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Four Policemen

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The term "Four Policemen" refers to a post-war council consisting of the "Big Four" that U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed as a guarantor of world peace. The members of the Big Four, called the Four Powers during World War II, were the four major Allies of World War II: the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union and China. The United Nations envisioned by Roosevelt consisted of three branches: an executive branch comprising the Big Four, an enforcement branch composed of the same four great powers acting as the Four Policemen or Four Sheriffs, and an international assembly representing the member nations of the UN.[1]

The Four Policemen would be responsible for keeping order within their spheres of influence: Britain in its empire and in Western Europe; the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe and the central Eurasian landmass; China in East Asia and the Western Pacific; and the United States in the Western hemisphere. As a preventive measure against new wars, countries other than the Four Policemen were to be disarmed. Only the Four Policemen would be allowed to possess any weapons more powerful than a rifle.[2]

As a compromise with internationalist critics, the Big Four nations became the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, with significantly less power than envisioned in the Four Policemen proposal.[3] When the United Nations was officially established in later 1945, France was in due course added as the fifth member of the council at that time[4] due to the insistence of Churchill.

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Transcription

#15 The Twin Tower Soul Collector 2,996 souls were lost the day the Twin Towers fell. And one soul returned to help light the way. As he delved into the World Trade Center rubble on that fateful day of September 11th, 2001, now-retired Lt. Frank Marra was met with a paranormal entity. This entity was a black woman in a Red Cross uniform, holding a sandwich tray. During his long shifts at ground zero, the veteran cop of 17 years recalls that each time he squinted to catch a good look at the spirited helper, she would disappear. He recounts this tale after hearing a detective mention the woman during a 2013 interview for a book entitled Hallowed Ground, which details events surrounding 9/11. The detective had heard about this mysterious Red Cross worker who was serving sandwiches and coffee, like some sort of WWII aid. When he heard the detective’s notes, Marra claimed to have also seen her on several occasions. Marra had sifted through the World Trade Center remnants from September 2001 to February 2002. Here, he and other volunteers identified the remains of those who perished in the attacks and also found around 54,000 personal objects in the landfill on Staten Island, which was termed “The Hill.” Other officers who assisted in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks also recalled seeing “black masses” and enormous shadows amidst the debris. Marra wondered what this could all mean, so he visited a medium to help him interpret the vision of the Red Cross worker. The medium suggested he’d come into contact with a “soul collector” who was gathering up the lost souls of this horrifying terrorist attack and guiding them into the beyond. Marra has come to agree with this interpretation of his paranormal vision: he had seen a “soul collector”. #14 A UFO in Rendlesham Forest Aliens exist in Rendlesham Forest. At least, that’s what a paranormal event led James Pennison to believe. In 1980, the week after Christmas, Senior Security Officer James Pennison was head of RAF Woodbridge, while stationed at RAF Bentwaters, when reports of a crash in the forest sent him and a police team to Rendlesham. At first, just Pennison and two other officers arrived to find lights flashing through the trees of the forest. The official report of this event, described by Pennison, detailed a curious triangular aircraft, landed on three legs, with lights a-blazing, unique to anything those on the crew had ever known. Pennison describes how the crew’s radios began to malfunction when they started to approach the vehicle. Electricity cracked and fizzled in the air. The crew could tangibly feel this strangely intense ambiance. Around 80 other officers showed up to examine the mysterious aircraft, noting the strange symbols on its side and measuring it. Once they had finished examining the UFO, the glow of the lights on the aircraft’s side began to brighten, as if it had waited for the crew to examine it and was now ready for lift-off. It rose silently from the forest floor before darting away like lightning. In astonishment, Pennison and his team watched it vanish. After experiencing this paranormal event, those of the investigative team were all told not to tell anyone about what had happened. Only eye-witness statements exist; no documentation. The investigation was classified and was never permitted to be open to the public. #13 A Voice from the Beyond An automobile accident is said to have killed Utah mother, Jennifer Groesbeck, as she drove her and her daughter, Lily, home on March 5th, 2015, at around 10:30PM. The car slammed through the guardrail of a bridge and rolled, landing upside down in an icy river near Spanish Forks, Utah. It wasn’t discovered until 14 hours later, when a fisherman spotted the incident. By then, Jennifer had long been dead. The medical examiner sited blunt force trauma to the head which certainly would have killed her. But who, then, called out for help? After being alerted, the police rushed to the scene and examined the wreck. That’s when they heard a voice cry out to them from the vehicle. The voice of an adult female. They raced over to the partly submerged car to save the survivor. But they discovered that Jennifer had long been dead. In fact, an autopsy revealed that she’d been high on a deadly combination of heroin and prescription drugs and had been dead for several hours by the time officers arrived. But not Lily, Jennifer’s 18-month-old baby. Lily was miraculously suspended above the chilly water. She had passed out and was hanging upside down, but she was alive. EMTs rushed Lily to the hospital, where she recovered in full. And yet, her mother, Jennifer, long dead, may have been calling out to rescue workers from beyond the grave. The police don’t understand where else this voice could have come from. They suspect Jennifer wanted to save her daughter’s life. #12 The Vanishing Frenchy at Devil’s Peak Maurice “Frenchy” Theriault had a terrible upbringing. He was abused by his father and had played witness to a horrifying incident in his family’s barn as a child. While this incident has never been fully uncovered, what we do know is that Frenchy was forced to be involved in terrible and depraved acts. As he aged, Frenchy found that he had supernatural powers. He had a rare ability to know things he’d never studied, and he was incredibly strong without ever having strength trained. His father pressed him not to join the army, so Frenchy left home and moved to Warren, Massachusetts. He married in 1985, and the couple lived on a farm. That’s where the paranormal activity started to happen. Random spots of blood began appearing across the house. Neither Frenchy nor his wife could explain where they came from. But that wasn’t even the strangest thing; they also began to witness things vanish before their very eyes and hear eerie voices throughout the home. Fires broke out all over the farm, never explained. Frenchy started to worry that something more ominous might happen to him and his wife, so he brought his guns down to the sheriff’s department and asked them to hold onto the weapons for safe-keeping. Frenchy was right. More ominous things did start to happen. In fact, they began to happen to Frenchy, himself. His being became transitory. He started to appear and disappear, moving seamlessly from one room to appear to his wife in another. His wife would attempt to follow or talk to him, and he would again vanish. When she’d find him in a completely other room, he’d say he had been there the entire time. Local police officers were called out to the farm, and they witnessed this phenomenon as well. Finally, famed paranormal investigators, Ed and Lorraine Warren, were sent for to help. They turned to Bishop Robert McKenna, asking the bishop to perform an exorcism. The exorcism was performed, and Ed Warren nearly died in the process. But in the end, it was deemed a success. Things didn’t end on a positive note for Frenchy, however. On a completely different charge, he was later arrested for sexually abusing a minor. #11 The Glasgow Poltergeist This paranormal activity was witnessed by police as recently as August of this year, 2016. On August 8th and 9th, the police in Glasgow, Scotland were called to a house in Rutherglen. Once they arrived, they witnessed flickering lights, flying clothes, an oven that opened and closed on its own, and a lampshade placed upside down. Even more curious, a Chihuahua that was running around the garden suddenly flew up atop a 7 foot hedge. No evidence of criminality was found. The family of the property was in a complete panic when officers arrived. The paranormal activity lasted for two days and was witnessed by Police Scotland on both. The family went to stay with relatives during this episode, and a Catholic priest was called in to bless the house. The incidents were not easy to explain away. In fact, the officers on the call had anticipated a mental health issue, but when they arrived and witnessed the goings-on for themselves, they simply could not understand it. The officers then phoned their superior officers, who thought they were exaggerating, but the incident was put on ‘active inquiry.’ The police also turned to social services and doctors to provide the house’s inhabitants support. Demonologist, Jason Love, believes the paranormal poltergeist may have been thriving off of the energy of young teens in the house. #10 The Hung Military Man Have you ever seen the ghost of a suicide victim? Well, a young man, tripping on drugs, did. A first-hand account from a police officer involved a delusional 20-year-old and a military uniform. The officer received a “5150,” which is a call to a home for a mental evaluation. When he arrived, the owner of the home, a woman around 50 years old, said that her young son had been doing drugs and was hallucinating that an old man had hung himself in his room. She told the police that she was afraid to go into her son’s room herself, because she feared that one of his drug addict friends had hung himself. The police officer went to speak to her son, who was on a stimulant of some kind. The young man said that a female spirit told him not to go into his bedroom, because her father had hung himself in there, attired in his “Class A” military uniform. The officer then went and checked out the room, only to find no body hanging there. He was informing the mother and consoling her, when a veteran police officer arrived to help assist. The veteran officer took the first officer aside and told him that he’d responded to this residence earlier in his career. An older male had hung himself in that very bedroom. The veteran officer couldn’t remember any further details. The first officer searched in the patrol car’s report management system and found that the man who’d committed suicide was a World War II veteran. He’d been wearing his military uniform when he killed himself. #9 The Station Ghost Officers often spend long hours watching surveillance video at their stations. And that’s just what Officer Karl Romero was doing on a Saturday night in 2014 at the Espanola police station in New Mexico. Everything was quiet. Calm. Peaceful. Until he spied an odd visual on the entryway cameras, directed at the station. At first, Romero suspected the hazy white figure he noticed on the video was a bug. Until he saw that this “bug” had legs. He blinked and looked closer. The figure was bright and white, like a ghost. Romero knew the figure wasn’t a random living, breathing person, because the police station had a gate securing it, along with an alarm system. He relayed this information to his superiors the following day. Surprisingly, many introduced their own uncanny stories into the mix. Some said they’d spotted strange visuals in the lobby, and others had heard creepy noises in the station, which they couldn’t uncover. Romero reiterated his experience to KOAT TV. He believes in ghosts and believes the figure is somehow related to a string of unsolved murders in the area over the years. #8 The “Demon House” If you joke around about your children being “possessed,” think again. The “Demon House” in Gary, Indiana put true evil in the children that lived there. Latoya Ammons and Rosa Campbell – the mother and grandmother, respectively, of three children – said that the Ammons’ children were possessed be dark entities that forced them to walk up walls backward and levitate in midair. Unexplainable footprints had also appeared throughout the home. It wasn’t until a photograph was taken, with a “figure” standing in the window of the home’s porch that local police got involved. The photograph was passed around the police department, alongside a note that claimed no one was in the house when the photo was taken. However, though the picture was later proven to be a hoax, produced via an app, many people still believed the house was haunted, even priests, social workers, and Police Captain Charles Austin, who paid witness to the 2014 paranormal events that occurred in the Demon House. He stated that he believed the house truly held something evil. He told journalists he thought Ammons was lying at first, but once he’d visited her home, he was “a believer.” The Department of Child Services was called in, as was a registered nurse, to assess the children. The case manager, Valerie Washington, and the nurse, Willie Lee Walker, both claimed they’d witnessed the 9-year-old boy walk backwards up the wall to the ceiling before landing on the floor on his feet. Washington said the boy had a “weird grin” on his face. Washington also heard the 7-year-old speak in a demonic voice. He bore his teeth and growled. His eyes then rolled into the back of his head before he passed out. It was time to call in those with an eye for demons. The house was investigated by psychics, who determined that more than 200 demons haunted this house, and they were possessing the Ammons’ children. When the children were possessed, their voices deepened, eerie smiles crept across their lips, and their eyes started to bulge from their sockets. The Ammon family doctor didn’t believe in this possession nonsense, and stated that their mother was inciting the children to display this crazy behavior, all to gain attention. The Ammons’ children were taken from their mother for a time, but the family has since been brought back together. No further paranormal events have been reported by the family. Zak Bagans, the executive producer of Ghost Adventures, purchased the house and, in early 2016, the “Demon House” was demolished. #7 The Devil Possesses Don Decker Don Decker was imprisoned for receiving stolen property and, in 1983, he was provided compassionate leave in order to attend his grandpa’s funeral. During his leave, he stayed with friends of his family in Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. He was upstairs washing his hands in a bathroom, when he suddenly grew dizzy and collapsed on the ground. Once he returned to consciousness, he headed downstairs, where Bob Kieffer inquired about some deep scratch marks on his wrist. Decker replied that he’d collapsed and had a vision of an elderly man whose head was adorned with a crown. A few moments later, dripping water leaked from the walls and ceiling of the house. Kieffer assumed a pipe had burst, so he called his landlord to report the leak. But they then realized that the pipes weren’t broken and were positioned on the opposite side of the house. The water started to fall more heavily, like raindrops, and it even began soaking up from the floor. Kieffer and another male guest looked at Decker, who appeared to be in a trance. Shortly later, they phoned the police. But this mystery didn’t end with rainfall. Once they got off the phone, Decker began levitating from the floor, and his body was launched across the room, slamming into walls, and producing new scratches all over him. When police officers, Richard Wolbert and John Baujan, arrived on the scene, they were torn. Wolbert thought it was a hoax, while Baujan trusted in the paranormal. Wolbert decided not to file a report, but the following day, two new officers chose to go investigate the paranormal event for themselves. John Rundle and William Davies later reported that they’d seen Decker’s skin burning from a gold cross he wore. They also witnessed the levitation as Decker was flung around the room again. Shortly later, Decker returned to prison. Some of the prison’s duty officers claim to have seen drips of water moving upwards on Decker’s cell walls. When a plumber was called to fix this, the man grew disturbed after investigating Decker’s cell and left straight away. Many of the prison’s officers believe that the prisoner had become possessed by the devil and was endowed with paranormal powers. #6 The Call Is Coming from Inside the House A call was made to the police in St. Louis on November 28, 2006. Officer Sean Haefeli answered the call, heading over to investigate a family at the 200 block of Runyon Avenue who hadn’t been seen in days. Haefeli was shot by one of the residents of the home, Tony Lynn. Lynn then faced a five-hour standoff with police and was eventually shot and killed by a police sniper. What the police failed to find during the first inspection of the residence was the bodies of Tony Lynn’s grandmother and two of his siblings. They were found by relatives of the Lynns’ three days later. Several months later, Haefeli was back on the field after recovering from his wounds. He was told by other officers that they’d received a number of 911 calls from the Lynn residence, despite the fact that the phone was disconnected. Each time, the caller would hang up. Haefeli decided to investigate this oddity for himself. When he arrived back at the Lynn residence, his skin started to crawl. The electricity had been shut off, the windows boarded up, and four crosses – representing the four that were killed on site – had been planted in the lawn. “It looked like a house from Nightmare on Elm Street,” Haefeli said. He didn’t go into the home that day. But a few days later, he bucked up the courage to investigate. It was late in the evening when Haefeli entered with his flashlight. He said this is when “things got weird.” He noticed a Ouija board was set out, and the marker had landed over the letter U. Haefeli felt a sharp intake of breath, saying, “It was like it was pointing to me.” The stench of tear gas lingered in the basement. A bar was set with wine glasses. Haefeli walked slowly across the room, nearing the closet where they’d found the bodies. A frigid breath of air rushed past him, sending shivers up his spine. “It made the hairs on my neck and arms stand up,” he recalled. “I said what I wanted to say to the victims and then just ran out of there. It felt like something was constricting me. I felt like somebody was there watching me the whole time.” Interestingly enough, after Haefeli’s visit to the home, the 911 calls ceased, as if Lynn’s victims had been waiting for him to say a final goodbye. #5 A Police Captain Investigates His Past Life Robert Snow, a retired Indianapolis police department captain, was placed on a paranormal case involving past lives. Snow was the commander of the homicide branch and, at first, he was skeptical about the supernatural elements of this case. Snow didn’t believe in this nonsense. Reincarnation, past lives – it all sounded absurd to him. But he did find the concept interesting, and he opened his mind enough to investigate. He even began reading a book on past life regression hypnosis. He decided to try it out for himself. During his hypnosis, he described in great detail the history of an unrenowned painter, named Carroll Beckwith. While he was under, he even saw quite clearly one of the works of this painter. He wrote in his book, Looking for Carroll Beckwith: “The evidence I uncovered in this two-year investigation is so overwhelming that if it had been a criminal case, there would be no plea bargaining. A conviction would be assured.” As he continued to delve into the paranormal and investigate what he’d discovered during his regression hypnosis sessions, he came face-to-face with one of the two paintings his visions had produced so vividly to him while on vacation. The spontaneous viewing in a tiny art gallery of this piece by Carroll Beckwith astounded him. He began to correlate the painter’s life with that of what he’d expressed in his hypnoses. Beckwith had kept a daily diary during his final 46 years of life that numbered more than 15,000 pages, so this served as a source of data to check the facts. He found that nearly all the information he’d provided during the hypnosis proved true to life. In the end, the skeptical man became a believer. #4 Capitol Theatre Haunting Salt Lake City’s Capitol Theatre is haunted. That’s what many people who’ve worked in the building claim. Haunted by what? Ghouls. Goblins. Dark forces. Perhaps a long-deceased teenage usher, crying out for some attention. Salt Lake County sheriff’s deputy, Dave Murphy, suggested the theatre was haunted by a “load of crap”…that is, until he, himself, saw dark shadows reverberating through the theatre walls. Murphy was a security guard for the building and spent nights alone by himself in the haunted theatre. He heard doors bang shut, leaving the windows vibrating, and even saw a ghostly woman clothed in early 20th century garb. “She walked right past me, as I sat in the control room,” Murphy claimed. “My jaw dropped.” A Syfy episode of “Paranormal Witness” recounts Murphy’s claims, as well as those from theatre staff and police officers. Mark Lewis, the show’s producer, said that they look for credible sources, like law enforcement witnesses, as opposed to random head-cases. Along with three police officer interviewees, Blair Fuller, the administrative manager of the Salt Lake County Center for the Arts, was also asked to speak on the haunting. He said he’d first witnessed paranormal activity in the building around 1997, when he was working at night in the theatre and discovered the elevator was operating by itself, while file doors flew open and then were forcefully flung closed. Fuller said he never felt uncomfortable with the activity. “In my experience,” he said, “it’s almost like a teenager trying to get some attention. And once you acknowledge that, it stops.” In fact, a fire broke out in the theatre back in 1947, killing a 17-year-old usher. This is who some suspect to be haunting the theatre. Others were made uncomfortable by the paranormal encounters, however. Murphy suggested, “Toward the end, they wanted me out of that building for whatever reason.” He claims the black shadows he saw permeating throughout the building once “attacked” him. “It felt just like I got a punch in the chest. Literally, I could not talk. Whatever it was, it had the power to shut me up." And still more credible sources have also claimed to have met with supernatural activity within the building. Some have said the men’s room is particularly haunted, as are the basement and the elevators. Murphy recalls his days working in the theatre. “Some nights I would be shaking so bad, it would take me hours before I would unwind. A lot of people think I’m crazy, but I know what I saw." #3 Evil Resides in Enfield Enfield was rarely ever newsworthy, but when an evil entity rolled into town in 1977, the story hit the papers. The owner of the haunted home in question, Peggy Hodgson, said that a dark force had entered her home, causing her sons’ beds to shake uncontrollably. This paranormal activity was first reported to her by her daughter, Janet, after which Peggy was on high alert. The following evening, a loud bang exploded from her children’s bedroom. She flew to the room and found a chest of drawers shaking uncontrollably. She tried to move it back in place with the help of her children, but it wouldn’t budge. Throughout the house, a bizarre knocking sound could be heard. Not only that, but Janet started to levitate over her bed. Most people in town were skeptical about this story, believing Peggy and her children were fabricating the entire thing. But Ed and Lorraine Warren, two famous paranormal investigators, came to take a look, as did Police Officer Carolyn Heeps, who confirmed that she’d witnessed paranormal activity by signing an affidavit after she’d been called to the house. What did she witness? She saw a chair levitating above the floor and flying about 4 feet across the room. The police left the Hodgson’s home, stating that they couldn’t help the family, as no law had been broken. Although no one can prove this event true, the levitating chair reached fame. It was featured in the horror movie, The Conjuring 2. #2 The Ghostly Reporter The sheriff of a small New Mexico town had to eat his words when he was met with this paranormal event. The town news was covered by a local reporter, Bob D., who would listen to the police scanner to find the action. Whether it was fires, terrible car crashes, homicides, or any other major event, Bob was there. Everyone on the police force was familiar with Bob and liked him, as he always showed up at the scene and was a bit of a jokester. He would stand behind people and flick their ears and, when they batted the imaginary insect away, they’d turn around to find it was just Bob, the joker. But Bob was to meet an unfunny end when he died fairly quickly from lung cancer. Although he wanted to be cremated, his wife had him buried. After his funeral, a number of folks claimed to have seen Bob at crime scenes. In fact, more than 20 reports from both police officers and civilians, alike, were made, detailing these visions of Bob. However, the straight-laced sheriff of this small town remained skeptical. But one night, he showed up with his wife at a relative’s house, pale as a ghost and with his gun drawn. After calming down, he explained what he’d just experienced. The sheriff and his wife were at home on the couch, watching TV, when the sheriff felt an itch on his ear. He scratched it repeatedly until his wife asked him what was wrong. The sheriff turned around and saw their bedroom door open. Who was standing in the doorway, but Bob D., himself. The sheriff launched to his feet, swore, hollered at his wife, and she turned to see Bob smile at the pair. He made eye contact with each of them and crossed the living room, leaving out their front door and shutting the door behind him. The sheriff raced to the door with his gun drawn, but Bob had vanished. Bob D. continued to show up to police scenes for another 2-3 months, and the sheriff saw him on two additional occasions. Never again did he denounce the paranormal. #1 Silbury Hill Sighting Tall beings. A formation. A crop inspection. Paranormal activity from extraterrestrial beings was witnessed by an unnamed off-duty police officer near a crop circle at Silbury Hill in July, 2009. At first, the officer in question thought these beings were forensic scientists, as they were dressed all in white and seemed to be examining the area. But then he saw they were all identical, with blond hair and standing more than 6 feet tall. He also felt some surge of static electricity throughout the field. It was then that he knew this wasn’t normal. The officer claimed that one of these beings stood at the edge of the hill, another stood several yards further along the tramline, and yet another stood halfway down the hill. The officer said he “knew” they were inspecting the crop and, when asked how he knew, he replied, “You know what day of the week it is, but no one has told you. You haven’t seen a calendar, you just know.” Andrew Russell and Colin Andrews, two crop circle researchers, investigated this incident. As they spoke to the officer, they began to wonder if he had an unknown psychic awareness. The officer said that the figures began to race away at top speed, as though he were watching “fast-forward mode” on a videotape. They raced away and then vanished. During the interview, the hairs stood up on the officer’s arms, as he told the tale and relived it. Russell, who is also a clinical hypnotherapist, ran through the experience with the officer a number of times. He even drove and timed the route. According to Russell, there is a discrepancy of five minutes between the time accounted for by the officer and the actual time it took to run the route. Following the event, the officer was confronted with several “poltergeist experiences.” Knocks were heard at his front door, but no one would be there when he answered. Electrical items began to break down. And, even worse, the officer felt a strange presence in his home. When he would turn a corner from his kitchen, he’d see a sudden flash of an 8-foot black figure looming in front of him. The officer began to have flashes of “knowing.” He understood that the figures had been clone-like, identical, and with a common intelligence. He doesn’t believe they created the crop circle, but he does believe that the beings communicated to him that he shouldn’t have witnessed this event. The officer has no idea where these ideas generate from; he just feels they are absolute truth. The officer also noticed a strange orange globe in the sky above his house. He awoke from sleep one night and went outside to smoke a cigarette when he spotted this strange floating orb hanging above, a few hundred yards from his garden. Like the beings, the globe stayed for a bit, hovering and swaying back and forth, before shooting off at lightning speed. To this day, these paranormal events remain a mystery.

Contents

History

Background

During World War II, President Roosevelt initiated post-war plans for the creation of a new and more durable international organization that would replace the former League of Nations. Prior to the war, Roosevelt had initially been a supporter of the League of Nations, but he lost confidence in the League due to its ineffectiveness at preventing the outbreak of the second World War. Roosevelt wanted to create an international organization that secured global peace through the unified efforts of the world's great powers, rather than through the Wilsonian notions of international consensus and collaboration that guided the League of Nations.[5] By 1935, he told his foreign policy adviser Sumner Welles: "The League of Nations has become nothing more than a debating society, and a poor one at that!"[6]

Roosevelt criticized the League of Nations for representing the interests of too many nations. The President said to the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov that "he could not visualize another League of Nations with 100 different signatories; there were simply too many nations to satisfy, hence it was a failure and would be a failure".[7] Roosevelt's proposal in 1941 was to create a new international body led by a "trusteeship" of great powers that would oversee smaller countries. In September 1941, he wrote:

In the present complete world confusion, it is not thought advisable at this time to reconstitute a League of Nations which, because of its size, makes for disagreement and inaction... There seem no reason why the principle of trusteeship in private affairs should be not be extended to the international field. Trusteeship is based on the principle of unselfish service. For a time at least there are many minor children among the peoples of the world who need trustees in their relations with other nations and people, just as there are many adult nations or peoples which must be led back into a spirit of good conduct.[5]

The State Department had begun drafting a postwar successor to the League of Nations under the auspices of Roosevelt while the United States was still formally a neutral power.[8] Roosevelt was reluctant to publicly announce his plans for creating a postwar international body. He was aware of the risk that the American people might reject his proposals, and he did not want to repeat Woodrow Wilson's struggle to convince the Senate to approve American membership in the League of Nations. When the Atlantic Charter was issued in August 1941, Roosevelt had ensured that the charter omitted mentioning any American commitment towards the establishment of a new international body after the war.[9] The attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 led to a change in Roosevelt's position. He transformed his trusteeship proposal into an organization centered around the Four Policemen: the United States, China, the Soviet Union, and Britain.[5]

Plans for the Four Policemen

1943 sketch by Franklin Roosevelt of the United Nations' original three branches. The branch on the right represents the Four Policemen.
1943 sketch by Franklin Roosevelt of the United Nations' original three branches. The branch on the right represents the Four Policemen.

The idea that great powers should "police" the world had been discussed by President Roosevelt as early as August 1941, during his first meeting with Winston Churchill. Roosevelt made his first references to the Four Policemen proposal in early 1942.[10] He presented his postwar plans to Molotov,[11] who had arrived in Washington on May 29 to discuss the possibility of launching a second front in Europe.[12] Roosevelt told Molotov that the Big Four must unite after the war to police the world and disarm aggressor states.[10] When Molotov asked about the role of other countries, Roosevelt answered by opining that too many "policemen" could lead to infighting, but he was open to the idea of allowing other allied countries to participate.[10] A memorandum of the conference summarizes their conversation:

The President told Molotov that he visualized the enforced disarmament of our enemies and, indeed, some of our friends after the war; that he thought that the United States, England, Russia and perhaps China should police the world and enforce disarmament by inspection. The President said that he visualized Germany, Italy, Japan, France, Czechoslovakia, Rumania and other nations would not be permitted to have military forces. He stated that other nations might join the first four mentioned after experience proved they could be trusted.[7]

Roosevelt and Molotov continued their discussion of the Four Policemen in a second meeting on June 1. Molotov informed the President that Stalin was willing to support Roosevelt's plans for maintaining postwar peace through the Four Policemen and enforced disarmament. Roosevelt also raised the issue of postwar decolonization. He suggested that former colonies should undergo a period of transition under the governance of an international trusteeship prior to their independence.[11][13]

China was brought in as a member of the Big Four and a future member of the Four Policemen. Roosevelt was in favor of recognizing China as a great power because he was certain that the Chinese would side with the Americans against the Soviets. He said to British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, "In any serious conflict of policy with Russia, [China] would undoubtedly line up on our side." The President believed that a pro-American China would be useful for the United States should the Americans, Soviets, and Chinese agree to jointly occupy Japan and Korea after the war.[14] When Molotov voiced concerns about the stability of China, Roosevelt responded by saying that the combined "population of our nations and friends was well over a billion people."[7][11]

Churchill objected to Roosevelt's inclusion of China as one of the Big Four because he feared that the Americans were trying to undermine Britain's colonial holdings in Asia. In October 1942, Churchill told Eden that Republican China represented a "faggot vote on the side of the United States in any attempt to liquidate the British overseas empire."[15] Eden shared this view with Churchill and expressed skepticism that China, which was then in the midst of a civil war, could ever return to a stable nation. Roosevelt responded to Churchill's criticism by telling Eden that "China might become a very useful power in the Far East to help police Japan" and that he was fully supportive of offering more aid to China.[14]

Roosevelt's Four Policemen proposal received criticism from the liberal internationalists, who wanted power to be more evenly distributed among the member nations of the UN. Internationalists were concerned that the Four Policemen could lead to a new Quadruple Alliance.[3]

Formation of the United Nations

On New Year's Day 1942, the representatives of Allied "Big Four", the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and China, signed a short document which later came to be known as the Declaration by United Nations and the next day the representatives of twenty-two other nations added their signatures.[16][17] A new plan for the United Nations was drafted by the State Department in April 1944. It kept the emphasis on great power solidarity that was central to Roosevelt's Four Policemen proposal for the United Nations. The members of the Big Four would serve as permanent members of the United Nation's Security Council. Each of the four permanent members would be given a United Nations Security Council veto power, which would override any UN resolution that went against the interests of one of the Big Four. However, the State Department had compromised with the liberal internationalists. Membership eligibility was widened to include all nation states fighting against the Axis powers instead of a select few. The Dumbarton Oaks Conference convened in August 1944 to discuss plans for the postwar United Nations with delegations from the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and China.[3] The Big Four were the only four sponsoring countries of the San Francisco Conference of 1945 and their heads of the delegations took turns as chairman of the plenary meetings.[18] During this conference, the Big Four and their allies signed the United Nations Charter.[19]

Legacy

In the words of a former Undersecretary General of the UN, Sir Brian Urquhart:

It was a pragmatic system based on the primacy of the strong — a "trusteeship of the powerful," as he then called it, or, as he put it later, "the Four Policemen." The concept was, as [Senator Arthur H.] Vandenberg noted in his diary in April 1944, "anything but a wild-eyed internationalist dream of a world state.... It is based virtually on a four-power alliance." Eventually this proved to be both the potential strength and the actual weakness of the future UN, an organization theoretically based on a concert of great powers whose own mutual hostility, as it turned out, was itself the greatest potential threat to world peace.[20]

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Hoopes & Brinkley 1997, p. 100.
  2. ^ Gaddis 1972, p. 25.
  3. ^ a b c Gaddis 1972, p. 27.
  4. ^ 1946-47 Part 1: The United Nations. Section 1: Origin and Evolution.Chapter E: The Dumbarton Oaks Conversations. The Yearbook of the United Nations. United Nations. p. 6. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  5. ^ a b c Gaddis 1972, p. 24.
  6. ^ Welles 1951, pp. 182–204.
  7. ^ a b c United States Department of State 1942, p. 573.
  8. ^ Bosco 2009, p. 14.
  9. ^ Gaddis 1972, pp. 25–26.
  10. ^ a b c Kimball 1991, p. 85.
  11. ^ a b c Dallek 1995, p. 342.
  12. ^ Gaddis 1972, p. 68.
  13. ^ United States Department of State 1942, p. 580.
  14. ^ a b Dallek 1995, p. 390.
  15. ^ Dallek 1995, p. 389.
  16. ^ United Nations Official Website.
  17. ^ Ma 2003, pp. 203–204.
  18. ^ United Nations Official Website 1945.
  19. ^ Gaddis 1972, p. 28.
  20. ^ Urquhart, Brian. Looking for the Sheriff. New York Review of Books, July 16, 1998. |access-date= requires |url= (help)

Sources

  • Bosco, David (2009). Five to Rule Them All: The UN Security Council and the Making of the Modern World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-532876-9.
  • Dallek, Robert (1995). Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932–1945: With a New Afterword. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-982666-7.
  • Gaddis, John Lewis (1972). The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, 1941–1947. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12239-9.
  • Hoopes, Townsend; Brinkley, Douglas (1997). FDR and the Creation of the U.N. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08553-2.
  • Kimball, Warren F. (1991). The Juggler: Franklin Roosevelt as Wartime Statesman. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03730-2.
  • Ma, Xiaohua (2003). The Sino-American alliance during World War II and the lifting of the Chinese exclusion acts. New York: Routledge. pp. 203–204. ISBN 0-415-94028-1.
  • Welles, Sumner (1951). "Two Roosevelt Decisions: One Debit, One Credit". Foreign Affairs (29): 182–204.
  • United Nations Official Website. "1942: Declaration of The United Nations". United Nations. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
  • United Nations Official Website (1945). "1945: The San Francisco Conference". United Nations. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  • United States Department of State (1942). "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics". Foreign relations of the United States diplomatic papers, 1942. Europe Volume III. U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 406–771.

External links

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