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First-person narrative

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A first-person narrative is a mode of storytelling in which a narrator relays events from their own point of view using the first person  i.e. "I" or "we", etc.[1] It may be narrated by a first person protagonist (or other focal character), first person re-teller, first person witness,[2] or first person peripheral (also called a peripheral narrator).[3][4] A classic example of a first person protagonist narrator is Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre (1847),[1] in which the title character is also the narrator telling her own story,[5] "I could not unlove him now, merely because I found that he had ceased to notice me".[6]

This device allows the audience to see the narrator's mind's eye view of the fictional universe,[7] but it is limited to the narrator's experiences and awareness of the true state of affairs. In some stories, first-person narrators may relay dialogue with other characters or refer to information they heard from the other characters, in order to try to deliver a larger point of view.[5] Other stories may switch the narrator to different characters to introduce a broader perspective. An unreliable narrator is one that has completely lost credibility due to ignorance, poor insight, personal biases, mistakes, dishonesty, etc., which challenges the reader's initial assumptions.[8]

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Transcription

First person is a highly versatile point of view, and its limited scope is both a blessing and a curse. Let’s explore the nitty-gritty details of what writers can accomplish through this perspective. It’s obvious that first person can be a powerful tool for establishing an immediate emotional connection with the reader. The audience is granted access to the protagonist’s innermost thoughts and feelings. Readers view the world through that character’s unique lens, as if they’re hearing a story told by a close friend. In the case of likable characters, their emotions often guide the audience’s reaction. Their happiness is your happiness; their sorrow is your sorrow. But first-person can also generate empathy toward villains or antiheros in a way that’s more difficult to achieve in third person. As one perceptive reader phrased it, “By placing you in the criminals' shoes, the authors generate ambivalence and twist our emotions, rather than letting us simply dismiss in disgust.” First person is also great to use when you have a character with a strong voice and an interesting perspective on life, such as someone on the autism spectrum. The writing style reflects the attitudes of the protagonist and provides constant characterization. Oftentimes, the tone is set within the first line. Take a look at the opening of Emma Donoghue’s novel Room, which is told from the perspective of a young boy who is isolated from the outside world: “Today I'm five. I was four last night going to sleep in Wardrobe, but when I wake up in Bed in the dark I'm changed to five, abracadabra.” Now compare that to the opening of Andy Weir’s debut The Martian: “I’m pretty much fucked. That’s my considered opinion. Fucked.” Then take a look at Humbert Humbert’s first words in Vladimir Nabokov’s classic Lolita, told from the perspective of a poetic pedophile: “Lolita, light of my life, fire of my loins. My sin, my soul.” If you’re itching to experiment with your style, consider writing from a first-person perspective of someone with vastly different opinions than your own. Maybe you want to write from a Jewish tattoo artist’s point of view or an old couple living in the Alaskan wilderness. If you have little personal experience with that perspective, find online forums or blogs where people share anecdotes about those lifestyles. Watch documentaries and read memoirs. You could even interview people who have had those experiences, or do field research by taking classes or in-person tours. Your goal as a writer is to portray those identities as authentically as possible. Another appealing feature of first person is the potential for unreliable narrators, wherein the protagonist skews the reader’s interpretation of the actual events or outright lies about what happened. All narrators are biased to some extent, but authors who want to intentionally create an unreliable narrator will drop hints, often by creating contradictions between what the protagonist says and what they do. For example, a narrator might claim he’s a genius and his classmates are all idiots. But when the reader finds out he’s the only student who failed the exam, that makes us question the validity of the narrator’s claims. You can convey these contradictions through multiple perspectives as well by having different characters interpret the same incident in completely disparate ways, which is known as the Rashomon Effect. It’s named after Akira Kurosawa’s film Rashomon, in which four suspects, witnesses, and surviving victims of a murder give contradictory accounts of the incident. Right now, a dozen examples of books and movies with unreliable narrators are probably whizzing through your head. Unreliable narrators can be both fun and frustrating for readers, as they add another layer of tension and mystery to the story. Literary critic David Lodge suggests that “The point of using an unreliable narrator is indeed to reveal in an interesting way the gap between appearance and reality, and to show how human beings distort or conceal the latter. This need not be a conscious, or mischievous, intention on their part.” In other words, unreliable narrators don’t always lie on purpose; they may actually believe their own distorted view of reality. For writers, unreliable narrators are an opportunity to explore the deeper aspects of a character’s personality as well as the eccentricities of the human mind. With first person, there are also many different forms with which to present your story. Characters might speak through a diary, a memoir, a series of letters, or even interviews—or any combination of media. This allows you to create the illusion of reality, as Yann Martel does in Life of Pi, which features a fictional author’s note explaining how Pi’s story came to be. When I read this book many years ago, this opening cast doubt on whether or not the story was fact or fiction—I had to double check the book’s Wikipedia page to be sure. In Life of Pi, the fictional author acts as a peripheral narrator, occasionally adding his own commentary to Pi’s story, which contributes to the book’s larger themes about truth and storytelling. Thus, the narrative structure you use not only makes the story more engaging, but it can also help you emphasize important themes. So those are a few of the primary advantages of using first person. It allows you to: 1. Establish an immediate connection 2. Explore unique perspectives 3. Enjoy with unreliable narrators 4. Experiment with different narrative structures Nevertheless, there are several limitations to first person. For one thing, it’s difficult to execute successfully. Your character needs to have a captivating voice, and they shouldn’t sound like an echo of the author. It can be hard to limit yourself to only the word choices or descriptions that particular character would use, so first person often involves writing outside of your comfort zone. In addition, unlike with third person, you are often limited to one character’s worldview. You can only see what your main character sees. Say Mary is our narrator and Bob is a secondary character. If Bob leaves the room to poison Mary’s tea, the reader only finds out when Mary does. The author can drop hints—perhaps Bob is a little too insistent that Mary drink the tea—but this approach can’t create the same sense of dramatic irony as third-person, wherein the reader knows something that Mary doesn’t suspect. You could switch between different first-person perspectives in these situations. However, you generally can’t include more than two or three narrators without the voices sounding too similar or the reader forgetting who’s who. Then again, William Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying features 15 different first-person narrators, so these kinds of “rules” are always meant to be broken. Another common problem with first-person writing is that many sentences begin with “I,” which can be tedious to read. To avoid this, you can eliminate “filter” words that stand between the narrator and the reader, especially when it comes to sensory experiences. This includes words like felt, saw, heard, watched, noticed, and thought. Look at this example sentence: I heard the door slam shut, and I felt my heart skip a beat. Instead, you could write: The door slammed shut, and my heart skipped a beat. This makes your writing tighter and the scene more immediate. Here’s another: I smelled bread baking, and it made me hungry. A revised version, with added details: The sweet scent of Hawaiian rolls wafted through the air, and my stomach gurgled. This revision also involves the basic showing versus telling principle: Rather than simply telling the reader that the character is hungry, use an action that shows the character is hungry. When writing in first person, it can also be hard to incorporate descriptions. If the narrator is encountering new places or people, or recounting a story to the audience, then this isn’t much of a problem. However, if a protagonist is describing their own appearance or familiar places, it can feel forced and take the reader out of the story. This is what gives rise to the cliché of a character examining themselves in a mirror, which is best avoided. Here’s an atrocious example: “I examined my long, raven hair in the reflection, and bright blue orbs blinked back at me.” Don’t do this. You can make these descriptions sound more natural by having other characters comment on the protagonist’s appearance (Your eyes are so blue, I could just gobble them up!) or by having the protagonist note a change in a familiar place (The bar was usually littered with cigarette butts and Mars Bars wrappers, but there wasn’t a speck of dust when I went in that day). Even so, descriptive passages generally sound better in the third person because the author doesn’t have to worry as much about capturing the protagonist’s voice. Those are a few disadvantages of first person: 1. Difficult to write in someone else’s voice 2. Perspective is limited to one character 3. Many sentences begin with “I” 4. Descriptions of familiar things may sound unnatural When writing in first person, you’ll also need to address the question of verb tense: Should I write in past or present tense? Let’s address the past tense first, since it’s more common. With first-person past tense, the story is often presented as a retrospective. The narrator is telling us their story after the fact, and they may even talk directly to the audience, as Jane Eyre does, stating, “Gentle reader, may you never feel what I then felt!” Many classic novels use the retrospective format, such as To Kill A Mockingbird and The Catcher in the Rye. You’ll find it in popular fiction as well, like The Book Thief, which is narrated by Death, who is looking back on the story of a girl he watched grow up during WWII. At one point, he even tells the reader, “I’m spoiling the ending, not only of the entire book, but of this particular piece of it.” Sometimes the audience is not the real-world reader but other characters within the book itself, such as in The Canterbury Tales and The Name of the Wind, making the story one long piece of dialogue. Kvothe, the hero of Patrick Rothfuss’s novel, tells his listeners, “I have talked to gods, loved women, and written songs that make the minstrels weep. You may have heard of me.” Some narrators aren’t telling stories about themselves but rather those of others. This narrator is sometimes called a peripheral narrator if they are part of the action but not the focus. For example, The Great Gatsby is Nick Carraway’s account of Jay Gatsby. Within the first page, he writes, “Only Gatsby, the man who gives his name to this book, was exempt from my reaction—Gatsby, who represented everything for which I have an unaffected scorn.” Just as Carraway portrays Gatsby, so does John Watson portray Sherlock Holmes in Arthur Conan Doyle’s short stories. The incidents are written from Watson’s perspective, and here is one of the many things he has to say about Holmes: “He was, I take it, the most perfect reasoning and observing machine that the world has ever seen…” In the modern BBC adaptation, John keeps a blog about Sherlock, but it serves the same purpose. To once again quote reader Andrew Lim, “The narrator plays a foil to another main character who is great in some way, distinctive, or unusual. It can be more powerful to experience that greatness as an ordinary person in the aura.” In both The Great Gatsby and Sherlock Holmes, the first-person narrators are creating physical artifacts—the book you are reading was created by them. Thus, in a retrospective story, the characters are able to reflect on their past selves and foreshadow events to come. First-person PRESENT tense, on the other hand, is often used as the primary tense in novels where the narrator is constantly addressing some kind of reader, like in a diary, which might have a mix of present-tense thoughts and past-tense actions. One example is Jeff Kinney’s children’s series Diary of a Wimpy Kid: “First of all, let me get something straight: This is a JOURNAL, not a diary. I know what it says on the cover, but when Mom went out to buy this thing I SPECIFICALLY told her to get one that didn’t say ‘diary’ on it.” The use of present tense to show action happening in the moment is a much more modern phenomenon. You’ll see it in bestselling novels like The Hunger Games, Divergent, The Time Traveler’s Wife, and Fight Club. Present tense generates a sense of immediacy, and the reader experiences the events with the character rather than hearing the story after the fact. Look at this quote from The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins: “All the general fear I've been feeling condenses into an immediate fear of this girl, this predator who might kill me in seconds. Adrenaline shoots through me and I sling the pack over one shoulder and run full-speed for the woods. I can hear the blade whistling toward me and reflexively hike the pack up to protect my head. The blade lodges in the pack.” Present tense can work well for stories that feature more heart-pounding action than introspection. Screenplays are written in the present tense, so it makes sense for books focused on visuals to imitate the feeling of a movie by using present tense. You can feel the influence of screenplay writing in Blake Crouch’s sci-fi novel Dark Matter: “My wife, Daniela, sits on the kitchen island, swirling her almost-empty wineglass in one hand and holding her phone in the other. She feels my stare and grins without looking up from the screen.” In addition, the combination of first-person and present tense makes internal dialogue sound like the protagonist is voicing his thoughts aloud: “It will be good to be home again. I’m thinking of starting up the gas logs. We’ve never had a fire before Halloween, but tonight is so unseasonably cold that after walking a mile in this wind, all I want is to sit by the hearth with Daniela and Charlie and a glass of wine.” Unlike with past tense, the thoughts feel less filtered by time and reflection, resulting in an almost stream-of-consciousness effect. Present tense can also enhance a story’s themes. Author Emma Darwin names disorientation as a feature of present tense: “The stream of one-thing-after-another-after-another-after-another suits any narrative where the point-of-view character is disoriented, and/or you want the reader to feel the same.” The form of the narrative matches its function. However, many readers feel that present tense pulls them out of the story—it calls attention to itself because it’s unfamiliar. In addition, present tense requires suspension of disbelief. The writer is asking the reader to believe that this story is happening in real time, which may make the reader too aware of the author’s presence in the story. Ultimately, your choice of verb tense depends on personal taste, and some readers don’t even notice one way or another. A side note about first person in terms of young adult fiction. First person carries a stigma in certain circles and is sometimes considered to be for amateurs, mainly because it’s a popular choice for YA writers. In fact, many teen readers prefer first person, perhaps because they enjoy the ability to easily put themselves in the characters’ shoes. But as you’ve seen in earlier examples, it’s clear that first person has been widely used in literary fiction for decades, if not centuries. Therefore, it is not your choice of perspective that matters, but how you use it. How a first-person narrative is perceived depends on the character’s level of self-reflection versus external action. Is your story more about the character pondering the spiritual significance of finding life on other planets, or is it more about aliens taking over the world and the heroes trying to defeat them? It boils down to the difference between genre and literary fiction, which I’ll cover in a different video. Here’s an exercise you can use to test out your first-person writing skills: Choose a place you’re very familiar with. It can be a room in your house or a store you visit on a regular basis. Now write a paragraph from the first-person perspective of one of your characters. Then switch to a different character and write a paragraph from their perspective. How do they differ? As an example, think of a kitchen. How do the characters’ different interests shape what they see? What do they notice that others don’t? If they’re a chef, they might critique the quality of the kitchen knives, or think about how horribly wrong everything went the last time they made macarons. If they’re a family-oriented person, the kitchen table might be a place filled with fond memories of family gatherings, the smell of spices and gumbo, a white cat sprawled on the table. Physical descriptions can extend into memories. Where do their thoughts gravitate? What questions consume their minds on a daily basis and how does that impact their view of everyday experiences? Your narrator’s language should be influenced by his or her gender, class, ethnicity, education, profession, and interests. Someone who grew up in a strongly conservative family is going to perceive the world differently than someone with a more liberal background. Your choice of narrator not only impacts what they notice and think, but also the structure of their internal dialogue—their syntax, diction, and dialect. One character might narrate in straightforward, choppy sentences, whereas another might ramble in long, verbose prose. A character might frequently express thoughts through similes and metaphors or never use figurative language at all. Writing from one character’s perspective can feel claustrophobic, but it allows you to immerse yourself in a different mindset and use unconventional narrative formats. How do you feel about first person? I’d love to hear your thoughts in the comments. What are your favorite books told in first person? If you’re choosing to write a story in first person, why did you make that choice? Whatever you do, keep writing.

Contents

Point of view device

The telling of a story in the grammatical first person, i.e. from the perspective of "I." An example would be Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, which begins "Call me Ishmael."[9]

First-person narration often includes an embedded listener or reader, who serves as the audience for the tale.[9] First-person narrations may be told by a person directly undergoing the events in the story without being aware of conveying that experience to readers; alternatively, the narrator may be conscious of telling the story to a given audience, perhaps at a given place and time, for a given reason.

Identity

A story written in the first person can be told by the main character, a less important character witnessing events, or a person retelling a story they were told by someone else. This point of view is often effective in giving a sense of closeness to the character.[2]

Reliability

First-person narration presents the narrative through the perspective of a particular character. The reader or audience becomes aware of the events and characters of the story through the narrator's views and knowledge.[10] As a participant in events, the conscious narrator, is an imperfect witness by definition, unable to fully see and comprehend events in their entirety as they unfurl, not necessarily objective in their inner thoughts or sharing them fully, and furthermore may be pursuing some hidden agenda. In some cases, the narrator may give or withhold information based on his own experience.

Character weaknesses and faults, such as tardiness, cowardice, or vice, may leave the narrator unintentionally absent or unreliable for certain key events. Specific events may further be colored or obscured by a narrator's background, since non-omniscient characters must by definition be laypersons and foreigners to some circles, and limitations such as poor eyesight and illiteracy may also leave important blanks. Another consideration is how much time has elapsed between when the character experienced the events of the story and when they decided to tell them. If only a few days have passed, the story could be related very differently than if the character was reflecting on events of the distant past. The character's motivation is also relevant. Are they just trying to clear up events for their own peace of mind? Make a confession about a wrong they did? Or tell a good adventure tale to their beer-guzzling friends? The reason why a story is told will also affect how it is written.[2] Why is this narrator telling the story in this way, why now, and is he to be trusted? Unstable or malevolent narrators can also lie to the reader. Unreliable narrators are not uncommon.

In the first-person-plural point of view, narrators tell the story using "we". That is, no individual speaker is identified; the narrator is a member of a group that acts as a unit. The first-person-plural point of view occurs rarely but can be used effectively, sometimes as a means to increase the concentration on the character or characters the story is about. Examples include:

Other examples include Twenty-Six Men and a Girl by Maxim Gorky, The Treatment of Bibi Haldar by Jhumpa Lahiri, During the Reign of the Queen of Persia by Joan Chase, Our Kind by Kate Walbert, I, Robot by Isaac Asimov, and We Didn't by Stuart Dybek. [11]

First-person narrators can also be multiple, as in Ryūnosuke Akutagawa's In a Grove (the source for the movie Rashomon) and Faulkner's novel The Sound and the Fury. Each of these sources provides different accounts of the same event, from the point of view of various first-person narrators.

There can also be multiple co-principal characters as narrator, such as in Robert A. Heinlein's The Number of the Beast. The first chapter introduces four characters, including the initial narrator, who is named at the beginning of the chapter. The narrative continues in subsequent chapters with a different character explicitly identified as the narrator for that chapter. Other characters later introduced in the book also have their "own" chapters where they narrate the story for that chapter. The story proceeds in linear fashion, and no event occurs more than once, i.e. no two narrators speak "live" about the same event.

The first-person narrator may be the principal character or one who closely observes the principal character (see Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights or F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby, each narrated by a minor character). These can be distinguished as "first person major" or "first person minor" points of view.

The narrator can be the protagonist (e.g., Gulliver in Gulliver's Travels), someone very close to him who is privy to his thoughts and actions (Dr. Watson in Sherlock Holmes stories), or an ancillary character who has little to do with the action of the story (such as Nick Carraway in The Great Gatsby). Narrators can report others' narratives at one or more removes. These are called "frame narrators": examples are Mr. Lockwood, the narrator in Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë; and the unnamed narrator in Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad. Skilled writers choose to skew narratives, in keeping with the narrator's character, to an arbitrary degree, from ever so slight to extreme. For example, the aforementioned Mr. Lockwood is quite naive, of which fact he appears unaware, simultaneously rather pompous, and recounting a combination of stories, experiences, and servants' gossip. As such, his character is an unintentionally very unreliable narrator, and serves mainly to mystify, confuse, and ultimately leave the events of Wuthering Heights open to a great range of interpretations.

A rare form of first person is the first person omniscient, in which the narrator is a character in the story, but also knows the thoughts and feelings of all the other characters. It can seem like third person omniscient at times. A reasonable explanation fitting the mechanics of the story's world is generally provided or inferred, unless its glaring absence is a major plot point. Two notable examples are The Book Thief by Markus Zusak, where the narrator is Death, and The Lovely Bones by Alice Sebold, where a young girl, having been killed, observes, from some post-mortem, extracorporeal viewpoint, her family struggling to cope with her disappearance. Typically, however, the narrator restricts the events relayed in the narrative to those that could reasonably be known. Novice writers may make the mistake of allowing elements of omniscience into a first-person narrative unintentionally and at random, forgetting the inherent human limitations of a witness or participant of the events.

Autobiography

In autobiographical fiction, the first person narrator is the character of the author (with varying degrees of historical accuracy). The narrator is still distinct from the author and must behave like any other character and any other first person narrator. Examples of this kind of narrator include Jim Carroll in The Basketball Diaries and Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. in Timequake (in this case, the first-person narrator is also the author). In some cases, the narrator is writing a book—"the book in your hands"—and therefore he has most of the powers and knowledge of the author. Examples include The Name of the Rose by Umberto Eco, and The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time by Mark Haddon. Another example is a fictional "Autobiography of James T. Kirk" which was "Edited" by David A. Goodman who was the actual writer of that book and playing the part of James Kirk (Gene Roddenberry's Star Trek) as he wrote the novel.

Detective fiction

Since the narrator is within the story, he or she may not have knowledge of all the events. For this reason, first-person narrative is often used for detective fiction, so that the reader and narrator uncover the case together. One traditional approach in this form of fiction is for the main detective's principal assistant, the "Watson", to be the narrator: this derives from the character of Dr Watson in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes stories.

Forms

First-person narratives can appear in several forms; interior monologue, as in Fyodor Dostoevsky's Notes from Underground; dramatic monologue, also in Albert Camus' The Fall; or explicitly, as Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

Other forms include temporary first-person narration as a story within a story, wherein a narrator or character observing the telling of a story by another is reproduced in full, temporarily and without interruption shifting narration to the speaker. The first-person narrator can also be the focal character.

Styles

With a first person narrative it is important to consider how the story is being told, i.e., is the character writing it down, telling it out loud, thinking it to themselves? And if they are writing it down, is it something meant to be read by the public, a private diary, or a story meant for one other person? The way the first person narrator is relating the story will affect the language used, the length of sentences, the tone of voice and many other things. A story presented as a secret diary could be interpreted much differently than a public statement.[2]

First-person narratives can tend towards a stream of consciousness and Interior monologue, as in Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time. The whole of the narrative can itself be presented as a false document, such as a diary, in which the narrator makes explicit reference to the fact that he is writing or telling a story. This is the case in Bram Stoker's Dracula. As a story unfolds, narrators may be aware that they are telling a story and of their reasons for telling it. The audience that they believe they are addressing can vary. In some cases, a frame story presents the narrator as a character in an outside story who begins to tell his own story, as in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein.

First-person narrators are often unreliable narrators since a narrator might be impaired (such as both Quentin and Benjy in Faulkner's The Sound and the Fury), lie (as in The Quiet American by Graham Greene, or The Book of the New Sun series by Gene Wolfe), or manipulate their own memories intentionally or not (as in The Remains of the Day by Kazuo Ishiguro, or in Ken Kesey's One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest). Henry James discusses his concerns about "the romantic privilege of the 'first person'" in his preface to The Ambassadors, calling it "the darkest abyss of romance."[12][13]

One example of a multi-level narrative structure is Joseph Conrad's novella Heart of Darkness, which has a double framework: an unidentified "I" (first person singular) narrator relates a boating trip during which another character, Marlow, uses first person to tell a story that comprises the majority of the work. Within this nested story, it is mentioned that another character, Kurtz, told Marlow a lengthy story; however, its content is not revealed to readers. Thus, there is an "I" narrator introducing a storyteller as "he" (Marlow), who talks about himself as "I" and introduces another storyteller as "he" (Kurtz), who in turn presumably told his story from the perspective of "I".

Film

First person narration is more difficult to achieve in film; however, voice-over narration can create the same structure.[9]

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Overview: First-person narrative". Oxford Reference. doi:10.1093/oi/authority.20110803095820156. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d "Point of View and Narrative Voice". Literary Analysis. Ohio University. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  3. ^ "Literature Glossary - First-person Narration". Shmoop. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  4. ^ Stanzel, F.K. (13 March 1986). A Theory of Narrative. CUP Archive. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-521-31063-5.
  5. ^ a b "Jane Eyre Narrator Point of View". Shmoop. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  6. ^ "Examples of Writing in First Person". YourDictionary. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  7. ^ Evers, Stuart (13 May 2008). "The dangers of first-person narrative". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  8. ^ Wiehardt, Ginny (20 March 2017). "How to Recognize and Create an Unreliable Narrator". The Balance. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  9. ^ a b c "First Person Narration", Perdue University College of Liberal Arts
  10. ^ Ranjbar Vahid. The Narrator, Iran:Baqney. 2011
  11. ^ Miller, Laura (April 18, 2004). "We the Characters". nytimes.com. Retrieved 2007-02-25.
  12. ^ Goetz, William R. (1986). Henry James and the Darkest Abyss of Romance. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0-8071-1259-3.
  13. ^ The Ambassadors (p. 11) on Project Gutenberg Accessed 17 March 2007

External links

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