To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Florida's 6th congressional district

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Florida's 6th congressional district
Interactive map of district boundaries since January 3, 2023
  Michael Waltz
RSt. Augustine Beach
Area2,682[1] sq mi (6,950 km2)
  • 86.15% urban[2]
  • 13.85% rural
Population (2022)812,621
Median household
Cook PVIR+14[4]

Florida's 6th congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of Florida. The district is located on the Eastern Florida Coast and stretches from the southern Jacksonville suburbs to New Smyrna Beach. It includes the city of Daytona Beach.

From 2003 to 2013 the district stretched from the St. Johns River and Jacksonville, sweeping through North Central Florida, encompassing portions of Gainesville and Ocala, and meandered down to the northern tip of the Greater Orlando area in Lake County. It included all of Bradford and Gilchrist counties and portions of Alachua, Clay, Duval, Lake, Levy, and Marion counties. Most of this district is now the 3rd District, while the current 6th covers most of the territory that was previously in the 7th district.

The district is currently represented by Republican Michael Waltz.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/1
    1 041 508
  • Congressional Elections: Crash Course Government and Politics #6


Hi, I'm Craig and this is Crash Course Government and Politics, and today we're going to talk about what is, if you ask the general public, the most important part of politics: elections. If you ask me, it's hair styles. Look at Martin Van Buren's sideburns, how could he not be elected? Americans are kind of obsessed with elections, I mean when this was being recorded in early 2015, television, news and the internet were already talking about who would be Democrat and Republican candidates for president in 2016. And many of the candidates have unofficially been campaigning for years. I've been campaigning; your grandma's been campaigning. Presidential elections are exciting and you can gamble on them. Is that legal, can you gamble on them, Stan? Anyway, why we're so obsessed with them is a topic for another day. Right now I'm gonna tell you that the fixation on the presidential elections is wrong, but not because the president doesn't matter. No, today we're gonna look at the elections of the people that are supposed to matter the most, Congress. Constitutionally at least, Congress is the most important branch of government because it is the one that is supposed to be the most responsive to the people. One of the main reasons it's so responsive, at least in theory, is the frequency of elections. If a politician has to run for office often, he or she, because unlike the president we have women serving in Congress, kind of has to pay attention to what the constituents want, a little bit, maybe. By now, I'm sure that most of you have memorized the Constitution, so you recognize that despite their importance in the way we discuss politics, elections aren't really a big feature of the Constitution. Except of course for the ridiculously complex electoral college system for choosing the president, which we don't even want to think about for a few episodes. In fact, here's what the Constitution says about Congressional Elections in Article 1 Section 2: "The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature." So the Constitution does establish that the whole of the house is up for election every 2 years, and 1/3 of the senate is too, but mainly it leaves the scheduling and rules of elections up to the states. The actual rules of elections, like when the polls are open and where they actually are, as well as the registration requirements, are pretty much up to the states, subject to some federal election law. If you really want to know the rules in your state, I'm sure that someone at the Board of Elections, will be happy to explain them to you. Really, you should give them a call; they're very, very lonely. In general though, here's what we can say about American elections. First stating the super obvious, in order to serve in congress, you need to win an election. In the House of Representatives, each election district chooses a single representative, which is why we call them single-member districts. The number of districts is determined by the Census, which happens every 10 years, and which means that elections ending in zeros are super important, for reasons that I'll explain in greater detail in a future episode. It's because of gerrymandering. The Senate is much easier to figure out because both of the state Senators are elected by the entire state. It's as if the state itself were a single district, which is true for states like Wyoming, which are so unpopulated as to have only 1 representative. Sometimes these elections are called at large elections. Before the election ever happens, you need candidates. How candidates are chosen differs from state to state, but usually it has something to do with political parties, although it doesn't have to. Why are things so complicated?! What we can say is that candidates, or at least good candidates, usually have certain characteristics. Sorry America. First off, if you are gonna run for office, you should have an unblemished record, free of, oh I don't know, felony convictions or sex scandals, except maybe in Louisiana or New York. This might lead to some pretty bland candidates or people who are so calculating that they have no skeletons in their closet, but we Americans are a moral people and like our candidates to reflect our ideals rather than our reality. The second characteristic that a candidate must possess is the ability to raise money. Now some candidates are billionaires and can finance their own campaigns. But most billionaires have better things to do: buying yachts, making even more money, building money forts, buying more yachts, so they don't have time to run for office. But most candidates get their money for their campaigns by asking for it. The ability to raise money is key, especially now, because running for office is expensive. Can I get a how expensive is it? "How expensive is it?!" Well, so expensive that the prices of elections continually rises and in 2012 winners of House races spent nearly 2 million each. Senate winners spent more than 10 million. By the time this episode airs, I'm sure the numbers will be much higher like a gajillion billion million. Money is important in winning an election, but even more important, statistically, is already being in Congress. Let's go to the Thought Bubble. The person holding an office who runs for that office again is called the incumbent and has a big advantage over any challenger. This is according to political scientists who, being almost as bad at naming things as historians, refer to this as incumbency advantage. There are a number of reasons why incumbents tend to hold onto their seats in congress, if they want to. The first is that a sitting congressman has a record to run on, which we hope includes some legislative accomplishments, although for the past few Congresses, these don't seem to matter. The record might include case work, which is providing direct services to constituents. This is usually done by congressional staffers and includes things like answering questions about how to get certain government benefits or writing recommendation letters to West Point. Congressmen can also provide jobs to constituents, which is usually a good way to get them to vote for you. These are either government jobs, kind of rare these days, called patronage or indirect employment through government contracts for programs within a Congressman's district. These programs are called earmarks or pork barrel programs, and they are much less common now because Congress has decided not to use them any more, sort of. The second advantage that incumbents have is that they have a record of winning elections, which if you think about it, is pretty obvious. Being a proven winner makes it easier for a congressmen to raise money, which helps them win, and long term incumbents tend to be more powerful in Congress which makes it even easier for them to raise money and win. The Constitution give incumbents one structural advantage too. Each elected congressman is allowed $100,000 and free postage to send out election materials. This is called the franking privilege. It's not so clear how great an advantage this is in the age of the internet, but at least according to the book The Victory Lab, direct mail from candidates can be surprisingly effective. How real is this incumbency advantage? Well if you look at the numbers, it seems pretty darn real. Over the past 60 years, almost 90% of members of The House of Representatives got re-elected. The Senate has been even more volatile, but even at the low point in 1980 more than 50% of sitting senators got to keep their jobs. Thanks, Thought Bubble. You're so great. So those are some of the features of congressional elections. Now, if you'll permit me to get a little politically sciencey, I'd like to try to explain why elections are so important to the way that Congressmen and Senators do their jobs. In 1974, political scientist David Mayhew published a book in which he described something he called "The Electoral Connection." This was the idea that Congressmen were primarily motivated by the desire to get re-elected, which intuitively makes a lot of sense, even though I'm not sure what evidence he had for this conclusion. Used to be able to get away with that kind of thing I guess, clearly David may-not-hew to the rules of evidence, pun [rim shot], high five, no. Anyway Mayhew's research methodology isn't as important as his idea itself because The Electoral Connection provides a frame work for understanding congressman's activities. Mayhew divided representatives' behaviors and activities into three categories. The first is advertising; congressmen work to develop their personal brand so that they are recognizable to voters. Al D'Amato used to be know in New York as Senator Pothole, because he was able to bring home so much pork that he could actually fix New York's streets. Not by filling them with pork, money, its money, remember pork barrel spending? The second activity is credit claiming; Congressmen get things done so that they can say they got them done. A lot of case work and especially pork barrel spending are done in the name of credit claiming. Related to credit claiming, but slightly different, is position taking. This means making a public judgmental statement on something likely to be of interest to voters. Senators can do this through filibusters. Representatives can't filibuster, but they can hold hearings, publicly supporting a hearing is a way of associating yourself with an idea without having to actually try to pass legislation. And of course they can go on the TV, especially on Sunday talk shows. What's a TV, who even watches TV? Now the idea of The Electoral Connection doesn't explain every action a member of Congress takes; sometimes they actually make laws to benefit the public good or maybe solve problems, huh, what an idea! But Mayhew's idea gives us a way of thinking about Congressional activity, an analytical lens that connects what Congressmen actually do with how most of us understand Congressmen, through elections. So the next time you see a Congressmen call for a hearing on a supposed horrible scandal or read about a Senator threatening to filibuster a policy that may have significant popular support, ask yourself, "Is this Representative claiming credit or taking a position, and how will this build their brand?" In other words: what's the electoral connection and how will whatever they're doing help them get elected? This might feel a little cynical, but the reality is Mayhew's thesis often seems to fit with today's politics. Thanks for watching, see you next week. Vote for me; I'm on the TV. I'm not -- I'm on the YouTube. Crash Course: Government and Politics is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios. Support for Crash Course US Government comes from Voqal. Voqal supports nonprofits that use technology and media to advance social equity. Learn more about their mission and initiatives at Crash Course is made by all of these nice people. Thanks for watching. That guy isn't nice.


Year Office Results
2004 President George W. Bush 61% – John Kerry 39%
2008 President John McCain 56% – Barack Obama 42%
2012 President Mitt Romney 57.7% – Barack Obama 41.4%
2016 President Donald Trump 57% – Hillary Clinton 40%
2020 President Donald Trump 58% – Joe Biden 40%

Voter registration

The district contains over 525,000 registered voters, of whom just over 39% are Democratic, while slightly more than 41% identify as Republican.

List of members representing the district

Member Party Years Cong
Electoral history
District created January 3, 1945

Dwight L. Rogers
(Fort Lauderdale)
Democratic January 3, 1945 –
December 1, 1954
Elected in 1944
Re-elected in 1946.
Re-elected in 1948.
Re-elected in 1950.
Re-elected in 1952.
Re-elected in 1954 but died.
Vacant December 1, 1954 –
January 11, 1955

Paul Rogers
(West Palm Beach)
Democratic January 11, 1955 –
January 3, 1967
Elected to finish his father's term.
Re-elected in 1956.
Re-elected in 1958.
Re-elected in 1960.
Re-elected in 1962.
Re-elected in 1964.
Redistricted to the 9th district.

Sam Gibbons
Democratic January 3, 1967 –
January 3, 1973
Redistricted from the 10th district and re-elected in 1966.
Re-elected in 1968.
Re-elected in 1970.
Redistricted to the 7th district.

Bill Young
(St. Petersburg)
Republican January 3, 1973 –
January 3, 1983
Redistricted from the 8th district and re-elected in 1972.
Re-elected in 1974.
Re-elected in 1976.
Re-elected in 1978.
Re-elected in 1980.
Redistricted to the 8th district.

Buddy MacKay
Democratic January 3, 1983 –
January 3, 1989
Elected in 1982.
Re-elected in 1984.
Re-elected in 1986.
Retired to run for U.S. Senator

Cliff Stearns
Republican January 3, 1989 –
January 3, 2013
Elected in 1988.
Re-elected in 1990.
Re-elected in 1992.
Re-elected in 1994.
Re-elected in 1996.
Re-elected in 1998.
Re-elected in 2000.
Re-elected in 2002.
Re-elected in 2004.
Re-elected in 2006.
Re-elected in 2008.
Re-elected in 2010.
Redistricted to the 3rd district and lost renomination.

Ron DeSantis
(Ponte Vedra Beach)
Republican January 3, 2013 –
September 10, 2018
Elected in 2012.
Re-elected in 2014.
Re-elected in 2016.
Retired and resigned to run for Governor of Florida.[5]
Vacant September 10, 2018 –
January 3, 2019

Michael Waltz
(St. Augustine Beach)
Republican January 3, 2019 –
Elected in 2018.
Re-elected in 2020.
Re-elected in 2022.

Election results


Florida 6th Congressional District 2000[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Cliff Stearns (incumbent) 178,789 99.9
Write-In Timothy Clower 152 0.1
Write-In Barbara Elliott 31 0.0
Total votes 178,972 100.0
Republican hold


Florida's 6th Congressional District Election (2002)
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Cliff Stearns (Incumbent) 141,570 65.35
Democratic Dave Bruderly 75,046 34.65
Total votes 216,616 100.00
Republican hold


Florida's 6th Congressional District Election (2004)
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Cliff Stearns (Incumbent) 211,137 64.40
Democratic Dave Bruderly 116,680 35.59
No party Others 36 0.01
Total votes 327,853 100.00
Republican hold


Florida's 6th Congressional District Election (2006)
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Cliff Stearns (Incumbent) 136,601 59.88
Democratic Dave Bruderly 91,528 40.12
Total votes 228,129 100.00
Republican hold


Florida's 6th Congressional District Election (2008)
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Cliff Stearns (Incumbent) 228,302 60.89
Democratic Tim Cunha 146,655 39.11
Total votes 374,957 100.00
Republican hold


Florida's 6th Congressional District Election (2010)
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Cliff Stearns (Incumbent) 179,349 71.46
Independent Steven E. Schonberg 71,632 28.54
Total votes 250,981 100.00
Republican hold


Florida's 6th congressional district, 2016 [7]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Ron DeSantis (incumbent) 213,519 58.6
Democratic Bill McCullough 151,051 41.4
Total votes 364,570 100.0
Republican hold


Florida's 6th congressional district, 2018[8]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Michael Waltz 187,891 56.31%
Democratic Nancy Soderberg 145,758 43.69%
Total votes 333,649 100%
Republican hold


Florida's 6th congressional district, 2020[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Michael Waltz (incumbent) 265,393 60.63%
Democratic Clint Curtis 172,305 39.37%
Total votes 437,698 100.0
Republican hold


Florida's 6th congressional district, 2022[9]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Michael Waltz (incumbent) 226,548 75.33%
Libertarian Joseph Hannoush 74,207 24.67%
Total votes 300,755 100.0
Republican hold

Historical district boundaries


  1. ^ "Congressional Plan--SC14-1905 (Ordered by The Florida Supreme Court, 2-December-2015)" (PDF). Florida Senate Committee on Reapportionment. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
  2. ^ "Congressional Districts Relationship Files (State-based)". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 2, 2013.
  3. ^ "My Congressional District".
  4. ^ "2022 Cook PVI: District Map and List". Cook Political Report. Retrieved January 10, 2023.
  5. ^ Farrington, Brendan (January 5, 2018). "Trump's tweeted choice for Florida governor enters the race". Associated Press News. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  6. ^ a b November 7, 2000 General Election (Report). Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Department of State. 2000. Archived from the original on May 16, 2015. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  7. ^ "2016 General Election November 8, 2016 Official Results". Florida Division of Elections. November 8, 2016. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
  8. ^ "2018 Florida general election results". Retrieved June 30, 2019.
  9. ^ "November 8, 2022 General Election - Official Results". Florida Department of State.

29°27′28″N 81°21′07″W / 29.45778°N 81.35194°W / 29.45778; -81.35194

This page was last edited on 5 October 2023, at 23:40
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.