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Filipino values

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Filipino value system or Filipino values refers to the set of values that a majority of the Filipino have historically held important in their lives. This Philippine values system includes their own unique assemblage of consistent ideologies, moral codes, ethical practices, etiquette and cultural and personal values that are promoted by their society. As with any society though, the values that an individual holds sacred can differ on the basis of religion, upbringing and other factors.

As a general description, the distinct value system of Filipinos is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly Christianity) and commercial relationships.[1]

Philosophical basis

Filipino values are, for the most part, centered at maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group. The main sanction against diverging from these values are the concepts of "Hiya", roughly translated as 'a sense of shame', and "Amor propio" or 'self-esteem'.[2] Social approval, acceptance by a group, and belonging to a group are major concerns. Caring about what others will think, say or do, are strong influences on social behavior among Filipinos.[3]

According to the anthropologist Leonardo Mercado, the Filipino worldview is basically 'nondualistic'. Based on his linguistic analyses of Filipino value terms like loob (Cebuano buot), he concludes that Filipinos desire harmony, not only in interpersonal relationships, but also with nature and religion, while still remaining nondichotomous.[4]

"The Filipino wants to harmonize the object and the subject, while at the same time holding both as distinct."

— Elements of Filipino Philosophy (1974), Leonardo Mercado, SVD

Florentino Timbreza, a cultural philosopher, concludes in his book Pilosopiyang Pilipino (1982) that Filipino values are based on the significance of the world to man. Life experiences dictate the philosophy of the Filipino, augmented by other sources like proverbs, folk sayings, folk tales, and the like.[4]

Models of the Filipino values

F. Landa Jocano identified two models of the Filipino value system. The first is the exogenous model or the foreign model, while the second is the indigenous model or the traditional model. The foreign model is described to be a "legal and formal" model. The indigenous model is described as a "traditional and non-formal" model or guide but is deeply embedded in the subconscious of the Filipinos.[3]

The foreign model was inherited by Filipinos from Western cultures, particularly from the Spaniards and the Americans. An example of a foreign or exogenous influence is bureaucracy exhibited in the government of the Philippines.[3]

Elements and composition of Filipino values

Based on studies, surveys, opinions, anecdotes, and other literatures made by experts and researchers in relation to Filipino social values or Filipino core values, along with the Filipino character or Filipino identity of a person or an individual known as the Filipino, the Filipino value system are found to possess inherent key elements.

One can note how Hiya (propriety/dignity), Pakikisama(companionship/esteem), and Utang na loob(gratitude/solidarity), are merely Surface Values—readily seen and observed values exhibited and esteemed by many Filipinos. These three values are considered branches from a single origin—the actual Core Value of the Filipino Personality—Kapwa. It means 'togetherness', and refers to community, or not doing things alone. Kapwa has two categories, Ibang Tao (other people) and Hindi Ibang Tao (not other people). The Surface Values spin off of the Core Value through the Pivotal Aspect of Pakikiramdam, or shared inner perception ("Feeling for another").

Other notable key elements or motivations are optimism about the future, pessimism with regards to present situations and events, the concern and care for other people, the existence of friendship and friendliness, the habit of being hospitable, religious nature, respectfulness to self and others, respect for the female members of society, the fear of God, and abhorrence of acts of cheating and thievery.[5]

The values of Filipinos specifically upholds the following items: solidarity of the family unit, security of the Philippine economy, orientation to small-groups, personalism, the concepts of "loob" or "kalooban" (meaning "what’s inside the self", the "inner-self", or the "actual personal feelings of the self"), existence and maintenance of smooth interpersonal relationships, and the sensing of the feelings or needs of others (known as pakikiramdam). In a larger picture, these values are grouped into general clusters or "macroclusters": namely, the relationship cluster, the social cluster, the livelihood cluster, the inwardness cluster, and the optimism cluster.[5]

Enumeration of Filipino values

Human activities

Family orientation

The basic and most important unit of a Filipino's life is the family. Unlike in Western countries, young Filipinos who turn 18 are not expected to move out of their parents' home. When a Filipino's parents are old and cannot take care of themselves, they are cared for in their children's homes and are very rarely brought by their children to homes for the aged. The practice of separating the elderly from the rest of the family, while common in Western countries, is often looked down upon in Filipino society. Family lunches with the extended family of up to 50 people, extending until the line of second cousins, are not unusual. The Filipino culture puts a great emphasis on the value of family and being close to one's family members.

Joy and humor

This famous trait is the ability of Filipinos to find humor in everything. It sheds light on the optimism and positivity of Filipinos in whatever situation they are in so as to remain determined in going through struggles or challenges. It serves as a coping technique, the same way a child who has fallen laughs at himself/herself to hide his/her embarrassment.[6]

Flexibility, adaptability, and creativity

Filipinos often have an aversion to a set of standardized rules or procedures; They are known to follow a "natural clock" or organic sense of time—doing things in the time they feel is right. They are present-oriented: which means that one attends to a task or requirement at the time it is needed and does not worry much about future engagements. This allows the Filipino to adapt and be flexible in doing the tasks at times not bound to a particular schedule or time-frame. This allows them to think on their feet and be creative in facing whatever challenge or task they have even when it is already right in front of them.

Religious adherence

The Philippines is approximately 85 percent Christian (mostly Roman Catholic) and 10 percent Muslim, with the remaining 5 percent belonging to other religions including Taoism, Buddhism and the Dayawism of the highlands.[7] The combined percentages of Christian and Muslim faithful are indicative of the strong or at least nominal faith most Filipinos have in the existence, agency and power of a creator deity.

With regard to the Catholic majority, it observes numerous Church holidays, notwithstanding the fewer holy days of obligation compared to the faithful of other countries. Attendance of Mass is high not only on Sundays but also on national and regional feast days, and abstention from Communion is almost unheard of. Catholicism also provides the basis for many citizens' positions on moral, ethical and everyday issues. Extreme practices, officially frowned upon by the clergy, take place during Holy Week.[8]

Ability to survive

The Filipinos as a people who have been constantly under the rule of numerous powerful countries has over time, developed a sense of resourcefulness or the ability to survive with whatever they have. They have the extraordinary ability to make something out of almost nothing. If a Filipino was given just a screwdriver, plastic bags, and some tape, he would still be able to build a bird tree, especially for the sake of survival, and provided that he be allowed to hunt for some needed surrounding material.[9]

Hard work and industriousness

With resourcefulness comes hard work. Filipinos are very determined and persevering in accomplishing whatever they set their minds to.

Filipinos over the years have proven time and time again that they are a people with an industrious attitude. Sadly, this is seen by others as Filipinos being only useful as domestic helpers, working abroad to help their families in the country. This is also present in the country’s workforce particularly the farmers. Even with little support, technological weaknesses and the country’s seasonal typhoons, the Filipino farmer still strives to earn their daily meal.[10]

Hospitality

Foreigners who come to visit the Philippines speak of Filipinos going out of their way to help them when lost, or the heartwarming generosity of a Filipino family hosting a visitor in their poverty-stricken home. Meanwhile, most foreigners who attend Filipino gatherings abroad (which are frequently organized for hundreds of reasons) testify to the warmth and friendliness of Filipinos as they experience that feeling of “belongingness.” Indeed, the legendary Filipino hospitality is not limited to the Philippines. It is everywhere wherever there are Filipinos.[11]

Gender-specific values

In relation to parenthood, bearing male and female children depends on the preferences of the parents based on the expected roles that each gender would assume once grown up. Both genders are expected to become responsible members of the family and their society. Women in the Philippines are expected to become caring and nurturing mothers for their own children.[12]

Female Filipinos are also expected to lend a hand in household work. They are even anticipated to offer assistance after being married. On the other hand, Filipino men are expected to assume the role of becoming the primary source of income and financial support of his family.[12]

See also

General:

References

  1. ^ Social Values and Organization, Philippines, country studies.us
  2. ^ Chris Rowthorn; Greg Bloom (2006). Philippines. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-289-4.
  3. ^ a b c Hallig, Jason V. Communicating Holiness to the Filipinos: Challenges and Needs Archived July 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, The Path to a Filipino Theology of Holiness, on pages 2 and 10, http://didache.nts.edu Archived September 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ a b Rolando M. Gripaldo (2005). Filipino cultural traits: Claro R. Ceniza lectures. CRVP. ISBN 978-1-56518-225-7.
  5. ^ a b Talisayon, Serafin. Filipino Values Archived April 17, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Chapeter XIII, Teaching Values in the Natural and Physical Sc54654 iences in the Philippines, crvp.orgp
  6. ^ Maggay, Melba (1993). "Pagbabalik-Loob". Moral Recovery and Cultural Reaffirmation.
  7. ^ "Christianity in the Philippines". www.seasite.niu.edu. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
  8. ^ "Will these 10 traditional Holy Week practices survive?". The Philippine Star. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
  9. ^ "Life and Times of the Filipino-American: The Resourcefulness of the Filipino". Life and Times of the Filipino-American. July 10, 2012. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
  10. ^ "ASIAN JOURNAL | The best traits of Filipinos that we should be proud of". asianjournalusa.com. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
  11. ^ "Global nation Inquirer: What Filipinos can be proud of". globalnation.inquirer.net. Retrieved August 21, 2016.
  12. ^ a b MLY. Keynote Speech, City College of San Francisco in the Conference on "The Filipino Family in the 21st Century: Issues and Challenges", ccsf.edu, October 27, 2001

External links

This page was last edited on 31 August 2021, at 08:00
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