To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In music, flat (Italian bemolle for "soft B") means "lower in pitch". Flat is the opposite of sharp, which is a raising of pitch. In musical notation, flat means "lower in pitch by one semitone (half step)", notated using the symbol which is derived from a stylised lowercase 'b'.[1][2] For instance, the music below has a key signature with three flats (indicating either E major or C minor) and the note, D, has a flat accidental.

 {
\override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f
\relative c'' {
  \clef treble \key es \major \time 4/4 des1
} }

Under twelve-tone equal temperament, D for instance is enharmonically equivalent to C, and G is equivalent to F. In any other tuning system, such enharmonic equivalences in general do not exist. To allow extended just intonation, composer Ben Johnston uses a sharp as an accidental to indicate a note is raised 70.6 cents (ratio 25:24), and a flat to indicate a note is lowered 70.6 cents.[3]

In intonation, flat can also mean "slightly lower in pitch" (by some unspecified amount). If two simultaneous notes are slightly out-of-tune, the lower-pitched one (assuming the higher one is properly pitched) is "flat" with respect to the other. Furthermore, the verb flatten means to lower the pitch of a note, typically by a small musical interval.

Key signatures

Flats are used in the key signatures of

  1. F major / D minor (B)
  2. B major / G minor (adds E)
  3. E major / C minor (adds A)
  4. A major / F minor (adds D)
  5. D major / B minor (adds G)
  6. G major / E minor (adds C)
  7. C major / A minor (adds F)

The order of flats in the key signatures of music notation, following the circle of fifths, is B, E, A, D, G, C and F (mnemonics for which include Battle Ends And Down Goes Charles' Father and Before Eating A Doughnut Get Coffee First).

Related symbols

Double flats also exist, which look like

double flat (similar to two flats, ) and lower a note by two semitones, or a whole step. The Unicode character 𝄫 (U+1D12B) in the Musical Symbols block represents the double-flat sign. Historically, in order to raise a double flat to a simple flat, it was required to use the notation . In modern scores it is acceptable to simply denote this with a single flat .

 {
\override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f
\relative c'' {
  \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4 beses2 bes2
} }

A quarter-tone flat or half flat, indicating the use of quarter tones, may be marked with various symbols including a flat with a slash (

flat stroke) or a reversed flat sign (
half flat
). A three-quarter-tone flat, flat and a half or sesquiflat, is represented by a half flat and a regular flat (
three quarter flat
).

 {
\override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f
\relative c'' {
  \clef treble \key c \major \time 4/4 ceh1 deseh
} }

Although very uncommon, a triple flat (

triple flat) can sometimes be found.[4] It lowers a note three semitones.

Unicode

The Unicode character ♭ (U+266D) can be found in the block Miscellaneous Symbols; its HTML entity is . Other assigned flat signs are as follows:

  • U+1D12B 𝄫 MUSICAL SYMBOL DOUBLE FLAT (HTML 𝄫)
  • U+1D133 𝄳 MUSICAL SYMBOL QUARTER TONE FLAT (HTML 𝄳)

See also

References

  1. ^ Benward & Saker (2003). Music in Theory and Practice, Vol. 1, p. 6. McGraw-Hill, Seventh edition. "Flat ()—lowers the pitch a half step."
  2. ^ Flat, Glossary, Naxos Records
  3. ^ John Fonville. "Ben Johnston's Extended Just Intonation- A Guide for Interpreters", p. 109, Perspectives of New Music, Vol. 29, No. 2 (Summer, 1991), pp. 106–137. "...the 25/24 ratio is the sharp () ratio ... this raises a note approximately 70.6 cents."
  4. ^ Byrd, Donald (September 2016). "Extremes of Conventional Music Notation". Indiana University Bloomington. Archived from the original on October 2018. Retrieved 4 November 2016.

External links

This page was last edited on 23 May 2021, at 08:58
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.