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Fox Television Stations

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fox Television Stations, LLC
Fox Television Stations Group, Inc.
Subsidiary
IndustryBroadcast television
Predecessors
FoundedApril 1986; 34 years ago (1986-04)
Founders
Headquarters,
Area served
Key people
Jack Abernethy, CEO
ParentFox Corporation
Divisions
WebsiteFox Corporation

Fox Television Stations, LLC (FTS; alternately Fox Television Stations Group, LLC), is a group of television stations located within the United States, which are owned-and-operated by the Fox Broadcasting Company, a subsidiary of the Fox Corporation.

FTS produced the first 25 seasons of Fox's program COPS (through Fox Television Stations Productions), until it moved to Spike (now Paramount Network) in the 2013–14 season. It also oversees the MyNetworkTV service and has a half-interest in the Movies! digital subchannel network, which is shared with Weigel Broadcasting.

History

Foundations

The Fox Television Center in New York City was opened by DuMont in 1954 as the DuMont Tele-Centre
The Fox Television Center in New York City was opened by DuMont in 1954 as the DuMont Tele-Centre

The Fox Broadcasting Company's foundations were laid in March 1985 through News Corporation's $255 million purchase of a 50% interest in TCF Holdings, the parent company of the 20th Century Fox film studio. In May 1985, News Corporation, a media company owned by Australian publishing magnate Rupert Murdoch that had mainly served as a newspaper publisher at the time of the TCF Holdings deal, agreed to pay $2.55 billion to acquire independent television stations in six major U.S. cities from the John Kluge-run broadcasting company Metromedia: WNEW (now WNYW) in New York City, WTTG in Washington, D.C., KTTV in Los Angeles, KRIV in Houston, WFLD in Chicago, and KRLD-TV (now KDAF) in Dallas. A seventh station, ABC affiliate WCVB in Boston, was part of the original transaction but was spun off to the Hearst Broadcasting subsidiary of the Hearst Corporation in a separate, concurrent deal as part of a right of first refusal related to that station's 1982 sale to Metromedia.[1][2][3]

Because Metromedia (originally known as Metropolitan Broadcasting at its founding) was spun off from the failed DuMont Television Network, radio personality Clarke Ingram has suggested that the Fox network is a revival or at least a linear descendant of DuMont.[4] The former Metromedia stations WNEW (originally known as WABD) and WTTG were two of the three original owned-and-operated stations of the DuMont network, and the former base of DuMont's operations, the DuMont Tele-Centre in Manhattan, eventually became the present-day Fox Television Center.

On December 31, 1986, WXNE-TV in Boston (later renamed WFXT on January 19, 1987), became the seventh Fox-owned property,[5] and the first to be acquired separately from News Corporation's 1986 purchase of Metromedia's six television stations. However, as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) prohibited the common ownership of a television station and a newspaper in the same market, News Corporation had to apply for and was granted a temporary waiver in order to retain WFXT and the newspaper it had also published, the Boston Herald. In 1989, Fox placed WFXT in a trust company; the following year, it sold the station to the Boston Celtics' ownership group. News Corporation then later sold the Boston Herald in February 1994, eliminating the potential regulatory conflict with reacquiring WFXT.[6] On October 5, 1994, Fox announced it would exercise the purchase option;[7] it retook control of WFXT on July 7, 1995.[8]

In 1990, FTS bought KSTU in Salt Lake City, making it the first network-owned station in Utah.

New World Communications deal

Sign for WAGA-TV in Atlanta
The New World Communications deal affected WAGA-TV in Atlanta, which switched to Fox after a longtime affiliation with CBS

FTS gained a bulk of stations through the 1997 purchase of New World Communications, succeeding a 1994 business deal between the two companies which led to all of New World's stations switching from other networks to Fox during 1994–95.[9] A significant factor that resulted in Fox's affiliation with, and later purchase of, New World Communications was Fox acquiring TV rights to the National Football League (NFL), primarily covering games involving teams in the National Football Conference (NFC).[9] Because NFL games generate high ratings, owning these stations outright allows FTS to also collect the local advertising revenue, as well as use them as leverage during retransmission consent negotiations with cable and satellite providers.[10]

The originally 1994 affiliation deal with New World also triggered a chain of affiliation changes across the country and other multi-station affiliation deals for the next couple of years. Renaissance Broadcasting had previously sold WATL to FTS in 1993 to became a Fox owned-and-operated station, the first network-owned station in Atlanta. FTS was in the planning stages for a news department at the station, and WATL had even gone as far as hiring a news director. However, when the New World affiliation deal was signed, it was agreed that New World's and Atlanta's longtime CBS affiliate WAGA-TV would switch over to the Fox network. As a result, Fox cancelled the plans for a newscast on WATL and put the station up for sale.

Renaissance Broadcasting had also sold KDVR in Denver, along with its satellite station KFCT in Fort Collins, Colorado, to FTS on November 15, 1994, in exchange for acquiring KDAF in Dallas. One of original core stations that FTS acquired from Metromedia, it was set to lose Fox programming to that market's longtime CBS affiliate, New World's KDFW.[11]

New World was also expanded its own broadcasting holdings in 1994 by buying other stations groups, but its combined purchases ran afoul with the FCC's media ownership rules at the time prohibiting a single company from owning more than twelve television stations nationwide. New World thus established a trust company in preparation for its sale of WGHP in High Point, North Carolina and WBRC in Birmingham, Alabama, which it would place the stations into in September and October 1994 respectively.[12][13] Under the arrangement, New World owned the licenses of WBRC and WGHP, while its previous owner Citicasters continued to control their operations under outsourcing agreements. In April 1995, Citicasters transferred the operations of WBRC and WGHP to the FTS, which assumed operational control through time brokerage agreements with New World. Both stations were sold directly to Fox three months later on July 22, 1995.[14][15][16]

FTS also acquired WHBQ-TV in Memphis in an unrelated deal on August 18, 1994.[17]

Among the other affiliation changes, most notable was Westinghouse Broadcasting's affiliation deal with CBS in 1995. This set off a complex trade of Philadelphia stations between CBS/Westinghouse and NBC; FTS instead independently bought its own Philadelphia station, WTXF-TV.

When New World's sale to Fox closed in 1997, ten stations became Fox owned-and-operated stations: KSAZ-TV in Phoenix; WTVT in Tampa, Florida; WAGA-TV in Atlanta; WJBK in Detroit; KTBC in Austin, Texas; KDFW in Dallas; WDAF-TV in Kansas City, Missouri; KTVI in St. Louis; WJW in Cleveland; and WITI in Milwaukee.

Chris-Craft acquisition

The studios for KRIV and KTXH in Houston, one of the duopolies FTS created after the Chris-Craft acquisition and its subsequent trades
The studios for KRIV and KTXH in Houston, one of the duopolies FTS created after the Chris-Craft acquisition and its subsequent trades

FTS gained stations through the 2000 acquisition of the Chris-Craft/United group, which gave Fox ownership of several stations then affiliated with the UPN network, and also created several duopolies (two stations in the same market owned by the same company).[18] When the deal was finalized in 2001, this immediately created duopolies (two stations in the same market owned by the same company) between Fox and former Chris-Craft stations in markets such as Phoenix (KSAZ and KUTP), Los Angeles (KTTV and KCOP-TV) and New York City (WNYW and WWOR-TV).

Although former Chris-Craft station KTVX would have also created a duopoly with Fox station KSTU in Salt Lake City, FCC regulations at the time prohibited one company from owning two of the four highest-rated stations in a single market. FTS thus traded both KTVX and the former Chris-Craft station KMOL (now WOAI-TV) in San Antonio to Clear Channel Communications in 2001 in exchange for WFTC in Minneapolis, creating a duopoly for FTS with former Chris-Craft station KMSP-TV. Because KMSP had the stronger signal due to being a VHF station, while WFTC was a UHF station, FTS decided to switch the affiliations in 2002, with Fox programming going to KMSP and WFTC taking over the UPN affiliation.[19]

FTS then bought KDFI in Dallas in 2000 and WPWR-TV in Chicago in 2002 to create duopolies with Fox-owned stations, KDFW and WFLD, respectively. FTS also made two other trades in 2002 to create more duopolies. Former Chris-Craft station KPTV in Portland, Oregon was traded to the Meredith Corporation in exchange for WOFL in Orlando, Florida, creating a duopoly with former Chris-Craft station WRBW. FTS then traded former Chris-Craft station KBHK (now KBCW) in San Francisco to CBS Television Stations for UPN stations KTXH in Houston and WDCA in Washington, D.C., creating duopolies with original Fox-owned stations KRIV and WTTG, receptively. WUTB in Baltimore was the only acquired Chris-Craft station during this time that FTS did not trade away or create a duopoly with.

Formation of MyNetworkTV

The studios for KDFW and KDFI in Dallas, the latter being one of the core MyNetworkTV owned-and-operated stations
The studios for KDFW and KDFI in Dallas, the latter being one of the core MyNetworkTV owned-and-operated stations

The Fox-owned UPN affiliates were not included in the UPN/WB merger (The CW), which was announced on January 23, 2006. Soon after, these stations removed references to UPN from their on-air branding and websites. On February 22, 2006, FTS announced that all nine of their non-Fox outlets will be charter affiliates of a new service known as MyNetworkTV, which commenced operations on September 5, 2006, with telenovela programming that was original to be syndicated.[20] On May 23, 2016, it was announced that one of the Fox-owned former UPN affiliates that were left out of the initial negotiations for CW affiliation a decade earlier, MyNetworkTV owned-and-operated station WPWR in Chicago, would be taking over the market's affiliation with the network from rival WGN-TV in September of that year. MyNetworkTV remains on WPWR as a secondary affiliation.

On December 21, 2007, FTS announced that it would sell nine of its stations to Local TV, LLC, a division of Oak Hill Capital Partners.[21] Six of the stations that were sold were ex-New World stations, including the two stations that were first acquired by FTS directly in 1995 (WGHP in High Point, North Carolina and WBRC in Birmingham, Alabama) and four via the 1997 merger (WDAF-TV in Kansas City, Missouri; KTVI in St. Louis; WJW (TV) in Cleveland; and WITI in Milwaukee. The other three were KSTU in Salt Lake City, and KDVR in Denver and with its satellite station KFCT in Fort Collins, Colorado. The transaction was completed in 2008.

In January 2009, NBC Owned Television Stations and FTS set up the first Local News Service with their Philadelphia stations after testing since the summer 2008. Fox and NBC then added other markets where they both own stations.[22]

On May 15, 2012, as part of a five-year affiliation agreement extension between Fox and Sinclair Broadcast Group's 19 Fox affiliates (including company flagship WBFF) that will run through 2017, Fox included an option for Sinclair to purchase WUTB, exercisable from July 1, 2012 to March 31, 2013. On November 29, 2012, Sinclair exercised its option to purchase WUTB through Deerfield Media.[23][24] On May 6, 2013, the FCC granted its approval of WUTB to Deerfield Media, which was formally consummated on June 1.[25]

Expansion into more NFL markets

Sign for KTVU in the San Francisco Bay Area
Longtime Fox affiliate KTVU in the San Francisco Bay Area was one of the several stations in NFL markets that FTS acquired during the 2010s

On January 28, 2013, FTS announced that 17 of their stations would be affiliating with new subchannel network, Movies!, which is a joint venture between FTS and Weigel Broadcasting, on their subchannels.[26] That same day, the company announced it would be acquiring the Charlotte duopoly of CW affiliate WJZY and MyNetworkTV affiliate WMYT-TV from Capitol Broadcasting Company.[27] The deal was approved by the FCC on March 11[28] and completed on April 17.[29][30] As part of the deal, WJZY became a Fox owned-and-operated station on July 1.[citation needed] The station community believed that the Charlotte station's purchase by FTS is proof that Fox is interested in owning a TV station in NFL markets (specifically those with NFC teams, as Charlotte is) to up the station groups' "bargaining power in retransmission consent negotiations with cable, satellite and telco operators."[10]

As part of the restructuring that stemmed from the News Corporation/21st Century Fox split, it was announced on July 8, 2013 that 20th Television, which was until that time under FTS, will operate under the management of 20th Century Fox Television.[31]

On June 24, 2014, FTS announced it would acquire its existing San Francisco Bay Area affiliate KTVU, along with its duopoly partner KICU-TV, from Cox Media Group in exchange for WFXT in Boston and WHBQ-TV in Memphis.[32][33][34] The station sale/trade was completed on October 8, 2014.[35] Fox's motivation for acquiring KTVU was that it was another NFL market with an NFC team.[32]

In addition to FTS's aforementioned purchases of Charlotte's WJZY in 2013 and the San Francisco Bay Area's KTVU in 2014, Variety reported that Fox is also interested in acquiring stations in the following other NFL markets: Seattle and St. Louis (the latter's KTVI had previously been owned by Fox, but was included in the 2007 sale to Local TV;[10] with the St. Louis Rams relocating to Los Angeles starting with the 2016 NFL season, there is no word as to whether or not FTS' pursuit of a station in the St. Louis market has diminished). While discussions with Seattle's Fox affiliate KCPQ and its owner Tribune Broadcasting remained ongoing, Fox struck a deal on September 19, 2014, to buy KBCB, a station in nearby Bellingham, for $10 million;[36] the purchase, submitted for FCC approval on October 3,[37][38] was described as a "strategic option" for Fox by an insider.[39] Tribune then agreed on October 17 to extend its affiliation agreement for KCPQ through July 2018, and pay increased reverse compensation fees to Fox for the broadcasting of the network's programming beginning in January 2015.[40] Fox's application to acquire KBCB was dismissed by the FCC on November 20, 2014.[41]

On January 20, 2015, it was announced that Fox Television Stations would be a charter launch partner for Buzzr, a new digital multicast network from Debmar-Mercury and FremantleMedia North America devoted to classic game shows, which launched that June.[42] Later in the year, FTS also agreed to carry Weigel Broadcasting's Heroes & Icons network on subchannels of 11 major market stations.[43]

On April 30, 2017, it was reported that 21st Century Fox was in talks to purchase Tribune Media in a joint venture with the Blackstone Group.[44][45] On May 7, 2017, it was reported that Sinclair Broadcast Group was nearing a deal to purchase Tribune Media,[46][47] and that 21st Century Fox had dropped its bid for the company.[48][49] The deal was officially announced the next day.[50] (However, on August 9, 2018, Tribune canceled the Sinclair deal.)[51] On August 2, 2017, it was reported that 21st Century Fox was in talks to form a similar joint venture with Ion Media in an effort to counter Sinclair and displace Fox affiliations from their stations; analysts felt that the proposed partnership was meant as a bargaining ploy against Sinclair, as it would have to make significant investments into the acquired stations to make them profitable and capable of producing local news programming (Ion stations have historically had few employees or local infrastructure), and that Fox risked losing viewers through these transitions.[52][53][54]

In January 2018, the Financial Times reported that FTS was finalizing a deal to acquire as many as 10 Fox affiliates from Sinclair, as part of an effort to reach FCC approval of its proposed acquisition of Tribune Media. The deal would likely include Seattle's KCPQ (as Sinclair already owns ABC affiliate KOMO-TV there), KOKH-TV in Oklahoma City (Tribune already owns KFOR-TV), KSTU-TV in Salt Lake City (Sinclair already owns KUTV), KTVI in St. Louis (Sinclair owns KDNL) and Tribune's Fox/CW duopoly of KDVR and KWGN in Denver. This deal would bring several former O&Os previously divested to Local TV LLC (which was acquired by Tribune) back under Fox ownership.[55][56]

On May 9, 2018, Fox announced it would purchase KCPQ, KDVR, KSTU, KTXL in Sacramento, KSWB-TV in San Diego, WJW in Cleveland and WSFL-TV, the CW affiliate for Miami-Fort Lauderdale. The move would give Fox stations in the home markets for the Seattle Seahawks, Denver Broncos, Cleveland Browns and Miami Dolphins as the network takes over the Thursday Night Football package from CBS and NBC.[57][58] After Tribune terminated its merger agreement with Sinclair on August 9, 2018, however, the sale of the seven aforementioned stations to FTS was likewise nullified.

Fox Corporation subsidiary

On December 14, 2017, after rumors of such a sale, The Walt Disney Company announced that it would purchase FTS's parent company, 21st Century Fox for $52.4 billion, plus the assumption of $13.7 billion in debt by Fox, subject to government approval. FTS, along with several other assets was spun off into Fox Corporation, a company owned by the Murdoch family.[59] The deal was completed on March 20, 2019.[60]

With the loss of Twentieth Television in the deal, Fox Stations set up its own syndication arm, Fox First Run,[61] despite some of their syndicated shows being distributed in conjunction with Warner Bros. Domestic Television Distribution.[62]

On November 5, 2019, Nexstar Media Group announced an agreement to sell WITI in Milwaukee (effectively a re-purchase) and KCPQ and KZJO in Seattle to Fox Television Stations, and would purchase from Fox WJZY and WMYT-TV in Charlotte. This gives Fox additional two bigger NFL team market stations.[63]

The station group launched its first online streaming service, Fox Soul, an African American focused ad-supported streaming channel on January 13, 2020.[64]

Units

Stations

Stations are arranged alphabetically by state and city of license.

Current

Notes:

  • (**) – Indicates an original Fox-owned station from the network's inception in 1986.
  • (++) – Indicates a station owned by New World Communications prior to its acquisition by News Corporation in 1997.
  • (¤¤) – Indicates a station owned by Chris-Craft Industries/BHC prior to its acquisition by News Corporation in 2001.
City of license / Market Station Channel
TV (RF)
Owned since Network affiliation
Phoenix KSAZ-TV ++ 10 (10) 1997 Fox
KUTP ¤¤ 45 (26) 2001 MyNetworkTV
Los Angeles KTTV ** 11 (11) 1986 Fox
KCOP ¤¤ 13 (13) 2001 MyNetworkTV
Oakland - San Jose - San Francisco KTVU 2 (31) 2014 Fox
KICU-TV 36 (36) 2014 Independent
Washington, D.C. WTTG ** 5 (36) 1986 Fox
WDCA 20 (36) 2002 MyNetworkTV
Ocala - Gainesville, FL WOGX
(semi-satellite of WOFL)
51 (31) 2002 Fox
Orlando - Daytona Beach WOFL 35 (33) 2002 Fox
WRBW ¤¤ 65 (28) 2001 MyNetworkTV
Tampa - St. Petersburg WTVT ++ 13 (12) 1997 Fox
Atlanta WAGA-TV ++ 5 (27) 1997 Fox
Chicago WFLD ** 32 (24) 1986 Fox
WPWR-TV 50 (24) 2002 MyNetworkTV
Detroit WJBK ++ 2 (7) 1997 Fox
Minneapolis - St. Paul KMSP-TV ¤¤ 9 (9) 2001 Fox
WFTC 9.2 (29) 2002 MyNetworkTV
KFTC
(satellite of WFTC)
26 (26) 2002 MyNetworkTV
New York City WNYW ** 5 (27) 1986 Fox
WWOR-TV ¤¤ 9 (25) 2001 MyNetworkTV
Philadelphia WTXF-TV 29 (31) 1995 Fox
Austin KTBC ++ 7 (7) 1997 Fox
Dallas - Fort Worth KDFW ++ 4 (35) 1997 Fox
KDFI 27 (27) 2000 MyNetworkTV
Houston KRIV ** 26 (26) 1986 Fox
KTXH 20 (19) 2002 MyNetworkTV
Tacoma - Seattle KCPQ 13 (13) 2020 Fox
KZJO 22 (36) 2020 MyNetworkTV
Milwaukee WITI-TV ++ 6 (31) 2020
(previously owned from 1997–2008)
Fox

Former

City of license / Market Station Channel
TV (RF)
Years owned Current ownership status
Birmingham WBRC-TV 6 (29) 1995–2008 Fox affiliate owned by Gray Television
San Francisco - Oakland - San Jose KBHK-TV ¤¤ 44 (28) 2001–2002 The CW affiliate, KBCW, owned by ViacomCBS
Denver KDVR 31 (36) 1995–2008 Fox affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Fort Collins, CO KFCT
(satellite of KDVR)
22 (21) 1995–2008 Fox affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Atlanta WATL 36 (25) 1993–1995 MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by Tegna Inc.
Baltimore WUTB ¤¤ 24 (26) 2001–2013 MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by Deerfield Media
(operated under an LMA by Sinclair Broadcast Group)
Boston WCVB-TV ** 1 5 (33) 1986 ABC affiliate owned by Hearst Television
WFXT 25 (34) 1987–1990
1995–2014
Fox affiliate owned by Cox Media Group
Kansas City WDAF-TV ++ 4 (34) 1997–2008 Fox affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
St. Louis KTVI ++ 2 (33) 1997–2008 Fox affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Charlotte WJZY 46 (25) 2013–2020 Fox affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
WMYT-TV 55 (25) 2013–2020 MyNetworkTV affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
High Point - Greensboro - Winston-Salem WGHP 8 (31) 1995–2008 Fox affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Cleveland WJW-TV ++ 8 (8) 1997–2008 Fox affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
Portland, Oregon KPTV ¤¤ 12 (12) 2001–2002 Fox affiliate owned by Meredith Corporation
Memphis WHBQ-TV 13 (13) 1995–2014 Fox affiliate owned by Cox Media Group
DallasFort Worth KDAF ** 33 (32) 1986–1995 The CW affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group
San Antonio KMOL-TV ¤¤ 4 (28) 2001 NBC affiliate, WOAI-TV, owned by Sinclair Broadcast Group
Salt Lake City KSTU 13 (28) 1990–2008 Fox affiliate owned by the E. W. Scripps Company
KTVX ¤¤ 4 (30) 2001 ABC affiliate owned by Nexstar Media Group

Other Notes:

  • 1 WCVB-TV was included in the original sale of the Metromedia stations to News Corporation, but was spun off in a separate, concurrent deal to the Hearst Corporation as part of a right of first refusal related to that station's 1982 acquisition by Metromedia.
  • On a side note, in between the events of Fox acquiring its original charter affiliates and the New World affiliation agreement, only KDVR, KTVU, WFXT, WTXF, KSTU, WOFL and WOGX were already affiliated with Fox when they were acquired by Fox in future acquisitions.

Fox Soul

Fox Soul
Type of site
Streaming channel
OwnerFox TV Stations
URLwww.foxsoul.tv
LaunchedJanuary 13, 2020; 6 months ago (2020-01-13)

Fox Soul is a digital television network operated by Fox Television Stations that launched on January 13, 2020. The network features original and syndicated programming targeting African Americans. It is the first online streaming service launched by Fox Corporation.[64]

Four new original daily shows were started for the service which would be live from 6 p.m. to 10 p.m. Pacific Time.[66] With the next two hours drawing on local programming. Exclusive shows:

  • On the 7 with Dr. Sean — Hosted by spiritual leader Dr. Sean McMillan, this show takes on the hot topics that effect the black community through insight and faith.
  • The Mike and Donny Show — Hosts: by Mike Hill and Donny Harrell; this talk show addresses today's issues effecting black men and women
  • The Tammi Mac Late Show — Host: Tammi Mac, radio personality; this variety show celebrating black culture
  • Out Loud with Claudia Jordan — Hosted by Claudia Jordan, this talk show provides the perspective of a black woman on issues surrounding dating, beauty, and relationships.
  • Fit and Fab with Elise Neal — Hosted by Elise Neal, this is a weekly show concentrating on fitness, health, and nutrition.
  • One on One with Keyshia Cole — Host: Keyshia Cole; in-depth interviews with notable celebrities and entertainers and covers issues facing the black audience.[67]

Local shows:

  • Dish Nation - syndicated entertainment news show
  • Street Soldiers with Lisa Evers - Hip Hop community issues; Host: Lisa Evers
  • Later with Leon - host: Leon Rogers; comedic, news-centric late night show from Chicago
  • The Q
  • Isiah Factor: Uncensored[64]

References

  1. ^ "Another spin for TV's revolving door" (PDF). Broadcasting: 39. May 6, 1985 – via American Radio History.[permanent dead link]
    "Another spin for TV's revolving door" (PDF). Broadcasting: 40. May 6, 1985 – via American Radio History.[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ "Life among the high rollers" (PDF). Broadcasting: 36. May 13, 1985 – via American Radio History.[permanent dead link]
    "Life among the high rollers" (PDF). Broadcasting: 37. May 13, 1985 – via American Radio History.[permanent dead link]
    "Life among the high rollers" (PDF). Broadcasting: 38. May 13, 1985 – via American Radio History.[permanent dead link]
    "Life among the high rollers" (PDF). Broadcasting: 39. May 13, 1985 – via American Radio History.[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ "Hearst's rise in the ownership ranks" (PDF). Broadcasting: 38. May 13, 1985 – via American Radio History.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ Clarke Ingram. "The DuMont Television Network: Channel Nine". DumontHistory.tv. Archived from the original on October 27, 2010. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
  5. ^ "In Brief" (PDF). Broadcasting. January 5, 1987. Retrieved June 22, 2018.
  6. ^ "Murdoch sells Boston Herald to publisher Purcell". United Press International. February 4, 1994. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
  7. ^ Nutile, Tom; Krasner, Jeffrey (October 6, 1994). "Fox buys remainder of Ch. 25". Boston Herald. p. 41. Retrieved August 20, 2018. (preview of subscription content)
  8. ^ Collins, Monica (July 7, 1995). "Murdoch's Fox Television retakes reins at Channel 25". Boston Herald. p. 37. Retrieved August 20, 2018. (preview of subscription content)
  9. ^ a b Carter, Bill (May 24, 1994). "FOX WILL SIGN UP 12 NEW STATIONS; TAKES 8 FROM CBS". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2012.
  10. ^ a b c Abrams, Rachel (August 16, 2013). "Fox Steps Up its Pursuit of Station Acquisitions in NFL Markets". Variety. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
  11. ^ "Parent Firm Of Wtic-tv To Buy, Sell". The Hartford Courant. November 16, 1994. Retrieved August 11, 2014.
  12. ^ Geoffrey Foisie; Julie A. Zier (August 22, 1994). "Fox et al. to buy three stations; affiliation shuffle continues". Broadcasting & Cable. Cahners Business Information. Archived from the original on January 9, 2016. Retrieved December 5, 2015 – via HighBeam Research.
  13. ^ Kim McAvoy (April 10, 1995). "The FCC last week approved New World's plans to transfer WGHP-TV Greensboro, N.C., and WBRC-TV Birmingham, Ala., into a trust for eventual sale to Fox". Broadcasting & Cable. Cahners Business Information. Archived from the original on October 16, 2015. Retrieved December 5, 2015 – via HighBeam Research.
  14. ^ Kim McAvoy (April 10, 1995). "The FCC last week approved New World's plans to transfer WGHP-TV Greensboro, N.C., and WBRC-TV Birmingham, Ala., into a trust for eventual sale to Fox". Broadcasting & Cable. Cahners Business Information. Archived from the original on October 16, 2015. Retrieved September 24, 2015 – via HighBeam Research.
  15. ^ "Citicasters, Inc., announces completion of sale of three television stations". Citicasters. September 14, 1994. Retrieved August 17, 2014 – via The Free Library.
  16. ^ "Fox Television Stations last week closed its deal to acquire WBRC-TV Birmingham". Broadcasting & Cable. Cahners Business Information. July 24, 1995. Archived from the original on January 9, 2016. Retrieved December 5, 2015 – via HighBeam Research.
  17. ^ Andy Meisler (August 19, 1994). "THE MEDIA BUSINESS; Fox to Buy Memphis ABC Outlet". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
  18. ^ Hofmeister, Sallie (August 12, 2000). "News Corp. to Buy Chris-Craft Parent for $5.5 Billion, Outbidding Viacom". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 23, 2011.
  19. ^ Kamenick, Amy (May 23, 2002). "Channels 9 and 29 swap affiliations". Minneapolis / St. Paul Business Journal. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
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