789 $30,974,780
Barack Obama $25,797,722 $19,433,812 $972,039 $6,605,201 $19,192,521
John Edwards $14,031,663 $3,299,782 $10,731,881
Christopher Dodd $8,795,706 $1,313,239 $7,482,467
Bill Richardson $6,249,355 $1,226,882 $5,022,473
Joe Biden $4,013,090 $1,174,174 $2,838,916
Dennis Kucinich $358,569 $194,682 $163,887
Mike Gravel $108,236 $107,737 $498

Republicans

Candidate Money Raised Money Spent Cash On Hand
Rudy Giuliani $18,029,974 $6,080,239 $11,949,735
Mitt Romney $21,084,634 $10,332,450 $11,863,653
John McCain $14,798,613 $9,617,814 $5,180,799
Sam Brownback $1,871,058 $1,064,432 $806,626
Tom Tancredo $1,256,090 $711,012 $575,078
Ron Paul $639,989 $115,070 $524,919
Mike Huckabee $544,157 $170,239 $373,918
Duncan Hunter $538,524 $265,972 $272,552
Tommy Thompson $392,128 $252,405 $139,723
Jim Gilmore $203,897 $113,790 $90,107

References

  1. ^ "Financial Summary Report Search Results". fec.gov. Archived from the original on December 8, 2014. Retrieved December 22, 2008.
  2. ^ "Top Presidential Candidate 2008 Websites". Hitwise. Archived from the original on October 17, 2008.
  3. ^ Kennedy, Helen (January 14, 2007). "Wanna be Prez? First get $100M". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 1, 2007.
  4. ^ Kirkpatrick, David (January 23, 2007). "Death Knell May Be Near for Public Election Funds". The New York Times. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
  5. ^ Smith, Ben (June 19, 2007). "Billion-Dollar elephant inches toward run". The Politico. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
  6. ^ Bloomberg, Michael R. (February 28, 2008). "I'm Not Running for President, but ..." The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved July 18, 2008.
  7. ^ "McCain First Presidential Candidate Declared Eligible for Primary Matching Funds in 2008 Race" (Press release). Federal Election Commission. August 27, 2007. Archived from the original on September 16, 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
  8. ^ "Tancredo Second Presidential Candidate Declared Eligible for Primary Matching Funds in 2008 Race" (Press release). Federal Election Commission. September 12, 2007. Archived from the original on September 16, 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
  9. ^ "Edwards Third Presidential Candidate Declared Eligible for Primary Matching Funds in 2008 Race" (Press release). Federal Election Commission. November 1, 2007. Archived from the original on September 16, 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
  10. ^ "Dodd Fourth Presidential Candidate Declared Eligible for Primary Matching Funds in 2008 Race" (Press release). Federal Election Commission. November 27, 2007. Archived from the original on September 16, 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
  11. ^ "Biden Fifth Presidential Candidate Declared Eligible for Primary Matching Funds in 2008 Race" (Press release). Federal Election Commission. December 4, 2007. Archived from the original on September 16, 2008. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
  12. ^ Montopoli, Brian (April 9, 2008). "Obama Poised To Turn Down Public Financing". CBS News. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
  13. ^ "Questions, not answers, highlight YouTube debate". CNN. July 24, 2007. Retrieved March 14, 2008.
  14. ^ Stephanie Garry (June 8, 2007). "Candidates court young voters online". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
  15. ^ Kenneth Vogel (December 17, 2007). "'Money bomb': Ron Paul raises $6 million in 24-hour period". USA Today. The Politico. Retrieved March 14, 2008.
  16. ^ "Breaking News: Ron Paul campaign donors set a record". Los Angeles Times. December 17, 2007. Retrieved September 15, 2008.
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  18. ^ Michael Luo, Jo Becker and Patrick Healy (2008-02-22). "Clinton Donors Worried by Campaign's Spending". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-22.
  19. ^ Federal Election Commission, 2007-2008 Cycle http://herndon1.sdrdc.com/cgi-bin/cancomsrs/?_08+CAN+00 Retrieved April 8, 2008
  20. ^ SELECTED PRESIDENTIAL REPORTS FOR THE 2007 YEAR-END
  21. ^ SELECTED PRESIDENTIAL REPORTS FOR THE 2007 OCTOBER QUARTERLY
  22. ^ Contributions For Friends Of Fred Thompson Inc
  23. ^ SELECTED PRESIDENTIAL REPORTS FOR THE 2007 JULY QUARTERLY
  24. ^ SELECTED PRESIDENTIAL REPORTS FOR THE 2007 APRIL QUARTERLY
This page was last edited on 17 December 2018, at 20:49
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