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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ford Bronco
1992-96 Ford Bronco.jpg
Overview
ManufacturerFord Motor Company
Production1965–1996
2021–
Body and chassis
ClassCompact SUV (1965–1977)
Full-size SUV (1977–1996)
Mid-size SUV (2021–)
Body style2-door SUV (1965–1996, 2021–)
4-door SUV (2021–)
LayoutF4 layout
Chronology
SuccessorFord Expedition (for fullsize model)

The Ford Bronco is a model line of SUVs that were manufactured and marketed by Ford from 1965 to 1996. The first sport-utility vehicle marketed by Ford, the Bronco was initially a compact design based on its own chassis[1], competing against the Jeep CJ-5 and International Harvester Scout. For 1978, the Bronco became a shortened version of the F-Series (F-100, later F-150) pickup truck for its next four generations; the full-size Bronco competed against the Chevrolet K5 Blazer and Dodge Ramcharger.

Sharing only its nameplate with the Bronco, the Ford Bronco II was a compact SUV based on the Ford Ranger for the 1984 to 1990 model years (replaced by the Ford Explorer).

Following declining demand for two-door SUVs during the 1990s, Ford discontinued the Bronco after the 1996 model year, replacing it with the four-door Ford Expedition (and the larger Ford Excursion). For the 2021 model year, Ford returned the Bronco SUV after a 25-year hiatus. Serving as a mid-size vehicle for the first time, the Bronco is now packaged as a direct competitor for the Jeep Wrangler.

From 1965 to 1996, Broncos were produced by Ford at its Michigan Truck Plant in Wayne, Michigan; the 2021 model line will also be produced alongside the Ford Ranger at the same facility.[2][3]

First generation (1966–1977)

First generation
Ford Bronco.jpg
Ford Bronco Wagon (First generation)
Overview
Production1965-1977
Model years1966–1977
AssemblyUnited States: Wayne, Michigan (Michigan Assembly Plant)
DesignerDonald N. Frey (1964)
Paul G. Axelrad (1964)[4]
Body and chassis
ClassCompact SUV
Body style
LayoutF4 layout
Powertrain
Engine170 cu in (2.8 L) Straight-6
200 cu in (3.3 L) Straight-6
289 cu in (4.7 L) small block V8
302 cu in (4.9 L) small block V8
Transmission
  • 3-speed manual
  • 3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase92 in (2,337 mm)[6]
Length151.5 in (3,848 mm)[6]
Width68.5 in (1,740 mm)[6]
Height71.6 in (1,819 mm)[6]

The idea behind the Bronco began with Ford product manager Donald N. Frey in the early 1960s (who also conceived the Ford Mustang) and engineered by Ford engineer Paul G. Axelrad, with Lee Iacocca approving the final model for production in February 1964, after the first clay models were built in mid-1963. Developed as an off-road vehicle (ORV), the Bronco was intended as a competitor for the Jeep CJ-5 and International Harvester Scout. Today a compact SUV in terms of size, Ford marketing shows a very early example of promoting a civilian off-roader as a "Sports Utility" (the two-door pickup version).[7][8]

Initially selling well, following the introduction of the Chevrolet Blazer, Jeep Cherokee, and International Scout II (from 1969 to 1974), demand shifted towards SUVs with better on-road capability, leading to a decline in demand for the Bronco.

Chassis

The first-generation Bronco is built upon a chassis developed specifically for the model range, shared with no other Ford or Lincoln-Mercury vehicle. Built on a 92-inch wheelbase (sized between the CJ-5 and Scout; only an inch shorter than the later CJ-7), the Bronco used box-section body-on-frame construction.

To simplify production, all examples were sold with four-wheel drive; a shift-on the-fly Dana 20 transfer case and locking hubs were standard.[9] The rear axle was a Ford 9-inch axle, with Hotchkiss drive and leaf springs; the front axle was a Dana 30, replaced by a Dana 44 in 1971.[9] In contrast to the Twin I-Beams of larger Ford trucks, the Bronco used radius arms to locate the coil-sprung front axle, along with a lateral track bar, allowing for a 34-foot turning circle, long wheel travel, and antidive geometry (useful for snowplowing). A heavier-duty suspension system was an option, along with air front springs.[9]

Powertrain

At its August 1965 launch, the Bronco was offered with a 170-cubic-inch inline six.[9] Derived from the Ford Falcon, the 105-hp engine was modified with solid valve lifters, a 6-US-quart (6 L) oil pan, heavy-duty fuel pump, oil-bath air cleaner, and carburetor with a float bowl compensated against tilting. In March 1966, a 200-hp 289-cubic-inch V8 was introduced as an option.[9] For the 1969 model year, the 289 V8 was enlarged to 302 cubic inches, remaining through the 1977 model year. For 1973, a 200 cubic-inch inline six became the standard engine, offered through 1977.

To lower production costs, at its launch, the Bronco was offered solely with a three-speed, column-shifted manual transmission and floor-mounted transfer case shifter (with a floor-mounted transmission shifter later becoming a popular modification).[9] In 1973, in response to buyer demand, a three-speed automatic transmission was offered as an option.[9]

Body design

In a central theme of the first-generation Bronco, styling was subordinated to simplicity and economy, so all glass was flat, bumpers were straight C-sections, and the left and right door skins were symmetrical (prior to the fitment of door-mounting hardware).

For 1966, three body configurations were offered, including a two-door wagon and half-cab pickup, and open-body roadster.[9] At its $2,194 base price ($17,507 in 2018 dollars), the Bronco included few amenities as standard. However, a large number of options were offered through both Ford and its dealers, including front bucket seats, a rear bench seat, a tachometer, and a CB radio, as well as functional items such as a tow bar, an auxiliary gas tank, a power take-off, a snowplow, a winch, and a posthole digger.[9] Aftermarket accessories included campers, overdrive units, and the usual array of wheels, tires, chassis, and engine parts for increased performance.

For 1967, Ford introduced the Sport option package for the Bronco wagon. Consisting primarily of chrome exterior trim and wheelcovers, the Sport package was distinguished by red-painted FORD grille lettering.[9] For 1970, the Bronco Sport became a freestanding model rather than an option package.[9]

To comply with federal regulations, the Bronco was fitted with backup lights and side marker lamps (in 1967 and 1968, respectively). After struggling with sales, the open-body Bronco roadster was withdrawn after the 1968 model year.[9]

After 1972, the Bronco half-cab was withdrawn; along with its lower sales compared to the wagon, Ford had introduced the larger Ford Courier compact pickup.

In a minor revision, for 1977, the exterior-mounted fuel tank caps were replaced behind hinged doors (as on all other Ford trucks).[9]

Trim

Inititally offered as a single trim level with a long option list, for 1967, Ford introduced the Sport option package for the Bronco wagon. Consisting primarily of chrome exterior trim and wheelcovers, the Sport package was distinguished by red-painted FORD grille lettering.[9] For 1970, the Bronco Sport became a freestanding model rather than an option package.[9]

For 1972, in line with the F-Series trucks, the Ranger trim became the top-of-the-line Bronco, offering body stripes, model-specific wheel covers, cloth seats, woodgrain door panels, and carpeted interior.[9]

In a 1975 interior revision, the Bronco Sport and Bronco Ranger adapted the two-spoke steering wheel from the F-Series.[9]

Sales

1966-1977 Ford Bronco production[9]
Year Units
1966 23,776
1967 14,230
1968 16,629
1969 20,956
1970 18,450
1971 19,784
1972 21,115
1973 21,894
1974 25,824
1975 13,125
1976 15,256
1977 14,546

Racing

In 1965, race car builder Bill Stroppe assembled a team of Broncos for long-distance off-road competition. Partnering with Holman-Moody, the Stroppe/Holman/Moody (SHM) Broncos competed in the Mint 400, Baja 500, and Mexican 1000 (later named the Baja 1000). In 1969, SHM again entered a team of six Broncos in the Baja 1000. In 1971, a "Baja Bronco" package was marketed through Ford dealers, featuring quick-ratio power steering, automatic transmission, fender flares covering Gates Commando tires, a roll bar, reinforced bumpers, a padded steering wheel, and distinctive red, white, blue, and black paint. Priced at US$5,566, versus the standard V8 Bronco price of $3,665, only 650 were sold over the next four years.[10]

In 1966, a Bronco "funny car" built by Doug Nash for the quarter-mile dragstrip finished with a few low 8-second times, but it was sidelined by sanctioning organizations when pickups and aluminum frames were outlawed.[11]

Second generation (1978–1979)

Second generation
1979 Ford Bronco (23517469006).jpg
1979 Ford Bronco with Free-Wheelin' package
Overview
Production1977[12]–1979[13]
AssemblyUnited States: Wayne, Michigan (Michigan Assembly Plant)
DesignerDick Nesbitt (1972)
Body and chassis
ClassFull-size SUV
Body style3-door SUV
LayoutF4 layout
Powertrain
Engine351 cu in (5.8 L) 351M V8
400 cu in (6.6 L) 400 V8
Transmission4-speed Borg-Warner T-18 manual
4-speed New Process NP435 manual
3-speed C6 automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase104 in (2,642 mm)
Length180.3 in (4,580 mm)
Width79.3 in (2,014 mm)
Height75.5 in (1,918 mm)
Curb weight4,663–4,718 lb (2,115–2,140 kg)

For the 1978 model year, the second-generation Bronco was introduced; to better compete with the Chevrolet K5 Blazer, Dodge Ramcharger, and Jeep Cherokee, the Bronco entered the full-size SUV segment.[14] In place of a model-specific chassis, the Bronco was adapted directly from the Ford F-Series, becoming a shortened version of the F-100 4x4.[14] Originally intended for a 1974 launch,[14] the second-generation Bronco (named "Project Shorthorn" during its development) was postponed to 1978 in response to fuel economy concerns related to the 1973 fuel crisis; the second-generation Bronco was released for sale after development was nearly finalized on its 1980 successor.[14]

In a notable break from a period of downsizing in the American automotive industry, the second-generation Bronco grew significantly in size, adding 12 inches of wheelbase, approximately 28 inches of length, 11 inches of width, and 4 inches of height; based on powertrain configuration, the Bronco gained 1,100 to 1,600 pounds of curb weight over its predecessor.

The second-generation Bronco marks the introduction of design commonality with the Ford F-Series and retained the lift-off hardtop bodystyle for the three-door wagon, though now fiberglass over the rear seat area only (and not a full length steel top), continued through the 1996 withdrawal of the model line. In spite of its short production cycle (only two years), the second-generation Bronco proved successful, overtaking the Blazer and Ramcharger in sales for the first time; initial demand was so strong that customers waited several months to receive vehicles from dealers.[14]

Chassis

The second generation Bronco is based on the Ford F-100 pickup truck chassis (1973–1979 sixth generation). Approximately one foot shorter than the shortest F-100, the Bronco has a 104-inch wheelbase (12 inches longer than the previous Bronco). The second generation Bronco is still fitted exclusively with four-wheel drive;[15] a part-time system was standard with a New Process 205 gear-driven transfer case with the option of permanent four-wheel drive and a New Process 203 chain-driven transfer case.

The second generation Bronco has a coil-sprung Dana 44 front axle and a leaf-sprung rear Ford 9-inch axle (similar to the later first generation Broncos). The first and second generation Broncos both have non-independent front suspension (solid front axle). Third generation and later have the Ford/Dana twin traction beam independent front suspension system.

Two different V8 engines were offered for the second generation Bronco: the 5.8L 351M and the 6.6L 400. While offering virtually the same horsepower output, the 400 produced a higher torque output over the 351M. As the 460 V8 was restricted to rear-wheel drive F-Series trucks, it was not offered in the Bronco.

For 1979, Ford added emissions controls to its light-truck engines; the Bronco gained a catalytic converter (among other equipment) in both engine configurations.[14][16]

1978-1979 Ford Bronco powertrain details
Engine Production Configuration Carburetion Output
Horsepower Torque
Ford 351M (335/Cleveland) V8 1978-1979 352 cu in (5.8 L) 16-valve V8 2-bbl 156 hp (1978)

158 hp (1979)

262 lb-ft
Ford 400 (335/Cleveland) V8 402 cu in (6.6 L) 16-valve V8 2-bbl 158 hp (1978)

156 hp (1979)

277 lb-ft

Body

Replacing the multiple body configurations of the first generation, the second-generation Bronco was offered solely as a 3-door wagon with a lift-off rear hardtop. During its development as Project Shorthorn, a central requirement by Ford was to adopt bodywork from the F-100 with minimal modification.[14] As with its chassis, the second-generation Bronco derives much of its body from the F-Series truck line, sharing the doors, front roofline and sheetmetal, and interior with the F-Series.[17]

Retaining the wagon body from its predecessor, Ford designers shifted from a full length hardtop (as with the previous Bronco and on the Jeep CJ-7) to a lift-off hardtop from behind the B-pillars. Designed by Dick Nesbitt, the configuration achieved higher commonality with the F-100 (sharing the doors and overhead roof stamping); attention was focused on minimizing leaks around the top seals (a problem related to the design of the K5 Blazer hardtop of the time).[14] In a configuration similar to the Ford LTD Country Squire, the glass of the rear window rolled down into the tailgate (via a dash-mounted switch or from using the key on the outside), allowing the tailgate to fold down.

Coinciding with its commonality with the F-100, the second-generation Bronco introduced features new to the model line for the first time, including air conditioning, radio, and tilt steering.[15][18] While a two-seat interior remained standard, the 11-inch wider interior allowed for a three-passenger front bench seat; with a folding and removable rear seat, the Bronco became a six-passenger vehicle for the first time.[19][18]

For 1979, the Bronco saw little change from 1978 models. Along with the F-Series, rectangular headlamps (introduced on the Ranger trim for 1978) became standard on all Broncos. In an interior revision, captain's chair front seats became an option.[14]

Trim

For the second-generation Bronco, the model line adopted the same trim nomenclature as the F-Series.[19] The Bronco Custom served as the standard-trim model with the Bronco Ranger XLT as the top-level trim. For 1978, as with the F-Series trucks, Customs were fitted with round headlamps while Ranger XLTs had rectangular units, which became standard for all Broncos for 1979.[16]

During 1978 and 1979, alongside the Econoline, F-Series, and Courier, the Bronco was sold with a "Free-Wheelin'" cosmetic option package for both Custom and Ranger XLT trims. Featuring tricolor striping and blacked-out exterior trim, the package featured revised exterior striping for 1979.[14]

Sales

1978-1979 Ford Bronco production
Year Units
1978 77,917
1979 104,038

Third generation (1980–1986)

Third generation
1986 Ford Bronco Eddie Bauer.jpg
Overview
Production1979–1986[20]
AssemblyUnited States: Wayne, Michigan (Michigan Assembly Plant)
Australia: Campbellfield, Victoria (Broadmeadows Assembly)[21]
DesignerDon Kopka (design director)
John Najjar (1977)[22][23]
Body and chassis
ClassFull-size SUV
Body style3-door SUV
Powertrain
Engine300 cu in (4.9 L) Straight-6
302 cu in (4.9 L) 302 V8
351 cu in (5.8 L) 351M V8
351 cu in (5.8 L) Windsor V8
Transmission4-speed Borg-Warner T-18 manual
4-speed New Process NP435 manual
4-speed Tremec RTS OverDrive
3-speed C6 automatic
4-speed AOD
Dimensions
Wheelbase104 in (2,642 mm)
Length180.4 in (4,582 mm)
Width79.3 in (2,014 mm)
Height75.5 in (1,918 mm)

Beginning production development in 1977[14] (before its predecessor was released for sale) the 1980–1986 Bronco was designed to address many concerns that held the 1978–1979 Bronco out of production. Nominally shorter and lighter, the 1980 Bronco was designed to adopt a more efficient powertrain while retaining its full-size dimensions.

In 1982, the Ford Bronco II made its debut; unrelated to the full-size Bronco, the Bronco II was a compact SUV based on a shortened Ranger pickup truck and sized similarly to the 1966–1977 Bronco.

Chassis

Again based on the Ford F-Series, the 1980–1986 Bronco is based upon the Ford F-150 (1980–1986 seventh generation). Although based on an all-new chassis, the Bronco retained its 104 in (2,642 mm) wheelbase. Both transfer cases were replaced with a New Process 208 version.[16]

In front, the 1980–1986 Bronco is fitted with a Dana 44 front axle with Ford TTB (Twin Traction Beam) independent front suspension.[16] As with the 1978–1979 Bronco, the rear axle is a leaf-sprung Ford 9-inch axle.[16]

For the first time since 1977, the Bronco came with an inline-six engine as standard; the 4.9L 300 I6 was available solely with a manual transmission. The 400 V8 was discontinued, with the 351M taking its place and the 302 V8 making its return as the base-equipment V8.[16] The 351 Windsor made its debut in the Bronco as it replaced the 351M in 1982; gaining a 210 hp "high-output" version in 1984.[16][24] In 1985, the 5.0L V8 (302) saw its carburetor replaced by a multiport electronic fuel-injection system, rising to 190 hp (the standard 156 hp 5.8L V8 was discontinued for 1986).[16]

Body

As with its 1978–1979 predecessor, the 1980–1986 Bronco shares much of its external sheetmetal with the F-Series pickup line, with the same parts from the doors forward. Based on a design proposal originally used in the development of the previous-generation Bronco, the B-pillar of the roofline was modified slightly to produce an improved seal for the hardtop.[14] Prior to 1984, the hardtop included sliding window glass as an option.

For 1982, the Bronco saw a slight facelift as it adopted Ford's blue oval emblem, taking the place of "F-O-R-D" lettering on the hood,[25] and the bronco horse was removed from the fender emblems.

Trim

The 1980–1986 Bronco adopted the same trim levels as the Ford F-Series pickups. Following the introduction of the Ford Ranger compact pickup, the Bronco adopted Bronco (base, replacing Custom), Bronco XL, and Bronco XLT.

In 1985, Ford added an Eddie Bauer trim package for the Bronco.[25] Featuring a color-keyed two-tone exterior, the trim package featured an outdoors-themed interior.

Sales

1980-1986 Ford Bronco production
Year Units
1980 44,353
1981 39,853
1982 40,782
1983 40,376
1984 40,376
1985 54,562
1986 62,127

Australian assembly

Outside of the US, the third generation Bronco was also assembled in Australia by Ford Australia, utilizing locally produced 4.1-litre six-cylinder and 5.8-litre V8 engines.[21] It was marketed in Australia from March 1981 through to 1987.[26]

Fourth generation (1987–1991)

Fourth generation
1990 Ford Bronco Front.jpg
Overview
Production1986[27]–1991
AssemblyUnited States: Wayne, Michigan (Michigan Assembly Plant) Venezuela: Valencia, Carabobo (Valencia Assembly)
Body and chassis
ClassFull-size SUV
Body style3-door SUV
Powertrain
Engine300 cu in (4.9 L) Straight-6
302 cu in (4.9 L) 302 V8
351 cu in (5.8 L) Windsor V8
Transmission5-speed M5OD-R2 manual
3-speed C6 automatic
4-speed AOD automatic
4-speed E4OD automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase104.7 in (2,660 mm)
Length180.5 in (4,580 mm)
Width79.1 in (2,010 mm)
Height1987–1989: 74.0 in (1,880 mm).
1990–1991: 74.5 in (1,890 mm)

For the 1987 model year, coinciding with the introduction of the eighth-generation Ford F-Series, the Bronco was given a similar update. While the shortened F-100 platform introduced in 1978 saw changes, the 1987 Bronco was given a number of updates to both the exterior and interior. As it shared its front sheetmetal with the F-150, in the interest of slightly better aerodynamics, the Bronco gained its reshaped front bumper, flatter front grille, reshaped hood, and composite headlamps. A change separate from aerodynamic improvements was the adoption of rounded wheel openings in the fenders. The interior was given redesigned front seats, door panels, dashboard and controls (including a new steering wheel), and instrument panels. In the interest of safety, rear-wheel anti-lock brakes (ABS) became standard in 1986 with the 1987 model.[28][25]

For the first time, for 1987 the Bronco was available with push-button control for its four-wheel drive as an option starting at introduction in 1986.[25] The Bronco carried over the 4.9L inline-six, 5.0L V8, and 5.8L "HO" V8 from 1986. In 1986, the inline-six was given fuel injection on '87 models, with the 5.8L HO gaining the configuration a year later.[25] For 1987, two Mazda-produced 5-speed manual transmissions replaced the previous 4-speed (depending on engine); the C6 3-speed automatic was phased out in favor of the AOD 4-speed automatic and the heavier-duty E4OD 4-speed automatic (the latter becoming the sole automatic in 1991).[25]

Special editions

To commemorate 25 years of production, Ford offered a Silver Anniversary Edition Bronco for the 1991 model year. A cosmetic option package, the Silver Anniversary Edition featured Currant Red exterior paint (package exclusive) and a gray leather interior (the first time leather seating was available for a Bronco).[25]

For 1991 through 1992, the Nite option package featured a completely blacked-out exterior with contrasting graphics. Alongside the top-line Eddie Bauer trim, both special editions were available only with a V8 engine and automatic transmission.

Sales

1987-1991 Ford Bronco production
Year Units
1987 43,074
1988 43,074
1989 69,470
1990 54,832
1991 25,001

Fifth generation (1992–1996)

Fifth generation
92-96 Ford Bronco.jpg
Overview
Production1991[29]–1996
AssemblyUnited States: Wayne, Michigan (Michigan Assembly Plant) Venezuela: Valencia, Carabobo (Valencia Assembly)
Body and chassis
ClassFull-size SUV
Body style3-door SUV
Powertrain
Engine300 cu in (4.9 L) Straight-6 (1992)
302 cu in (4.9 L) 302 V8
351 cu in (5.8 L) Windsor
Transmission4-speed AOD-E automatic
4-speed E4OD automatic
5-speed M5OD-R2 manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase104.7 in (2,660 mm)
Length183.6 in (4,660 mm)
Width79.1 in (2,010 mm)
Height1995–1996: 74.4 in (1,890 mm)
1992–1994: 74.5 in (1,890 mm)

Following the introduction of the ninth-generation Ford F-150, the Bronco saw a major design update for the 1992 model year. It was based on the same basic F-Series chassis introduced in late 1977, and the Bronco also saw updates to the exterior and interior. In the interest of making the vehicle more aerodynamic, designers again used wraparound composite headlight units and a larger grille. Although protruding from the body, the larger front bumper was given a rounded design. The interior again saw updates to the dashboard and instrument panel, with the addition of leather front seats as an option for XLT and Eddie Bauer trims as well as optional remote keyless entry with an anti-theft alarm.[30]

Safety changes

The redesign of the Bronco for 1992 would include the addition of a number of safety features, including front crumple zones, three-point seatbelts for the rear seat, and a center-mounted rear brake light. In 1993, as with the F-150, the 1994 Bronco received a standard driver-side airbag and reinforced internal door beams.[25] One change resulting from the addition of the safety equipment was that the lift-off hardtop on the Bronco was no longer removable from a legal standpoint (as it contained rear-seat seatbelts and the center brake light); to discourage the practice (which was still physically possible), Ford removed all literature in the Bronco owner's manual explaining how to remove the hardtop. To further discourage its removal, the bolts securing the hardtop in place were changed to Torx "tamper proof" bolts, requiring special tools, in place of standard hex-head bolts.

1992-1996 Ford Bronco Rear View
1992-1996 Ford Bronco Rear View

Special editions

1995-1996 Ford Bronco Eddie Bauer
1995-1996 Ford Bronco Eddie Bauer

The monochrome Nite edition was again available, though 1992 was its last offering. Monochrome paint versions were reintroduced from 1993 (1994 model) to 1996, as the XLT Sport variant of the Bronco available in black, red, or white. Another variant of the XLT was a two-tone light teal green and white (charcoal gray interior); approximately 600 were produced each year.

As with its Aerostar, Explorer, and F-150 counterparts, Ford continued sales of the Eddie Bauer outdoors-themed variant of the Bronco through 1996. For 1994, the trim featured an overhead console, lighted sun visors, and a dimming rear-view mirror. For 1995, a vented front bumper was added (it was added to the XLT for 1996).

Cosmetic exterior and interior changes included a sweeping front end and a new dashboard. Maroon and blue leather seats were first offered in 1991 (1992 model year) through the end of production. Power mirrors were again offered from 1991 launch, and from 1995, the Bronco became the first vehicle to incorporate turn signal lights in its side mirrors. All 1994–1996 Eddie Bauers have an overhead console. Some 1994–1996 XLTs and Eddie Bauers have lighted sun visors and a dimming rear-view mirror. From 1995–1996, Eddie Bauer models have a vented front bumper. For 1996, XLTs received the vented front bumper as well.

Engine changes

In 1994, the 300 engine was removed from the Bronco lineup. The 302 engine received a Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor system in 1994. The 351 followed with MAF in 1995 in California. 351s in the rest of the country received MAF in 1996 along with OBD2 on both the 302 and 351.

Sales

1992-1996 Ford Bronco production
1992 25,516
1993 32,281
1994 33,083
1995 37,693
1996 34,130

O.J. Simpson chase and discontinuation

The Bronco gained sudden popularity on June 17, 1994, when an estimated 95 million TV viewers tuned in to watch the police slowly chase a white Ford Bronco carrying O.J. Simpson down Los Angeles' Interstate 405.[31][32]

Ford discontinued manufacturing the Bronco two years later, but not because of the fame from the O.J. Simpson police chase. According to Mark Schirmer, a communications director for Ford utility vehicles, the model line was ended to make room for the automaker's newest additions to the lineup which were the large SUV family-style replacements, the Ford Expedition and the Ford Explorer.[33] The family-friendly Expedition and Explorer offered four doors and were introduced to compete with General Motors' Chevrolet Tahoe, GMC Yukon, and larger Chevrolet Suburban and GMC Yukon XL models. The 2-door Bronco was already fading in popularity long before the O.J. Simpson chase, according to Ford.[33] The last model built rolled off the Wayne, Michigan assembly line on June 12, 1996.[citation needed]

Centurion Classic (1987-1996)

A 1989 Centurion Classic; a Ford F-350 crew cab mated with rear bodywork of a Bronco
A 1989 Centurion Classic; a Ford F-350 crew cab mated with rear bodywork of a Bronco

A four-door Ford competitor for the Chevrolet Suburban was not released until the introduction of the Expedition for the 1997 model year (and the 2000 Excursion, competing against the ¾-ton version). As the Bronco was produced solely as a two-door wagon after 1972, all four-door Broncos were developed and produced on a license-built basis by the aftermarket.

During the 1980s and early 1990s, Centurion Vehicles, a converter specializing in Ford trucks based in White Pigeon, Michigan[34], constructed the Centurion Classic, a four-door version of the fourth- and fifth-generation Bronco. In the construction of each Classic, Centurion would mate the cab of an F-Series crew-cab pickup (from the C-pillar forward) to body of a Bronco (from the B-pillar rearward), including the rear quarter panels, hardtop, and tailgate of the SUV.[35] Early models used fiberglass rear body panels, but later, these were made from steel.[36] As the body conversion retained the rear seat of the Bronco, a Centurion Classic was equipped with three-row seating for up to nine people.[34]

Centurion Vehicles offered two models of the Classic: the C-150 (based on the Ford F-150 chassis, with optional four-wheel drive) and the C-350 (based on the F-350, four-wheel drive was standard).[34][35] Both models used a 140-inch wheelbase (9 inches longer than the Suburban[34]); as the F-150 was not produced as a crew cab, a C-150 was constructed from three different vehicles (crew cab, Bronco rear, and F-150 frame). In contrast to the ¾-ton Suburban 2500, the C-350 Classic utilized a one-ton chassis. The C-150 was offered with 5.0L and 5.8L V8 engines; the C-350 used the 7.3L diesel V8 and 7.5L gasoline V8 (the only Bronco variants to use these engines).[34]

The Centurion Classic was offered until the end of Bronco production in 1996; though the Bronco was directly replaced by the Expedition, the C-150/C-350 is closest in size to the Ford Excursion introduced for the 2000 model year.[34][35] As of current production, the C-350 is the only SUV produced on a one-ton chassis (the 2000-2005 Ford Excursion was produced on a ¾-ton chassis)

Sixth generation (U725; 2021)

Sixth generation (U725)[37]
Overview
Production2021 (to commence)[38]
Model years2021–
AssemblyUnited States: Wayne, Michigan (Michigan Assembly)
DesignerPaul Wraith (chief program designer, 2018)[39]
Robert Gelardi (design manager, 2018)[40]
Daniel Kangas (Bronco R, 2019)
Body and chassis
ClassMid-size SUV
Body style2-door convertible SUV
4-door convertible SUV
Powertrain
Engine
Power output
  • 270 hp (274 PS; 201 kW) (2.3)
  • 310 hp (314 PS; 231 kW) (2.7)[41]
Transmission7-speed Getrag MTI550 manual
10-speed Ford-GM SelectShift automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase
  • 100.4 in (2,550 mm) (2-door)
  • 116.1 in (2,949 mm) (4-door)
Length
  • 174.8 in (4,440 mm) (2-door)
  • 189.4–190.5 in (4,811–4,839 mm) (4-door)
Width75.9–79.3 in (1,928–2,014 mm)
Height70.2–71.4 in (1,783–1,814 mm)

For the 2021 model year, the Bronco returns to the Ford light-truck product range, following a 25-year hiatus. Shifting its chassis underpinnings from the F-Series to the Ford Ranger, the sixth-generation Bronco will become a mid-size SUV for the first time.

Background

The revival of the Ford Bronco came to light in 2016, during labor negotiations between Ford and the UAW.[42][43] As the future of the Michigan Assembly facility came to light, the assembly of the future Ford Focus was to be shifted to Mexico.[42] Following criticism of the decision by President Donald Trump, the UAW revealed to the media that production of the Ford Fiesta, Ford Focus and C-Max were to be replaced by a revival of the Ford Ranger, Ford Bronco and Ford Bronco Sport nameplates.[42]

While the Ranger was expected to be a version of the global Ranger T6 adapted to North American use, specific details of the configuration of the revived Bronco were less certain.[44] Speculated as a Ford competitor to the Jeep Wrangler,[44] the Bronco was expected to reach production by 2020.[43] At the 2017 North American International Auto Show, Ford officially confirmed the return of the Ford Bronco for the 2021 model year.[3] Later in 2017, Ford released a social media site dedicated to the launch of the 2021 Bronco.[45]

The 2021 Ford Bronco will be a mid-size SUV which will be offered in both two and four-door variants.[46] Built alongside the Ford Ranger at Michigan Assembly Plant in Wayne, Michigan (home to the 1966-1996 Ford Bronco assembly), the Bronco is largely speculated to share a body-on-frame chassis with the Ford Ranger pickup and the Ford Everest mid-size SUV. It is likely that it will also share its powertrain with the Ranger, being confirmed to have an array of turbocharged four and six-cylinder motors.

During the announcement of its return, Ford chief technical officer Raj Nair stated that the 2021 Bronco will be designed as a distinct model line, rather than a version of the Everest adapted for the United States and Canada.[46] Ford showed a pre-production prototype to a group of dealers in March 2019.[47] As with the Mustang, F-Series, and the Ranger, Ford is planning on a family of vehicles that would carry the Bronco DNA, as the “Bronco” nameplate is predominantly featured on the front and back of the vehicles instead of the Ford oval.[48]

The Bronco was scheduled to debut in spring 2020 as a 2021 model but has delayed reveal due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[49] Ford postponed the unveiling of the Bronco that had been planned for March 18, 2020,[50] and delayed production until September 2020 on the Bronco Sport.[51] The unveiling was scheduled for July 9th, 2020, which has drawn attention because it was O.J. Simpson's birthday.[52] Ford stated that this was only a coincidence, and the Bronco was revealed on July 13th, 2020.[53]

Specifications

The sixth-generation Ford Bronco was revealed on July 13th, 2020, at 8:00 p.m. EST. When the reveal officially premiered, Ford began taking $100 reservations for the two-door and four-door Bronco, with production expecting to commence in 2021.[54]

The standard powerplant on the sixth-generation Bronco is a 2.3-liter turbocharged EcoBoost inline-four that makes 270 hp (274 PS; 201 kW) and 310 lb⋅ft (420 N⋅m; 43 kg⋅m) of torque. A 2.7-liter twin-turbocharged EcoBoost V6 is optional; this engine makes 310 hp (314 PS; 231 kW) and 400 lb⋅ft (542 N⋅m; 55 kg⋅m) of torque. The 2.7-liter V6 will only be available with a 10-speed automatic transmission while the 2.3-liter will be mated with either the 10-speed automatic or a standard 7-speed Getrag manual.[55] Despite the nomenclature, the Getrag transmission is not a true seven-speed transmission, instead being a traditional six-speed unit with a dedicated crawler gear (the "C" on the shift knob) as the "seventh gear".

In a reference to the original Bronco Roadster, the sixth-generation Bronco offers removable doors and roof to provide an open-air experience, a feature shared on both the two-door and four-door models, with both models also sporting 11.6 in (295 mm) of ground clearance.[56] The sixth-generation Bronco allows for storage of doors in the rear cargo space to quickly add or remove them.[57]

The sixth-generation Bronco utilizes a twin A-arm independent suspension setup in the front, with a five-link coilover setup and solid axle in the rear. The optional HOSS (High-Performance Off-Road Stability Suspension) setup replaces these with position-sensitive Bilstein shocks, with multiple compression and rebound zones, at all four corners. The front sway bar features a hydraulic disconnect for maximized articulation when crawling, automatically reconnecting when brought back to speed. The Bronco also offers a Sasquatch package delivering 35-inch tires, the largest of any production vehicle.

The Bronco also utilizes Dana axles with front and rear electronic differentials as standard, both of which are able to be locked via a set of switches in the middle of the dashboard. In addition, the Bronco's drivetrain can be toggled between 4WD Low, 4WD High, 4WD Automatic, and 2WD High (rear-wheel drive), controlled by a dial near the gear selector as opposed to a secondary shifter near the main shift lever.[58]

Ford also offers G.O.A.T Modes (Goes Over Any Type of Terrain) on the sixth-generation Bronco; this terrain-management system calibrates throttle response, four-wheel drive, traction control, and transmission shifts to maximize traction when offroading. Up to seven modes are available with this system: Normal, Eco, Sport, Slippery, and Sand, along with Baja, Mud and Ruts, and Rock Crawl. The available Trail One-Pedal Drive automatically applies and holds the brakes when the driver lifts off the gas pedal, removing the need for left-foot braking and preventing unexpected rollbacks. The sixth-generation Bronco also offers Trail Turn Assist, which utilizes the torque-vectoring system to help the vehicle turn in tight offroad corners.

Another new feature introduced in this generation are Trail Maps. Essentially, the new software allows Bronco owners to download topographical maps onto their smartphone and project the map onto the center screen. This software also allows the driver to record a video of trail runs, along with displaying telemetry and map data, and upload it to the cloud, letting others see their trail runs.[59]. The sixth generation will also feature a slide out tray from under the rear cargo compartment, an action rack on the front dash to allow for phone and camera mounting, and waterproof switches and rubber floors are also available.[60]

Concepts and Prototypes

1966 Bronco Dune Duster

For the 1965 Detroit Auto Show Ford constructed a special Bronco roadster. According to Ford,

A special, customized version of Ford Division's 1966 Bronco, the Dune Duster, will be displayed at the Detroit Auto Show from November 27 through December 5. The utility/sports-type vehicle was designed in Ford's Styling Center in Dearborn and built by Parris Kustom in North Hollywood, California. Exterior paint is a specially formulated Golden Saddle Pearl and modifications include an NHRA-approved roll bar with integral headrests, a windshield designed to complement the contour of the roll bar, walnut appliques on the rear side panels and exposed chrome exhaust pipes. Custom interior appointments include a walnut steering wheel and front bucket seats with russet suede bolsters and perforated leather cushions and seatbacks. The instrument panel is trimmed with suede padding and outfitted with walnut-trimmed control knobs. Jump seats have been added to the rear compartment over the wheels and a tonneau cover for rear compartment protection was added for attachment with quick-fastening snaps.[61]

1970 Bronco Wildflower

For 1970, Ford re-dressed the Dune Duster as the Wildflower:

The Wildflower, a specially customized version of Ford Division's popular four-wheel-drive Bronco, is sure to be one of the most colorful show cars on display at automobile shows this year. The unique vehicle, planned in Ford's Design Center in Dearborn, Mich., was extensively modified, inside and out, to achieve a lively carefree appearance with added luxury and safety features. The dominant exterior characteristic of the Wildflower is the lively multi-colored paint treatment. The psychedelic design of blues, yellows and reds is topped off by a pink grille.[62]

1973 Big Bronco Concepts

Foreshadowing the 1978 Bronco, the Shorthorn was built on the chassis of a shortened 1973 F-100. The prototype used a Chevrolet Blazer fiberglass removable top, and married the rear fenders directly to the front doors.

According to Ford’s Advanced Light Truck Engineering George Peterson;

"The wheelbase of the F-Series short wheel base pickup was shortened and inner and outer panel of the pickup box were shortened to meet up with the F-Series doors. We had an idea that just short-stamping the box inner and outer would let us marry the rear pieces to the B-Pillar. Not so fast, there was a 1/10th of an inch mismatch between the panels because of the sweep of the bodyside contour line. So, this idea was not feasible for production, but was OK for a prototype for proof of concept. To make the fiberglass rear roof, we stripped the top off of a Chevrolet Blazer and mated it to the top of the Ford pickup box. This roof retained the liftgate from the Blazer. The idea for the front of the roof was to have a pseudo Targa-style roof contour that swept across the roof. That this over-the-roof contour could be construed as a roll-bar was a great aggravation to Ford’s counsels, so the prototype did not have this design feature."[63]

In addition to the Shorthorn, Ford also developed the Longhorn (four-door Suburban sized SUV), the Midhorn (mid-sized) and the Widehorn. George Peterson notes that "The Widehorn was six-inches wider than the standard F-Series and had to have running lights on top of  roof for clearance regulation reasons."[63]

The only Big Bronco concept to see production, the Shorthorn, was delayed until 1977 due to the OPEC oil crisis.[64]

1981 Bronco Montana Lobo

Built on a 1977 Bronco chassis, it included "a pair of expansive Plexiglas bubble doors that were removable and that had a vague resemblance to the expanse of clear plastic that passed for four-weather doors on the Dune Duster. It included a rollbar that - though likely not NHRA certified and though integrated with side louvers and lights - still had a rough airfoil shape like the Dune Duster's. It included side pipes like the Dune Duster's. It included fold-up bench seats for bed seating like the Dune Duster's In addition, the Montana Lobo included foam bumpers, a winch integrated into the front bumper, a retractable loading ramp built into the tailgate, storage compartments integrated into the bed sides, a T-top roof, and a massive tinted window between the cab and the bed that slid open."[64][65]

1988 Bronco DM-1

Built on a Ford Escort platform, the DM-1 concept was a "4-wheel drive concept vehicle was the winning design in a Ford sponsored contest for industrial art students. Mr. Derek Millsap, who created the 5-seat sport-utility vehicle, lent his initials to the Bronco DM-1 name. The bulbous body was made of steel-reinforced fiberglass, and the large hatch extended into the roof."

2004 Bronco Concept

Bronco concept at the 2004 New York Auto Show
Bronco concept at the 2004 New York Auto Show

At the 2004 North American International Auto Show, a Ford Bronco concept vehicle was unveiled. Inspired by the first-generation (1966-1977) Ford Bronco, the 2004 concept adapted a short wheelbase, round headlamps, and squared-off roofline; the concept marked one of the first uses of a three-bar grille on Ford vehicles. Using a minimalist exterior design, the Bronco design was unveiled alongside a Shelby Cobra Concept at the same show.

Using the Ford CD2 platform of the Ford Escape,[66][67] the Bronco concept was powered by a 2.0L four-cylinder turbodiesel (from the Ford Mondeo) and a six-speed manual transmission. Replacing ControlTrac II, an "Intelligent" 4-wheel drive system was intended for improved stability and fuel economy.

Dwayne Johnson's character drives the Bronco concept in his 2018 movie, Rampage.[68]

2020 Bronco R Prototype

At the 2019 Baja 1000, Ford introduced the Ford Bronco R prototype with the drivetrain of the new as-yet unreleased 2021 Bronco with the intent of testing the engine, transmission and four wheel drive system to be used in the production-spec sixth-generation Bronco. The Baja 1000 was thought to be the perfect test for the new off-road vehicle Ford is producing, with 1000 miles of some of the world's roughest terrain. The 2020 race was also tougher after being delayed for 24 hours due to excessive rainfall in the days before the event. With the excessive rainfall, one of the Class One co-drivers Ford used in the race referred to it as the "Mud Bog 1000." While the Bronco R prototype model used for the Baja 1000 shared some components with the production Bronco, Ford upfitted the Bronco R with off-road-tuned racing suspension as well as off-road wheels and 37-inch off-road tires.[69] The Bronco R also used a 70-gallon fuel tank during the race, allowing the prototype to travel up to 315 miles of the course before refueling.[69] While this would have been a significant advantage to the Bronco R team, it was not taken advantage of. The Bronco R team made a stop every 130 miles to swap drivers, as well as checking the vehicle's condition and making sure there were no repairs needed at the time. Ford did not disclose details of the engine used in the Bronco R. The only information that is known was that the engine was a twin-turbo EcoBoost engine. When it came to the four-wheel drive system, the vehicle experienced no issues with muddy sections of the course. While the drivers only had to use four-wheel drive with low gearing to get out of thick mud, the Bronco R stopped multiple times along the course to tug other competitors out of the mud, including a near 6,000 pound trophy truck. While the Bronco R's engine, transmission and four-wheel drive held up with no issues, many of the aftermarket suspension components did not fare the same. Around mile 495 of the 1000 mile journey, the passenger side spindle, lower-control arm and CV joint had been destroyed. The team was able to fix most issues and were able to continue the race until around mile 580, when the engine cooling fans began giving out (one fan had completely seized up, while the other was not working at max speed) causing the Bronco R to overheat and needing to be towed about eight miles to the next filling station. After about 30 minutes of working on the Bronco R to try to get it back on course, Ford pulled the vehicle out of the race due to severe mechanical issues.[70]

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External links

Media related to Ford Bronco at Wikimedia Commons

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