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Frank Birch (referee)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Frank Earl Birch (November 11, 1883) was a college football and basketball referee[1] who first introduced signals.[2][3] In 1920, he passed out cards to coaches and the press with a code of twelve gestures.[4][5] He was a graduate of Earlham College.[6] He married Margaret Johnson.[7] He was also once mayor of Sterling, Illinois.[8]


  1. ^ Sperber, Murray A. (21 June 1993). Shake Down the Thunder: The Creation of Notre Dame Football. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253215684 – via Google Books.
  2. ^ "What's That Referee up to? (October 3, 1954)".
  3. ^ "De Palma Again Shatters Los Angeles Track Mark (March 21, 1920)".
  4. ^ " - Why does arms up signal a TD?".
  5. ^ Seton, Ernest Thompson; Scott, Hugh Lenox; Powers, Lillian Delger (1918). Sign Talk: A Universal Signal Code, Without Apparatus, for Use in the Army, the Navy, Camping, Hunting, and Daily Life. Doubleday, Page & Company. p. 233 – via Internet Archive.
  6. ^ "The Michigan Alumnus". UM Libraries. 21 June 2017 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ "Frank Birch, Grid Official, Marries Minnesota Girl". Chicago Tribune. July 3, 1918.
  8. ^ "The Political Graveyard: Mayors and Postmasters of Sterling, Illinois".
This page was last edited on 15 September 2021, at 05:44
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