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Frank McCloskey

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Frank McCloskey
Frank McCloskey.jpg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Indiana's 8th district
In office
January 3, 1983 – January 3, 1995
Preceded byH. Joel Deckard
Succeeded byJohn Hostettler
Mayor of Bloomington, Indiana
In office
1972 – January 3, 1983
Preceded byJohn H. "Jack" Hooker, Jr.
Succeeded byTomilea Allison
Personal details
Born
Francis Xavier McCloskey

(1939-06-12)June 12, 1939
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
DiedNovember 2, 2003(2003-11-02) (aged 64)
Bloomington, Indiana
Resting placeArlington National Cemetery
38°52′45″N 77°04′08″W / 38.879074°N 77.069006°W / 38.879074; -77.069006
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)
Roberta Ann Barker (m. 1962–2003)
(his death)
Children2
Alma materIndiana University, A.B. 1968, J.D. 1971
ProfessionLawyer, Journalist
CommitteesArmed Services, 1983 to 1995; Small Business, 1983 to 1985; Post Office and Civil Service, 1985 to 1995; Foreign Affairs, 1989 to 1995
Military service
Branch/serviceUnited States Air Force
Years of service1957–1961
RankSergeant

Francis Xavier "Frank" McCloskey (June 12, 1939 – November 2, 2003) was a six-term Democratic representative from Indiana from January 3, 1983, to January 3, 1995, widely remembered for his advocacy on behalf of Bosnian Muslims. He was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and later moved to Bloomington, Indiana after receiving an undergraduate (majoring in political science) and J.D. degree from Indiana University Maurer School of Law. He was the Democratic nominee for a seat in the Indiana House of Representatives in 1970. Frank McCloskey worked as a reporter for The Indianapolis Star, the Bloomington Herald-Telephone, and the City News Bureau of Chicago.

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Transcription

So I apologize for the shakiness, this is kind of an unplanned video. It's not often that you see me outside, but I'm actually gonna be borrowing the Bolt again today to do a little video for you. It is... hot today. It is about--it is currently 86 degrees and it'll go up to a high of 96 which is... this Celsius. And I'm going to take the Bolt EV back to my place, to work, and back which will be a total of 184 miles. All highway driving. And we'll see how it does. But before we go, I want to show you one thing here. Because it's so warm outside I'm gonna have the Bolt precondition itself. And I wanted to show--this is the charging station that it's on. And as you can hopefully see the charging station is not supply power to the car 'cause it's fully charged. So I'm going to use the remote to remote start the car and then the charging station will click on. [Clunk of contactor inside EVSE] Hear that big thunk? So now that orange light indicates that the charging station is sending power to the car. And very soon you'll hear the air conditioning running. [sound of A/C compressor spinning up] The Bolt has a variable speed A/C compressor--same as the Volt with a 'V', it's just more efficient that way and it can run any amount of refrigerant it needs to. So I'm gonna let the car run like this for about five minutes to get nice and cool. That way, right now it's pulling power from the grid; it's not using its battery at all. So by preconditioning the cabin like this we're gonna get a little bit better battery range. And then once it's cooled off, I'm gonna get in the car. We'll use my dashcam and I'll show you a bit of the drive that I'm taking. OK one more thing before I get going--I'm sitting inside and it's nice and cool in here but the car is not actually on and it is still plugged in. So I'm gonna turn it on 'cause I want to show you one thing. Some people are worried about this. [warning chimes as vehicle starts up] So I wanted to show you--notice how it says the charge cord is connected 'cause I'm still plugged in? It will not let me shift into gear. If I try... [warning chime] "Conditions not correct for shift" [warning chime] "Charge cord connected" So a lot of people freak out about what happens if you move your car while it's still plugged in. The answer is nothing! Nothing happens. Because it knows its plugged in and it won't let you move. So I want to apologize for the dashcam footage because the dashcam that is in this car-- I got dashcams for my mom and dad for Christmas one year, and it's the same one as in my car--and it's a wedge style dashcam. And there's a blue windshield tint on the Bolt and so it's looking through that a little bit. So everything looks pretty blue, and I'm gonna do my best to correct that. So this Bolt unlike probably many Bolts EVs spends a lot of time in rural areas on country roads like this one. This is IL-29. I'm heading North to get to I-180 to take me to I-80. My parents live South of I-80 and North of Peoria. And, well, we're just entering Bureau county right now so this EV spends a lot of time in a rural setting not anywhere near a city. We are about 120 miles away from Chicago right now. And part of why I want to make sure people understand that is because even for people in a rural setting, if they have access to a home charging station which can recharge the car in about 10 hours from empty... you know this car works for a LOT of people. I see so many comments about EVs "They're city-dwelling car's only, you can't take them outside of the city". This car doesn't even live in the city most of the time! It either spends some time with me in the suburbs or a lot of the time out here! This is not the city! So I have cruise control set to 70 MPH which is how its gonna stay for a good portion of this trip. 70 MPH is actually not idea for an EV's range because generally you want to stay to 65 or less, but I'm intentionally keeping it at 70 because I don't want to paint the picture that I am trying to hypermile here. I'm really not. I'm gonna keep up with traffic as best I can. And according to the car it is 89° outside, so we've got some nice toasty warm weather. This part here getting to I-80 is one of the most challenging parts for this car as far as range goes because--if you can hopefully tell in the dashcam--we're actually going at a pretty significant incline. Where my parents live is one of few areas in Illinois that aren't completely flat. It's still pretty flat but there are some river valleys around here. And, uh, so there's some pretty wild changes in elevation. Right now to go up this hill maintaining 70 it's taking 37-38 kW which is a lot of power. But now we are back to flat land as far as the eye can see. By the way, just as common courtesy you should do that. Like, if someone's on the side of the road for whatever reason move over for them. The person behind me didn't, and there's no one around me. Don't be a jerk. And by the way in Illinois if that's a cop or an emergency vehicle you HAVE to get over and if you don't you will get pulled over. Just ask my dad about that. Here we are on I-80, everybody's favorite. Big East-West Interstate, going from New York to California, all the way across. I think it's New York, maybe it's New Jersey. Uh, anyway, I'm not going to try and hypermile, remember? I'm keeping speed set to 70. If I pass a truck I pass a truck, if a truck passes me, a truck passes me. I'm not gonna follow one. I'm trying not to present this as a "you have to be careful to drive an EV" thing, I want to show you what it's like if you're just driving it like you would a car. So I've got cruise control set to 70 MPH, which is the speed limit. Yeah, you might be going a little higher than that on average but I will at least do that much. Well, that's not hypermiling by any stretch of the imagination but I will at least do that--get that little bit of range out of it. But now, we're on this road for the next 60 miles or so. We have just under 100 miles left in this journey and we'll see where we are when we get there. The temperature reading on the car is now 94°! It's going up! Did you know that in Illinois there's a warp tunnel to Peru? It's right there. Just take that exit, you're in Peru. They even have a Menards in Peru. Oh you know, I should probably say I have the cabin temperature set to 71° F, so I'm... In my winter range test, I kept the cabin temperature pretty cold because I have a heated seat, a heated steering wheel and I was bundled up. Some people complained about that. Well now I have the temperature really comfortable. Perfect for driving, it's 94° outside but 71° inside--nice and comfy here. As we are moving into the 44th mile of this journey we have use 12.2 kWh which is, uh, a little worse than average. If we go with the EPA rating, 12 kWh should get us 48 miles. But we've used 12.3 and we've only gone 44.7 miles so we're a little bit behind but not a whole lot. Here in Illinois we also have a warp tunnel to Ottawa. Just go that way and find yourself in Canada all of a sudden. I'm about to be passed by a Tesla! I'll give him a nod. Hello! Eh, he seems unimpressed. He's also not running a front license plate, tsk tsk. OK, so I just noticed that--and I've heard some wind noise but you can see in the trees, or I could see in the trees of the right I'll have to back the footage up a bit, but I'm facing a pretty significant headwind. Which is weird because I'm going East. And usually if I'm going East there's a tail wind. But you know, sometimes... It seems every single time I want to do a range test in this car the wind condition is the wrong way. So we're still gonna be fine but just to give some context, right now wind is not helping me. It's hurting me. So keep that in your head while you're thinking about the range here. Every time I take this ramp there's a truck at the front going 25 MPH. Ugh. Come on in, Mr. 4Runner. Welcome to this lane. I bet you knew you needed this lane a long time ago but just now is when you decided to get in because ya know, that's how we do things! Oh, and thank you so much for letting me know you were exiting, I really appreciate that signal. We really have a model driver in front of us, ladies and gentlemen. Alright, so. We are now back and I'm parked in my garage just because I want to keep the car out of the sun. Just get that little bit, tiny bit of an advantage. But we weren't super efficient this time, we took 31.9 kWh to go 113.4 (miles). And that's probably...well I'll do the math 12.5% lower than what the EPA estimate would be. And, uh... I really did not account for the winds today I didn't think it was gonna be that windy. So I just want to point out climate settings was only 4% so, and I've said this a lot to people--air conditioning is not that big of a load for an electric car. So even though it was 94° outside for much of the commute--it got a little cooler once I get towards home but it was still about 88--I've been keeping the climate control set at either 71 or 72 and that was only 4% of the energy usage for this entire trip. So air conditioning is really not a huge deal. If we go to the main center cluster you'll see that it's predicting 98 miles of range remaining. And I have 70 miles that I need to go further. Now if I were a rational human being who wasn't doing this test I would plug the car in because I have 2 hours of charging that would give the car another 40 miles of range at least. But I'm not going to do that! Because I want to test this range and I really think it's gonna improve for my drive to work because I typically go a little bit slower and also we'll be going North-South rather than East-West, so we'll see what happens. Okeydokie. [Music from car intro screen thingamabob] Alright so I did not plug in the car--you'll notice it says "Plug in to Charge". And our range estimate actually went up by one mile because it realized that we went into a cooler place. So we are still at 31.9 kWh with a distance traveled of 113.4. Now we're going to drive 34.2 miles or something like that and then we'll see where that puts us. [sound of electric acceleration on the on-ramp] Alright so the trend line this early into this leg of the journey is right in the middle. There is no direction going up or down, but as we cut back in here we've gone about 6 miles. Our max range is 110 and our minimum is 76. Currently we're predicted to go 93. So I can see that the guess... I can see that the trend line is starting to creep up which I expected it to do so, especially because I looked outside and the wind around here seems to by dying down. I'm no meteorological expert but I did notice it was getting cooler as I headed toward my place which is closer to Lake Michigan and I'm wondering if there was a high pressure area over the lake as it always keeps the air above it colder because it's a big body of water, and maybe that was forcing air out towards the West and that's why I had the head wind. I don't know. But in any case the wind is much calmer right now, it's 93° out according to the car, and we will be up at my work within the next half-hour or so. Also, I should point out that I'm not taking a huge risk here. If there are people who are like "Oh my God, range anxiety!!!" I know two things, one my boss is fine if I plug in at work so if for some reason I get to work and there's way less range than I think I'll plug in, but two--the O'Hare Oasis which you keep seeing signs for has both a Level 2 AND a DC Fast Charging charger available for the car. So if I needed to on my way back I could just stop at the oasis. I've never actually used the DC fast charging on this car--I won't do it unless I need to. One day I'm gonna test that, but not right now. But it looks like that trend line is creeping up some more and driving conditions seem much more favorable. Also I'm trying to keep up with traffic in this lane. I'm not hypermiling but also people tend to go way faster than I want to on the Tri-State so I'm not gonna join the left lanes but I will stay here and keep up with the guy in front of me. I know I said I wasn't gonna hypermile and it may look like I'm hypermiling because I'm here in the right lane and everybody's passing me but if you're unfamiliar with the Tri-State...anything goes here. I am, to put it.... well I'm speeding. I'm going a bit over the speed limit. Everybody else is... Woah! Now in Illinois we have laws where you need to follow traffic flow so really I'm going under the "speed limit" but, ugh. I'm just in the right lane because I don't want to go a fast as the other people are going. Alright, I am now at work. And that is our final, we are actually just at 40 kWh used which is 2/3 of the battery. We went 148 miles so that means we could go 50% more assuming we have the exact same average efficiency we had so what would that be? 74 on top of that, so about 221 or so. Which is actually right about what it predicted when we first turned on the car. So then going over to the speedometer cluster area we are at a minimum of 61 miles, predicted 75, and if you recall it said that--we started at 100. So the range meter only went down 25 miles even though we drove 34 and that's because it was just more efficient driving this time and we weren't facing that wind. And still, our climate settings have now accounted for 5% of our usage but still that's very very little and I'm still keeping myself comfortable even though the temperatures are in the 90's. Alright so I just got out of work. Yes I work in the evenings. It sucks. I drew the short straw working this particular time on Memorial Day, but let's see where we're at. It is showing 78 miles. It's not exposed right--there we go. 78 miles. So let's turn it on. That's better. Alright. So we have 34 or so miles ahead of us. I'm sure we'll make it. OK now that we are back on the Tri-State headed southbound, I normally keep my speed to 68 on this segment and then I slow down a little bit as I get towards home. I don't have traffic to keep up with because it's late at night so I'm just setting the speed that I always do. And again, I'm not trying to hypermile here I'm not gonna follow a truck. Yeah I'm going a little bit slower than the average person, but really not that much slower. And we will see what sort of range we have when we get home. So, uh, we'll do a bit of a time warp. So I took us out of warp speed because I wanted to explain for those who have never been to Illinois--the oasis that I was mentioning that has the charging station that we're about to go under, it's more obvious what it is at night. I don't know...they've been around for many decades, in fact there's a Williams pinball machine from I believe the 1960's called "Highways" which has one of these oases on its backglass. There's some trivia for you. But anyway, these highway oases are on the tollway here and it's got restaurants and stuff. And it's built above the tollway as an overpass--it's kinda cool. So you can see Auntie Ann's and Starbucks maybe in there. And, so... do other states have those? I don't know. Not all of them in Illinois are built over the road like that, some of them are just off to the side. But the ones that are built over the road, you know you uh... depending on which direction you're going you enter through one door or the other. And you can't turn around which kinda stinks but you wouldn't really need to in most circumstances. But anyway, that's what the highway oasis was and over there by the Mobil gas station there is a DC fast charger. I have not used it myself but I have seen it and people on Plugshare have rated it so that would've been there as an option. But as it stands I'm still showing 56 miles of range remaining and I'm more than halfway home so no need to stop. Aright, we are now back home and we have gone 183 miles today which took 48.8 kilowatt-hours. And the car thinks we will be able to do another 47. The trend line was pretty high up towards that max 55 but that's because I was going less than 60 MPH for the last bit of this journey. But, uh, if we do our little math here... Uh, the EPA estimated range of this car is 238 and we are... oh man I'm so bad at math in my head. ...223... OK we would have gone 230 so we're actually only 8 miles shy of the EPA estimated range assuming that our efficiency stayed what it is because we were going 40... If we had 47 left, with the 183 that we did we would be a 240... no (guffaw) 230 miles so that's only 8 miles off. I am bad at this. So this is gonna cost me about $5.50 in electricity, so not bad. We did 183 miles of driving on $5.50. I also wanted to show you the experience of plugging it in. Because, you know, people feel like this is so hard. There's the charge port. I actually have like the hardest way to plug in of anybody because my charger's all the way over here. And I gotta unfurl the cord. And we're just gonna walk back to the car... And, plug it in. And just for your enjoyment you're gonna hear a bunch of sounds. You're gonna hear some relays clicking, you're gonna hear the actual charging station back there make a big THUNK, and the car's gonna make a couple other weird noises. And then, it beeps. Just push that in. [click] [THUNK] [other odd sounds] [beep] So incredibly complicated. And then the car will tell you when you open the door when it will be done charging. Its estimate is going to move up a little bit. Oh, I have found a bug. Let me close the door. [startup music] It does that a lot. OK. So it says that the charge will be done by 8:30 AM and, uh. Often times that estimate will go up a little bit as I plug in because this is a 32 amp charger but it's only on 208 volts. So it's actually a little bit slower than my parent's charger even though the charger itself--the Clipper Creek HCS-40--is a larger charger. It's on 208 rather than 240V so it charges a little more slowly. So maybe they actually--the car's software was updated over the air recently and I don't know if it affects the instrument cluster but maybe it did. In the past it used to be you would open it after I plug in and it say "charge complete by 7:00...7:15...7:30...7:45" as it realized it was on a lower voltage but today it didn't do that. So I hope you enjoyed this video on the Chevy Bolt EV’s summer driving range. Although it missed the EPA estimate by just a hair, I think it’s still pretty impressive since for much of my drive the car was facing a headwind, and all of the miles were strictly highway. Unlike a conventional car, an EV does better in stop-and-go city driving because it can use regenerative braking. On the highway, there’s no braking going on so its range will drop. This partially explains why the EPA range estimate for Electric Vehicles is so much more conservative than the european or asian estimates for the same vehicle--being so spread out in the US, highway range is more important here. Anyway, thank you very much for watching, please check out my Twitter feed if you’re into that, and a peek at my Patreon page would be much appreciated if you’d like to support what I do on this channel. I’ll see you next time.

Contents

Mayor of Bloomington

McCloskey was elected mayor of Bloomington in 1971, the year he graduated law school, by defeating two-term Republican incumbent John H. "Jack" Hooker, Jr., and served through his election to the 98th Congress in 1982. While mayor, he was credited with helping obtain federal funds to help improve city services and revitalize the city's downtown area. His administration also developed Bloomington Transit, the city's bus service. He was re-elected mayor in 1975 and 1979. In 1981, McCloskey was elected president of the Indiana Association of Cities and Towns.[1] Additionally, he served on a 10-member task force created by the U.S. Conference of Mayors created to study urban financial policy.

Mayor McCloskey was an alternate delegate to the 1972 Democratic National Convention.

Congressional tenure

1982 election and first term

Initially, Mayor McCloskey was an underdog in his race against two-term incumbent Republican representative Joel Deckard in Indiana's 8th congressional district. McCloskey's campaign focused on the effects of Reaganomics, and attempted to tie the district's high unemployment rate to Deckard and President Reagan after Deckard supported Reagan on key tax cut and budget votes in the 97th Congress. Some of the district's counties were experiencing unemployment rates not seen since the Great Depression. During the campaign, McCloskey argued for deferral or elimination of a 10 percent tax cut scheduled in 1983 and for cuts in military spending. McCloskey also attacked Deckard for waffling on the nuclear freeze issue after the incumbent co-sponsored both the stronger and weaker versions of the freeze resolution. McCloskey's campaign was further boosted after Deckard was involved in a drunk driving accident shortly before the election. McCloskey significantly benefited from the support of Michael Vandeveer, the popular Democratic mayor of Evansville, the district's largest city, and emerged the victor on election night, 52% to 48%. McCloskey thus became the sixth challenger since 1966 to unseat an incumbent in what had become known as "the Bloody Eighth".

Upon arriving in Washington, McCloskey sought a seat on the Appropriations Committee, but was rebuffed by then-Majority Leader Jim Wright, who told him first-term members of Congress rarely obtain a seat on that committee. McCloskey instead was given a seat on the Armed Services Committee, where he served throughout his congressional career, and gained a reputation as one of the committee's most liberal members. He was a vocal critic of Pentagon spending during his first term. Knowing he would be a target in 1984, he returned to the district often, and focused on areas of importance to his constituents, such economic development, uses for high-sulfur coal mined in the district, and farm credit. In the 1984 contest for the Democratic nomination for President, McCloskey supported Colorado Senator Gary Hart over Walter Mondale and Jesse Jackson.[2]

1984 re-election and controversial recount

After McCloskey accumulated a liberal voting record by opposing President Reagan over 80% of the time during his first year in office, Republicans recruited a twenty-eight-year-old, two-term conservative state representative Rick McIntyre to challenge McCloskey in 1984. McIntyre, however, hailed from small Lawrence County in the northeastern part of the district, and spent much of the election boosting his profile in the populous Evansville area. McCloskey, however, spent much of his first term tending politically to Evansville, and retained the support of the still popular Vandeveer. Ultimately, McCloskey ran up large margins in Evansville and Vanderburgh County.

However, President Reagan carried the district 61% to 38%. Buoyed by these strong coattails, McIntyre trailed McCloskey by only 72 votes after the initial vote count. A tabulation error in two precincts of one county, however, resulted in an overcounting of McCloskey votes, and Indiana's Secretary of State (a Republican) quickly certified McIntyre as the winner by 34 votes, without checking other counties, even though a recount in another county showed McCloskey with an overall lead of 72 votes.[3] After a recount, McIntyre was up by 418 votes,[4] but more than 4,800 ballots were not recounted for technical reasons. The Democratic-controlled House refused to seat either McIntyre or McCloskey and conducted their own recount.[3] A task force, consisting of two Democrats and one Republican, hired auditors from the U.S. General Accounting Office to do the counting. The recount dragged on for nearly four months, and McCloskey survived three Republican-sponsored floor votes to seat McIntyre. The task force instructed the auditors to ignore many of the "technicalities" that resulted in Indiana officials throwing out ballots. In the end, the House seated McCloskey on May 1, 1985 after declaring him the winner by just four votes (116,645 to 116,641). The vote, 230–195, was largely along partisan lines and in response every Republican House member momentarily marched out of the chamber in symbolic protest.

Subsequent service

99th Congress

Once sworn in for a second term, McCloskey used his position on the Armed Services Committee to prohibit job contracting at the Crane Weapons Center. Following the 1986 U.S. airstrikes on Libya, McCloskey sponsored legislation blocking the Marine Corps from buying bulldozers from a company partially owned by the Libyan government.

Meanwhile, McIntyre sought a rematch in 1986. However, he still faced a geographical disadvantage, and emotions over the bitter recount had faded. McCloskey took advantage of his incumbency and touted his work for Crane, even bringing in Les Aspin to promise the district Crane would not be closed. McCloskey was also able to leverage his incumbency into positive publicity after investigating possible PCB contamination from a Union Carbide plant on the district's border. Seeking to be more than a candidate who was robbed of victory, McIntyre unsuccessfully tried to find an issue he could capitalize on, and ended up criticizing McCloskey's tenure as mayor of Bloomington and his criticisms of the Vietnam War in the 1970s. Despite having no evidence in support of his claim, McIntyre alleged McCloskey had once smoked opium. These false allegations backfired, and without having to fight Reagan's coattails, McCloskey won the rematch by a comfortable margin, 106,662 (53%) to 93,586 (46.5%), carrying nine the district's sixteen counties, including another convincing victory in Evansville.

100th Congress

By his third term, in the 100th Congress, McCloskey had risen to chair of the Postal Personnel and Modernization subcommittee. From this position, he held hearings to determine if toxic biological agents, such as anthrax, should be banned from the U.S. Mail. After investigating the issue, and discovering such a ban could be damaging to medical research, McCloskey adopted a position of strict enforcement of the existing regulations. McCloskey, from his position on the Armed Services Committee, played a high-profile role in the battle over President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative, and argued SDI was a violation of the 1972 U.S.–Soviet ABM Treaty. Following a night-time collision of two military helicopters in neighboring Fort Campbell, Kentucky, McCloskey also launched a probe into military flight accidents linked to the use of night vision goggles. McCloskey was re-elected with 62% of the vote, his highest percentage, in 1988 against little-known newspaper publisher John L. Meyers, who shared a similar name to neighboring Congressman John T. Meyers. Despite his liberal voting record, McCloskey's attention to local issues and efforts to bring money back to the district earned him the support of both Evansville daily newspapers in the 1988 campaign.

101st Congress

In the 101st Congress McCloskey authored a bill enacted requiring a disclaimer on any non-governmental mailings that use an emblem or other identifying symbol to mislead consumers into believing the mailing is a government document. In addition to barring these deceptive mailings, McCloskey sponsored legislation, also enacted, requiring child-proof containers for any potentially harmful drugs and household products sent through the mail. McCloskey moderated his military spending views somewhat in his fourth term, voting against halting production of the B-2 stealth bomber and opposing efforts to eliminate the development of the V-22 Osprey helicopter. Not uncoincidentally, the hybrid airplane-helicopter's engines were built in Indiana.

Facing Evansville coal-mining executive Richard Mourdock in the 1990 election, McCloskey was reelected with 55% of the vote. Mourdock capitalized on an anti-incumbent trend and criticized McCloskey for his votes for a congressional pay raise and tax increases.

102nd Congress

In the 102nd Congress McCloskey opposed the use of force against Iraq in 1991. However, it was at this time when McCloskey first became a leader in the effort to take strong action, including military intervention, in the Balkans. McCloskey would maintain a passion and interest in the region for the remainder of his life. McCloskey was critical of President George H. W. Bush's "hands-off" approach to the conflict, and later voiced similar criticisms of President Clinton's reluctance to engage in a solution.

1992 saw McCloskey's first congressional election in which his hometown of Bloomington was completely within the boundaries of the 8th District. McCloskey faced a rematch with Mourdock. By this time, the anti-incumbent sentiment in the nation was even stronger, but McCloskey retained his seat with 53% of the vote. McCloskey's lower 1992 margin, coming at the same time that Bill Clinton became the first Democratic presidential candidate to win the 8th District since 1964 and then-Governor Evan Bayh carried all of the district's counties in his re-election bid, was partly attributed to McCloskey's 65 overdrafts at the House bank. McCloskey's efforts to save jobs at the district's Crane Naval Surface Weapons Warfare Center helped secure his re-election.

1994 election defeat

In 1994, McCloskey's Republican opponent was John Hostettler, a then little-known engineer from the Evansville suburbs who claimed the Republican nomination on the strength of strong support from area churches. Ultimately, McCloskey lost to Hostettler, 48% to 52%. He was one of 34 Democratic incumbents unseated that year. During the 103rd Congress, McCloskey supported the assault weapons ban, a vote which undermined his blue-collar labor and rural support. Hostettler sought to tie McCloskey to Clinton, referring to the Congressman as "Frank McClinton". Unlike in previous elections, where he ran up large margins, he only carried Vanderburgh County by a very small margin. McCloskey narrowly lost Martin county, home to the Crane NSW center he had spent his congressional career fighting to keep open. In the end, McCloskey's years of devotion and advocacy on behalf of his district could not overcome his liberal voting record, accumulated over six terms, the unpopularity of President Clinton, and the voters' tiring of long-time Democratic control of Congress.

Election history

Year Office Election Subject Party Votes Pct Opponent Party Votes Pct
1994 Congress, 8th district General Frank McCloskey (Inc.) Democratic 84,857 47.6% John Hostettler Republican 93,529 52.4%
1992 Congress, 8th district General Frank McCloskey (Inc.) Democratic 125,244 53.0% Richard Mourdock Republican 108,054 45.7%
1990 Congress, 8th district General Frank McCloskey (Inc.) Democratic 97,465 54.7% Richard Mourdock Republican 80,645 45.3%
1988 Congress, 8th district General Frank McCloskey (Inc.) Democratic 141,355 61.8% John L. Myers Republican 87,321 38.2%
1986 Congress, 8th district General Frank McCloskey (Inc.) Democratic 106,662 53.3% Rick McIntyre Republican 93,586 46.7%
1984 Congress, 8th district General Frank McCloskey (Inc.) Democratic 116,645 50.0% Rick McIntyre Republican 116,641 50.0%
1982 Congress, 8th district General Frank McCloskey Democratic 100,592 51.7% H. Joel Deckard (Inc.) Republican 94,127 48.3%

Efforts to bring peace to the Balkans

While on a fact-finding mission to Croatia during the Croatian War of Independence, McCloskey was one of the first outsiders to arrive in the Croatian village of Voćin within hours after the Voćin massacre in 1991. After witnessing the atrocities in Voćin (McCloskey was the first to use the word genocide to describe the activities in the disintegrating Yugoslavia), McCloskey made the issue of bringing peace to the Balkans his primary issue, even though his stance on the war in the Balkans put him at odds with members of his own party, including the Clinton White House.

On a Sunday morning in December 1991, McCloskey got into a car and drove to Voćin and surrounding villages, where Vojislav Seselj's withdrawing Chetniks had murdered 53 people, most of them elderly men and women.[5] McCloskey had a close look at every mangled body. Some of them had been shot in the head, others had been burned to death, and at least one had been dismembered with a chainsaw. The next morning McCloskey held a press conference at the Hotel Intercontinental in Zagreb. There were only a small number of American reporters, and about the only coverage of note was in USA Today. Mark Dalmish, the CNN reporter in Zagreb refused to attend McCloskey's press conference because he didn't want to give the Congressman a "soapbox".[6] But the story was big in Europe, especially in Germany. During the press conference McCloskey called the massacre at Voćin, and all the others that had happened in Croatia, genocide. He was the first to put it in that context and like a lot of other things McCloskey said and did, the reference to genocide caused considerable consternation at the State Department. In fact, State did not decide to call these murders genocide until much later, after the deaths of a quarter million people in three countries.

It was after Voćin that McCloskey became an outspoken critic of the Serbian campaign and of his colleagues in Washington who continued to insist the conflict in Croatia was only a "civil war", and something in which the U.S. had no business interfering. McCloskey went immediately to Belgrade and accused Slobodan Milosevic of war crimes to his face. After that he went back to Washington, contacting State Department officials at the highest levels to which he had access. He gave Deputy Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger a complete briefing, and wondered why nothing was done. When the same Serbian units that conducted the massacres in Croatia began to spread their grim work around Bosnia-Herzegovina, McCloskey went to have a look for himself.

In 1992, after returning from his first trip to Mostar in Bosnia as a guest of the Croatian American Association, McCloskey held a press conference at the Foreign Press Bureau at Hotel Split. In the presence of a State Department representative, a U.S. Marine Corps officer, and members of the international press corps, McCloskey called for U.S. led NATO air strikes against Serbian positions in Bosnia-Herzegovina as a way of ending the war.

When it became clear to him that support would not be forthcoming from either his party or administration leaders, McCloskey broke with the mainstream Democratic party and made history by looking Warren Christopher in the eye during a hearing on the Balkans and demanding the Secretary of State's resignation for his conduct of policy toward Bosnia-Herzegovina.

In December 1993, at the request of Gojko Susak, then Croatian Minister of Defense, McCloskey went to Geneva and helped broker an uneasy peace between Croats and Muslims fighting each other in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Once again, McCloskey was the first, but this time the State Department followed his lead and the peace became permanent. Sadly, when the Washington Agreement was actually signed between Croats and Muslims in 1994, McCloskey was not invited. Undaunted, he elbowed his way into the Old Executive Office Building to witness the ceremony, and said afterwards President Clinton had grudgingly acknowledged his presence.

Part of the reason for his distance from his fellow Democrat may have had to do with the fact that McCloskey had handed President Clinton his very first foreign policy defeat. But that particular battle was the beginning of a movement in Congress that transformed the British-backed Clinton policy toward the Balkans. By continually drawing attention to "ethnic cleansing" in the villages and towns of ex-Yugoslavia, McCloskey managed to gain the support of a majority of Democrats who, on every issue but this one, remained loyal to the administration's position on non-intervention.

McCloskey brokered a broad coalition of Democrats and Republicans who had listened to his daily calls from the floor of the U.S. House of representatives to stop the genocide. They backed legislation called the McCloskey–Gilman amendment to the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 (HR 4301, 104th Congress), which was intended to lift the arms embargo first against Bosnia and then Croatia. Despite tough opposition, the McCloskey–Gilman amendment passed the House of Representatives 244–178 on June 9, 1994. In the U.S. Senate, a similar bill was sponsored by Bob Dole and Joe Lieberman. It was defeated by a 50–50 vote on July 1, 1994 (Senate Amendment 1851 to S. 2182, 104th Congress). In 1995, after McCloskey was out of Congress, both houses of the 105th Congress passed a bill to lift the U.S. arms embargo on Bosnia by veto-proof, two-thirds majorities. President Clinton did veto the legislation in August 1995 while Congress was out of session. By the time Congress had returned, Clinton had launched a diplomatic initiative that would result in the Dayton Peace Accords.

During his tenure in Congress, McCloskey made many trips to Bosnia, and spent his post-congressional years working to bring peace and stability to Bosnia and the Balkans. Samantha Power recounted these efforts in her 2002 book, A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide.[7]

Life after Congress

Following his 1994 defeat, McCloskey was elected chair of the Monroe County Democratic Party. In addition to his work on achieving peace in the Balkans, he was named director of Kosovo programs for the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs in 2002.

McCloskey Fellowship

Indiana University's Russian and East European Institute and the NDI announced an endowment at Indiana University in McCloskey's honor in 2005.[8] The McCloskey Fellowship brings one scholar every year from the Balkans to Indiana University and Washington, D.C., to conduct academic research, or is awarded to one Indiana University student whose work focuses on the Balkans or residents of the Balkan region.[9]

Death

Rep. McCloskey died in Bloomington on November 2, 2003, following a year-long battle with bladder cancer. As a veteran of the United States Air Force (1957 to 1961), McCloskey's cremated remains were interred at Arlington National Cemetery. Rep. McCloskey and his wife, Roberta, were married for over 41 years and had two children — Helen and Mark. The Woodbridge Station United States Post Office in Bloomington is now named after Rep. McCloskey, who served on the Post Office and Civil Service Committee in the House.[10] A part of Indiana Highway 45 from Bloomington heading west is also named for McCloskey. In Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herzegovina, one of the new bridges over river Miljacka is named as "The bridge of congressman McCloskey" in honor of his deeds and help to the country during the wars in Balkans. McCloskey's widow Roberta died from cancer on February 2, 2005, at the age of 61 in Bloomington.[11] In his honor, representatives in Bosnia named a bridge in downtown after McCloskey.

References

  1. ^ "Past IACT Presidents 1962-2010". Indiana Association of Cities and Towns. November 5, 2008. Archived from the original on September 11, 2012.
  2. ^ David S. Broder; Lee Kennedy (May 3, 1984). "Fellow 'New Generation' Officeholders Give Hart Chilly Reception". The Washington Post.
  3. ^ a b Charlie Cook (June 11, 2005). "Close Races Spotlight An Ugly, Broken Mess". The Cook Political Report. Archived from the original on July 3, 2008.
  4. ^ "House Refuses to Seat Republican of Indiana". The New York Times. Associate Press. February 8, 1985. p. A32. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  5. ^ "International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia | United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia". Un.org. December 21, 2017. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  6. ^ "Chapter 4: What Happened in Vocin". Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  7. ^ "Samantha Power Interview (A Problem From Hell)". Identity Theory. June 1, 2002. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  8. ^ "McCloskeys' legacy to continue through research fund being established at IU". Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  9. ^ Information for Donors, Indiana University Russian and East European Institute Archived 2010-02-06 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "Public Law 108-151, 108th Congress" (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  11. ^ "Friends remember Roberta McCloskey". The Herald Times. Bloomington, Indiana. February 4, 2005. Retrieved December 3, 2018 – via Indiana University News Room.

External links

{1{s-off}}
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
H. Joel Deckard
United States Representative for the 8th District of Indiana
1983–1995
Succeeded by
John Hostettler
Preceded by
John H. "Jack" Hooker, Jr.
Mayor of Bloomington, Indiana
1972–1983
Succeeded by
Tomilea Allison

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov.

This page was last edited on 4 October 2019, at 14:53
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