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Francisco Javier Castaños, 1st Duke of Bailén

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Duke of Bailén

General Francisco Javier Castaños (Museo del Prado).jpg
President of the Regency Council
In office
1 February 1810 – 29 May 1810
MonarchFernando VII
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byPedro de Quevedo y Quintano
1st Speaker of the House of Peers
In office
10 April 1834 – 12 July 1835
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byThe Duke of Ahumada
Personal details
Francisco Javier Castaños y Urioste

22 April 1758
Madrid, Spain
Died22 April 1852(1852-04-22) (aged 93)
Madrid, Spain
Resting placePantheon of Illustrious Men (1852–1963)
Parish Church of the Incarnation, Bailén (1963–present)
ProfessionArmy general and politician
AwardsKnight of the Order of the Golden Fleece
Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III
Military service
Allegiance Spain
Branch/serviceSpanish Army
Years of service1774–1852
RankCaptain general
Battles/warsWar of the Pyrenees
Anglo-Spanish War (1796–1808)
Napoleonic Wars
Peninsular War
The Surrender of Bailén, by José Casado del Alisal, Prado Museum, Madrid, Spain. Castaños is in the White uniform.
The Surrender of Bailén, by José Casado del Alisal, Prado Museum, Madrid, Spain. Castaños is in the White uniform.

Francisco Javier Castaños Aragorri Urioste y Olavide, 1st Duke of Bailén (22 April 1758 – 24 September 1852) was a Spanish general and politician who excelled during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. From July to September 1834, he served as the first president of the Senate of Spain, at that time called House of Peers.

Castaños was one of the most important military officers during the Peninsular War, reaching the position of Chair of the Regency Council of Spain and the Indies (de facto head of state) in 1810. In 1833, Queen Regent Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies, in the name of her daughter, Queen Isabella II, granted him with the title of Duke of Bailén, to honour his actions in the Peninsular War and, specially, in the Battle of Bailén, where the Napoleonic army was defeated at open field for the first time, which also caused the flight of Spain from King Joseph Bonaparte.


Castaños was born at Madrid.[citation needed]

Castaños is remembered for his victory over the French under Dupont, whom he surrounded and compelled to surrender at the decisive Battle of Bailen in 1808, being on that moment in command of the "Army of the South", the biggest Spanish military unit during the Napoleonic War. Though just months later lead his army to a decisive defeat at the Battle of Tudela. After this he served under Wellington in several engagements, and was commander of the Spanish army, if required, to invade France in 1815.

Castaños died at Madrid in 1852.[citation needed]


  • Esdaile, Charles J. (2003). The Peninsular War: A New History. MacMillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-6231-7.

External links

This page was last edited on 13 June 2021, at 14:28
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