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Ford 385 engine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ford 385 V8
Boss 429.jpg
Ford Mustang Boss 429 engine
Overview
ManufacturerFord Motor Company
Production1968–1998
Layout
ConfigurationNaturally aspirated Big-block V8
Displacement370 cu in (6.1 L)
429 cu in (7.0 L)
460 cu in (7.5 L)
Cylinder bore4.362 in (110.8 mm)
Piston stroke3.59 in (91.2 mm)
3.85 in (97.8 mm)
ValvetrainOHV 2 valves per cylinder
Compression ratio8.0:1, 8.5:1, 11.0:1, 11.3:1
Combustion
Fuel systemHolley 735 cu ft/min (20.8 m3/min) 4-bbl. carburetor
Fuel typeGasoline
Cooling systemWater-cooled
Output
Power output375 hp (380 PS; 280 kW)
217 hp (220 PS; 162 kW)[1]
Specific power53.3 hp (39.7 kW) per liter
28.8 hp (21.5 kW) per liter
Torque output500 lb⋅ft (678 N⋅m)
365 lb⋅ft (495 N⋅m)[1]
Chronology
PredecessorFord FE/FT V8
Ford MEL V8 (Lincoln)
Ford Super Duty truck engine (heavy trucks)
SuccessorFord 5.0L/5.8L V8 (cars)
Ford Triton V10 (trucks)

The Ford 385 engine family (also code-named "Lima"[2]) is a series of big block V8 engines designed by Ford Motor Company. Produced from 1968 to 1998, the Lima engines replaced the MEL engine entirely, along with multiple engines of the medium-block FE engine family; in truck applications, the engines succeeded the much larger Super Duty family.

The Lima engines were used across multiple applications in North America. In cars, the engines saw use by all three Ford divisions in full-size cars, intermediates, personal luxury cars, and muscle cars. In trucks, the engine family was used in full-size trucks and vans, along with medium and heavy-duty trucks.

Produced in Lima, Ohio (Lima Engine), the engine family was the final big-block V8 designed and produced by Ford during the 20th century. After 1978, the engines were phased out of Ford cars as its full-size cars underwent downsizing (intermediates last used the engines in 1976). Following its shift to truck use, the Lima engines were joined by multiple diesel-powered engines.

In 1997, Ford introduced the overhead-cam Triton V10, which replaced the Lima V8 engine family after the 1998 model year; the next overhead-valve large-block V8 produced by Ford is the 7.3L "Godzilla" V8 introduced for 2020.

Versions

The 385/Lima engine family derives its name from the 3.85-inch (98 mm) crankshaft stroke of the 460 cubic-inch V8.[3] The engine was produced in 370 (6.1 L), 429 (7.0 L), and 460 cubic-inch (7.5 L) displacements. To reduce weight over their predecessors, the 385 engines utilized thinwall casting methods and a skirtless block.

370

The smallest-displacement engine of the 385 engine family, the 370 was introduced in 1977, replacing the 361 cu in (5.9 L) 360 Truck (FT) V8. Sharing its 3.59-inch stroke with the 429, the 370 was designed with a downsized 4.05-inch bore (shared with its predecessor and the 390 V8). In 1979, the engine was rebranded as a metric-displacement 6.1L V8.[2]

After 1991 production, the 370 was discontinued, with the 429 replacing it in all truck applications.

Applications:

429

Developed to replace the largest of the FE-series V8s, the 429 replaced the 390, 427, and 428 V8s. Introduced in the 1968 Ford Thunderbird, the engine saw use across Ford and Mercury full-size and intermediate product lines. After the 1973 model year, Ford ended the use of the 429 in cars.

Replaced by the 460 in Ford and Lincoln-Mercury cars, the 429 would live on in Ford medium-duty trucks, reintroduced as a metric-displacement 7.0L "Lima" V8 for 1979.[2] Initially replacing the 401 Super Duty V8, the 7.0L replaced the 477 and 534 Super Duty engines for 1982. After 1991, the 429 became the sole gasoline engine offered in Ford commercial trucks; the 460/7.5L was used in trucks under 1½-ton payload.

Sharing its 4.36-inch bore with the 460, the 429 was designed with a shorter 3.59-inch stroke.

Applications:

460

The largest-displacement 385 engine, the 460 was developed as the successor for the 462 MEL V8 and the 390 FE/FT V8. Introduced in the Continental Mark III for 1968, the 460 was initially exclusive to Lincoln (and the Mark III); in 1972, the engine was introduced for Mercury and was added to Ford (and intermediates) for 1973. The same year, the engine was added to Ford light-duty trucks (F-Series pickups). As Ford began to respond to the implementation of CAFE, the 460 (initially standard in Lincolns and highest-trim Mercurys) was made an option, effectively replaced by the 400 V8 (335-series). 1978 marked the final year of the 460 in Ford and Lincoln-Mercury full-size cars, coinciding with their downsizing. For 1980 to 1982, the 460 was exclusive to the Econoline 350, as the 400 V8 became the largest engine for F-Series trucks; for 1983, the 460 made its return to the F-Series (replacing the 400).

From 1968 to 1971, the 460 was rated at 365 gross hp. For 1972, the engine underwent a significant numeric decrease. Along with a decrease in the compression ratio (to 8.5:1) and modification of camshaft timing, the engine output was primarily influenced by the adoption of SAE net horsepower as a standard in North America (accounting for the power losses created by engine accessories and exhaust system). Initially reduced to 212 hp, the 460 saw its output change nearly on a yearly basis (to improve its fuel economy and emissions performance), dropping as low as 197 hp in 1977. Following its 1983 reintroduction, the 460 received fuel injection for 1988; while remaining at 225 hp, the update significantly increased torque output; after further updates in 1992 and 1994, the final production version of the 460 produced 245 hp and 410 lb-ft of torque.

Sharing a 4.36-inch bore with the 429, the 460 was designed with a 3.85-inch stroke.

Applications:

  • Ford Thunderbird (1972-1976)
  • Mercury Cougar (1974-1976)
  • Ford/Mercury full-size (1972-1978)
  • Ford/Mercury intermediate (1973-1976)
  • Ford F-Series (1973-1998)
  • Ford E-Series (1975-1996)

Through its fitment on chassis-cab versions of the F-Series and cutaway cab configurations of the E-Series, the 460 saw many applications of commercial use; other applications include recreational vehicles/RVs and bus use. As a crate engine, the 460 was produced by Ford Motorsports through 1997.[citation needed]

514

A 514 cu in (8.4 L) crate engine was also available from Ford SVO[citation needed]

High-performance variants

Succeeding the FE engine family, Ford developed multiple high-performance versions of the 385 engine family from 1969 to 1971, all based on the 429.

The 429 Cobra Jet (429CJ) was fitted with a Rochester Quadrajet 700 cu ft/min (20 m3/min) 4-bbl carburetor, a larger camshaft; a special set of cylinder heads allowed for a 11.3:1 compression ratio, increasing output to 370 hp. The engine was fitted with or without a hood scoop, coming with a 3.25:1 rear-axle ratio. When fitted with a "shaker" hood scoop, a 429 CJ-Ram Air received a 3.50:1 rear axle. In 1971, the CJ engine also used a four-bolt main block.

The 429 Super Cobra Jet (429SCJ) was fitted with a Holley 735 cu ft/min (20.8 m3/min) 4-bbl carburetor, larger mechanical camshaft, and a four-bolt main block. The engine output was increased to 375 hp and 450 lb-ft of torque, coming with a 3.91:1 or 4.30:1 rear axle ratio.[4][5]

Police Interceptor engines

For police use, Ford developed Police Interceptor versions of the 429 and 460. Dependent on horsepower rating systems (gross vs. net) and emissions tuning, engine output ranged from 210-375 hp. The Ford 460 engine would become the highest-displacement V8 ever used by police agencies, followed by the Pontiac 455 Police Enforcer, Chevrolet 454 Police Apprehender, and Chrysler/Dodge 440 Police Pursuit V8s.

The 1971 429 Police Interceptor was tuned similar to the 429 Cobra Jet, with a 11.0:1 compression ratio; the engine was rated at 375 hp (gross).[citation needed]

From 1973 to 1978, Ford offered two versions of the 460 police engine, the lower-output 460 Police Cruiser and the higher-output 460 Police Interceptor. The basic "A" 460 PC was recommended for city and suburban use, while the "C" 460 PI was built for high speed highway patrol and interstate applications.

The 460 Police Cruiser (460 PC), identified by engine code "A" in the installed vehicle's vehicle identification number (VIN) and the engine's valve cover spec sticker, and the 460 Police Interceptor (460 PI) identified by the engine code "C" in its VIN and on its spec sticker. The two were commonly confused with each other, the "A" code 460 being a basic, street/production stock flowing engine with additional cooling bolt-ons and a block-mounted non-electric fuel pump. The more powerful "C" code 460 Police Interceptor, with its higher lift camshaft and better flowing heads and exhaust, and high flow in-tank electric fuel pump, as the stock, block-mounted, cam-driven vacuum lift fuel pump would starve the motor for fuel above 100 mph (160 km/h). The 460 Interceptor was capable of speeds in excess of 130 mph (210 km/h).

Specifications

All engines

Deck height (early block): 10.3 or 10.31 in (261.6 or 261.9 mm)
Deck height (late block, D9TE): 10.322 in (262.2 mm)
Rod length: 6.605 in (167.8 mm)
Bore spacing 4.9 in (120 mm)

370

Bore x stroke: 4.05 in × 3.59 in (102.9 mm × 91.2 mm)

429

Bore x stroke: 4.362 in × 3.59 in (110.8 mm × 91.2 mm)
Chamber size (C8VE/C9VE/D0VE): ~72-75cc

460

Bore x stroke: 4.362 in × 3.85 in (110.8 mm × 97.8 mm)
Chamber size (C8VE/C9VE/D0VE) 75cc
Chamber size (D2VE) ~99-100cc
Chamber size (D3VE/E8TE): ~93-95cc
Chamber size (F3TZ) 89.5-92.5cc

2 valves per cylinder (although labeled 460-4V - "V" stands here for "venturi" and addresses the carburetor capacity)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Ford Gran Torino Hardtop, 1975 MY US.CA". Carfolio.com. 2015-06-13. Retrieved 2018-09-10.
  2. ^ a b c "1979 Ford F Series Trucks Brochure". www.oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2020-03-28.
  3. ^ "Ford 429 Super Cobra Jet | Engines | hobbyDB". www.hobbydb.com. Retrieved 2020-01-13.
  4. ^ "1970 Ford Mustang Boss 429 engine specs, photos". carswithmuscles.com. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  5. ^ "1969 Ford Mustang Boss 429". automobile-catalog.com. Retrieved July 8, 2018.

External links

This page was last edited on 11 August 2020, at 23:18
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