To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

French National Centre for Scientific Research

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Centre national de la recherche scientifique
Logo of the CNRS
MottoFrench: Dépasser les frontières
Pushing boundaries
Formation19 October 1939; 81 years ago (1939-10-19)
TypeGovernmental organisation
PurposeFundamental research
HeadquartersCampus Gérard Mégie, 16th arrondissement of Paris
Official language
Antoine Petit
Main organ
Comité national de la recherche scientifique
€3.3 billion[1]

The French National Centre for Scientific Research (French: Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) is the French state research organisation[3] and is the largest fundamental science agency in Europe.[4]

In 2016, it employed 31,637 staff, including 11,137 tenured researchers, 13,415 engineers and technical staff, and 7,085 contractual workers.[2] It is headquartered in Paris and has administrative offices in Brussels, Beijing, Tokyo, Singapore, Washington, D.C., Bonn, Moscow, Tunis, Johannesburg, Santiago de Chile, Israel, and New Delhi.[5]

The CNRS was ranked No. 3 in 2015 and No. 4 in 2017 by the Nature Index, which measures the largest contributors to papers published in 82 leading journals.[6][7][8]


Paolo Sassone-Corsi worked as research director at French National Centre for Scientific Research at Institute of Genetics and Molecular and Cellular Biology in Strasbourg in 1989
Paolo Sassone-Corsi worked as research director at French National Centre for Scientific Research at Institute of Genetics and Molecular and Cellular Biology in Strasbourg in 1989

The CNRS operates on the basis of research units, which are of two kinds: "proper units" (UPRs) are operated solely by the CNRS, and "joint units" (UMRs – French: Unité mixte de recherche)[9] are run in association with other institutions, such as universities or INSERM. Members of joint research units may be either CNRS researchers or university employees (maîtres de conférences or professeurs). Each research unit has a numeric code attached and is typically headed by a university professor or a CNRS research director. A research unit may be subdivided into research groups ("équipes"). The CNRS also has support units, which may, for instance, supply administrative, computing, library, or engineering services.

In 2016, the CNRS had 952 joint research units, 32 proper research units, 135 service units, and 36 international units.[2]

The CNRS is divided into 10 national institutes:[4]

  • Institute of Chemistry (INC)
  • Institute of Ecology and Environment (INEE)
  • Institute of Physics (INP)
  • Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics (IN2P3)
  • Institute of Biological Sciences (INSB)
  • Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences (INSHS)
  • Institute for Computer Sciences (INS2I)
  • Institute for Engineering and Systems Sciences (INSIS)
  • Institute for Mathematical Sciences (INSMI)
  • Institute for Earth Sciences and Astronomy (INSU)

The National Committee for Scientific Research, which is in charge of the recruitment and evaluation of researchers, is divided into 47 sections (e.g. section 41 is mathematics, section 7 is computer science and control, and so on).[10] Research groups are affiliated with one primary institute and an optional secondary institute; the researchers themselves belong to one section. For administrative purposes, the CNRS is divided into 18 regional divisions (including four for the Paris region).


Researchers who are permanent employees of the CNRS are classified in two categories, each subdivided into two or three classes, and each class is divided into several pay grades.[11]

Scientist (chargé de recherches) Senior scientist (directeur de recherche)
Normal class (CRCN) Hors classe (CRHC) Second class (DR2) First class (DR1) Exceptional class (DRCE)

In principle, research directors tend to head research groups, but this is not a general rule (a research scientist can head a group or even a laboratory and some research directors do not head a group).

Employees for support activities include research engineers, studies engineers, assistant engineers and technicians. Contrary to what the name would seem to imply, these can have administrative duties (e.g. a secretary can be "technician", an administrative manager of a laboratory an "assistant engineer").

All permanent support employees are recruited through annual nationwide competitive campaigns. Following a 1983 reform, the candidates selected have the status of civil servants and are part of the public service.


The CNRS was created on 19 October 1939 by decree of President Albert Lebrun. Since 1954, the centre has annually awarded gold, silver, and bronze medals to French scientists and junior researchers. In 1966, the organisation underwent structural changes, which resulted in the creation of two specialised institutes: the National Astronomy and Geophysics Institute in 1967 (which became the National Institute of Sciences of the Universe in 1985) and the Institut national de physique nucléaire et de physique des particules (IN2P3; English: National Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics) in 1971.


The performance of the CNRS has been questioned, with calls for wide-ranging reforms. In particular, the effectiveness of the recruitment, compensation, career management, and evaluation procedures have been under scrutiny. Governmental projects include the transformation of the CNRS into an organization allocating support to research projects on an ad hoc basis and the reallocation of CNRS researchers to universities. Another controversial plan advanced by the government involves breaking up the CNRS into six separate institutes.[12][13]


Past presidents

Past directors general

  • Jean Coulomb (1957–1962)
  • Pierre Jacquinot (1962–1969)
  • Hubert Curien (1969–1973)
  • Robert Chabbal (1976–1980)
  • Pierre Papon (1982–1986)
  • François Kourilsky (1988–1994)
  • Guy Aubert (1994–1997)
  • Catherine Bréchignac (1997–2000)
  • Geneviève Berger (2000–2003)
  • Bernard Larrouturou (2003–2006)
  • Arnold Migus (2006–2010)

Past and current president director general (CEO)

Alain Fuchs was appointed president on 20 January 2010. His position combined the previous positions of president and director general.

Antoine Petit, current CEO of the CNRS
Antoine Petit, current CEO of the CNRS
  • 2010–2017: Alain Fuchs
  • From 24 October 2017 to 24 January 2018 (interim): Anne Peyroche[14]
  • Since 24 January 2018: Antoine Petit

Some selected CNRS laboratories

See also


  1. ^ "CNRS Key figures". CNRS. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  2. ^ a b c CNRS (2016). "2016 activity report" (PDF). Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  3. ^ Dorozynski, Alexander (November 1990). "The CNRS at 50. (Centre national de la recherche scientifique) (Salute to French Technology)". R&D. Archived from the original on 10 June 2013.
  4. ^ a b Butler, Declan (2008). "France's research agency splits up". Nature. 453 (7195): 573. doi:10.1038/453573a. PMID 18509403.
  5. ^ Direction Europe de la recherche et coopération internationale. "Carte des bureaux". Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  6. ^ "Ten institutions that dominated science in 2015". Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  7. ^ "10 institutions that dominated science in 2017". Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  8. ^ "Introduction to the Nature Index". Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  9. ^ "INSMI – Institut national des sciences mathématiques et de leurs interactions – Joint Research Units (UMR)". CNRS. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  10. ^ "CoNRS – Sections – Intitulés". (in French). Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  11. ^ "CNRS – Concours chercheurs – s'informer sur les concours". Retrieved 20 February 2018.
  12. ^ Everts, Sarah (2 June 2008). "Latest News – Scientists Protest in France". Chemical & Engineering News. 86 (22): 13. doi:10.1021/cen-v086n022.p013a. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  13. ^ Stafford, Ned (5 June 2008). "Chemists give cautious welcome for French science reforms". Chemistry World. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  14. ^ "Anne Peyroche, présidente par intérim du CNRS – Info Chimie". (in French). Retrieved 27 May 2018.

External links

This page was last edited on 7 March 2021, at 12:41
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.