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Field marshal (United Kingdom)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Field Marshal
British Army OF-10.svg
The insignia of a field marshal as worn on epaulettes
Country United Kingdom
Service branch British Army
AbbreviationFM
RankFive-star rank
NATO rankOF-10
Non-NATO rankO-11
Formation1736
Next lower rankGeneral
Equivalent ranksAdmiral of the Fleet (RN)
Marshal of the Royal Air Force (RAF)

Field Marshal has been the highest rank in the British Army since 1736. A five-star rank with NATO code OF-10, it is equivalent to an Admiral of the Fleet in the Royal Navy or a Marshal of the Royal Air Force in the Royal Air Force (RAF). A Field Marshal's insignia consists of two crossed batons surrounded by yellow leaves below St Edward's Crown. Like Marshals of the RAF and Admirals of the Fleet, Field Marshals traditionally remain officers for life, though on half-pay when not in an appointment.[1][2] The rank has been used sporadically throughout its history and was vacant during parts of the 18th and 19th centuries (when all former holders of the rank were deceased). After the Second World War, it became standard practice to appoint the Chief of the Imperial General Staff (later renamed Chief of the General Staff) to the rank on his last day in the post. Army officers occupying the post of Chief of the Defence Staff, the professional head of all the British Armed Forces, were usually promoted to the rank upon their appointment.[3]

In total, 141 men have held the rank of field marshal. The majority led careers in the British Army or the British Indian Army, rising through the ranks to eventually become a field marshal. Some members of the British Royal Family—most recently Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, and Charles, Prince of Wales—were promoted to the rank after shorter periods of service. Three British monarchs—George V, Edward VIII, and George VI— assumed the rank on their accessions to the throne, while Edward VII was already a field marshal, and two British consorts—Albert, Prince Consort and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh—were appointed by their respective queens. Other ceremonial appointments were made as diplomatic gestures. Twelve foreign monarchs held the honour, though three (Wilhelm II, German Emperor; Franz Joseph I, Austrian Emperor; and Hirohito, Emperor of Japan) were stripped of it when their countries became enemies of Britain and her allies in the two world wars. Also awarded the rank were one Frenchman (Ferdinand Foch) and one Australian (Sir Thomas Blamey), honoured for their contributions to World War I and World War II respectively, and one foreign statesman (Jan Smuts).[3]

A report commissioned by the Ministry of Defence in 1995 made a number of recommendations for financial savings in the armed forces' budget, one of which was the abolition of the five-star ranks. Part of the rationale was that these ranks were disproportionate to the size of the forces commanded by these officers and that none of the United Kingdom's close allies, such as the United States (which reserves the rank of general of the army for officers who have commanded large armies in major wars), used such ranks. The recommendation was not taken up in full, but the practice of promoting service chiefs to five-star ranks was stopped and the ranks are now reserved for special circumstances. Sir Peter Inge was, in 1994, the last active officer to be promoted to the rank. Inge relinquished the post of Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) in 1997 and his successor, Sir Charles Guthrie, was the first officer not to be promoted upon appointment as CDS.[3]

The most recent promotions to field marshal came in 2012, eighteen years after the moratorium on routine promotions to the rank, when Queen Elizabeth II promoted Prince Charles, her son and heir apparent, to the five-star ranks in all three services, in recognition of support provided for her in her capacity as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces.[4] At the same time, Guthrie, who relinquished the post of CDS and retired from active service in 2001, was promoted to honorary field marshal.[5] In June 2014 former Chief of the Defence Staff Lord Walker of Aldringham was also promoted to honorary field marshal.[6]

Although the rank of field marshal is not used in the Royal Marines, the insignia is used on the uniform of the Captain General, the ceremonial head of the corps (equivalent to colonel-in-chief).[7]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Colonial Glory And World War 1 Reality - British Field Marshal John French I WHO DID WHAT IN WW1?
  • ✪ Field Marshal William Slim

Transcription

Field Marshal John French was a soldier through and through and had a glorious career during the colonial era of the British Empire, but all the battles around the world couldn’t prepare him for modern war. My name is Indy Neidell, welcome to the Great War and a new episode of WHO DID WHAT IN WW1 about British Field Marshal Sir John French. John Denton Pinkstone French was born on September 28, 1852- same birthday as me, but not the same year- in the english village of Ripple Vale. His father was Royal Navy officer William French, who died two years after his son was born. His mother Margaret would suffer from severe depression afterwards, so John and his older sister Charlotte were sent to London to live in the care of other relatives. At the age of 14, John French joined the Royal Navy, but in 1874 he switched to the Army where his career soon took off. In 1885 he went to the Sudan with the 19th Royal Hussars where he took part in the Nile Expedition to rescue Charles Gordon, the famous General. Gordon and his troops were besieged in Khartoum by Mahdi rebels. The rescue attempt ultimately failed and Gordon was killed, but French’s actions got the attention of his superiors and four years later he gained command of the 19th Hussars - at the age of 36. Posted to India as a Colonel in 1891, his career was nearly derailed when he was cited for adultery while on leave, which the men promptly called “French leave”, but several years later he again began commanding cavalry brigades. French apparently had friends in high places. During the 2nd Boer War, he served in South Africa. This led to conflict with his sister who now was a member of the up and coming British anti-war movement; a conflict that would continue throughout their lives with French’s sister quite likely his most vocal critic. In South Africa, where he became a national hero, French commanded the cavalry in Natal. Again, his superiors were impressed with him after the British success at the Battle of Elandslaagte in October 1899, and then as General he took Kimberley and its huge diamond deposits. He would take part in the Battle of Paardeberg soon after which was the first big victory in the second Boer War. After his success in South Africa, he returned home. Promoted several times over the following years, in 1912 he became Chief of the Imperial General Staff, the professional head of the British Army. He was also the candidate for leading the British Expeditionary Forces in case of war - and those were the troops that were sent to Belgium and France in 1914. The first major action for the BEF was at the Battle of the Mons which laid some groundwork for the Entente victory at the Battle of the Marnes in September 1914, but even though this was a turning point of the war, public opinion at that time turned against French. He was held responsible for the huge British casualties which were in reality low compared to the French and German ones - but no one was used to the sheer scale that the new war had brought with it. He had also wanted to retire his men completely from the Allied line to refit them instead of supporting the French, which didn’t sit so well with Lord Kitchener, the British secretary of state for war. His leadership during the 2nd Battle of Ypres was also criticised for the number of casualties, and after his failure to break through the German lines at the Battle of Loos, the writing was on the wall. In December 1915, French was replaced by his proxy Sir Douglas Haig. John French was ordered back to Britain. The official reasons were his lack of determination and his lack of spirit for warfare. Back in Britain he served as commander in chief of the home forces and then lord lieutenant of Ireland. His memoirs came out in 1919 but were highly criticised as being full of inaccuracies and fabrications, and Field Marshal John French, the first Earl of Ypres, died of cancer on May 22 1925. John French was a soldier through and through with an impressive military career, despite scandal, but all the fighting and all the glory of colonial wars could not prepare him for World War 1. Even though the signs of what modern war was like were there in several other wars, such as the Russo-Japanese war, and French could have learned from them, he didn’t. On the other hand, the casualties during the early weeks of the war were comparably low for the British - but how could the public know that in 1914? In the end, John French serves as a good example for the clash of mentalities between colonial glory and modern war. You can see a lot more about the battles French commanded in during the war in our regular weekly episodes, and If you’d like to see another brief bio about one of French’s allied counterparts, click here to see Ferdinand Foch. Tell us what other WW1 figures you’d like to see bios of in the comments below, don’t forget to subscribe. See you Thursday.

Contents

Insignia of rank

Field Marshal's uniform and baton (pertaining to the late Sir John Stanier) on display in the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards Museum, Edinburgh Castle.
Field Marshal's uniform and baton (pertaining to the late Sir John Stanier) on display in the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards Museum, Edinburgh Castle.

The rank insignia of a field marshal in the British Army comprises two crossed batons in a wreath of oak leaves, with a crown above. In some other countries, historically under the sphere of British influence, an adapted version of the insignia is used for field marshals, often with the crown being replaced with an alternative cultural or national emblem. On appointment, British field marshals are awarded a gold-tipped baton which they may carry on formal occasions.

List of field marshals

A bronze cross pattée bearing the crown of Saint Edward surmounted by a lion with the inscription "FOR VALOUR". A crimson ribbon is attached.
Four field marshals were also recipients of the Victoria Cross, the UK's highest award for gallantry.

The vast majority of officers to hold the rank of field marshal were professional soldiers in the British Army, though eleven served as officers in the British Indian Army. At least fifty-seven field marshals were wounded in battle earlier in their careers, of whom 24 were wounded more than once, and eight had been prisoners of war. Fifteen future field marshals were present at the Battle of Vitoria, where the Duke of Wellington earned the rank, and ten others served under Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo. However, only thirty-eight held independent commands in the field, and just twelve served as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces (the pre-1904 professional head of the army) or Chief of the Imperial General Staff during a major war.[3]

Four field marshals—Sir Evelyn Wood, Sir George White, Earl Roberts, and Lord Gort—had previously received the Victoria Cross (VC), the United Kingdom's highest and most prestigious award for gallantry "in the face of the enemy". Wood, a famously injury-prone officer, was awarded the VC for two actions in 1858 in which he first attacked a group of rebels in India and later rescued an informant from another group of rebels. White, a cavalry officer, led two charges on enemy guns in Afghanistan in 1879, while Gort, of the Grenadier Guards, commanded a series of attacks while severely wounded during the First World War in 1918. Roberts received his VC for actions during the Indian Mutiny.[8][9][10][11][12]

Wellington, 44 at the time of his promotion, was the youngest non-royal officer to earn the rank of field marshal. Charles Moore, 1st Marquess of Drogheda was the oldest, promoted at the age of 91, while a further twenty-three officers were promoted to field marshal in their eighties. Wellington was also the only field marshal to become Prime Minister of the United Kingdom,[3] though several others served as cabinet ministers.

No officer whose career was spent in the British Army has ever reached the rank of field marshal without having served in the cavalry, infantry, Royal Armoured Corps, Royal Artillery or Royal Engineers.[3] Two non-British officers have been appointed field marshals in the British Army—Ferdinand Foch of France and Sir Thomas Blamey of Australia, in recognition of their contributions in the First and Second World Wars respectively—while only one, Sir William Robertson, held every rank in the British Army, from private soldier to field marshal.[3][13][14][15]

Field Marshals of the British Army
Name and style[a] Regiment[b] Image Born Died Date of promotion[16]
George Hamilton, 1st Earl of Orkney Royal Regiment of Foot
George Douglas-Hamilton
1666 1737 1736-01-1212 January 1736[17]
John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll Earl of Argyll's Regiment of Foot
John Campbell
1680 1743 1736-01-1414 January 1736[18]
Richard Boyle, 2nd Viscount Shannon Horse Guards Regiment
Richard Boyle
1674 1740 17392 July 1739[19]
François de La Rochefoucauld, Marquis de Montandre
Crest of the De La Rochefoucauld family
1672 1739 17392 July 1739[20]
John Dalrymple, 2nd Earl of Stair 26th (Cameronian) Regiment of Foot
John Dalrymple
1673 1747 1742-03-1818 March 1742[21]
Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham 6th Regiment of Foot
Richard Temple
1669 1749 1742-12-1414 December 1742[22]
George Wade Earl of Bath's Regiment
George Wade
1673 1748 1742-12-1414 December 1742[23]
Sir Robert Rich, 4th Baronet Grenadier Guards (1st Foot Guards)
Field-Marshall Sir Robert Rich.jpeg
1685 1768 1757-11-2828 November 1757[24]
Richard Molesworth, 3rd Viscount Molesworth Royal Scots
Richard Molesworth
1680 1758 1757-11-2929 November 1757[25]
John Ligonier, 1st Earl Ligonier 10th Regiment of Foot
John Ligonier
1680 1770 1757-11-3030 November 1757[26]
James O'Hara, 2nd Baron Tyrawley 39th (Dorsetshire) Regiment of Foot
James O'Hara
1690 1773 17631 June 1763[27]
Henry Seymour Conway 5th Royal Irish Lancers
Henry Seymour Conway
1721 1794 1793-10-1212 October 1793[28]
Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh 13th Regiment of Foot
Prince William Henry
1743 1805 1793-10-1212 October 1793[29]
Sir George Howard 24th Regiment of Foot
George Howard
1720 1796 1793-10-1212 October 1793[30]
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany Grenadier Guards
Prince Frederick
1763 1827 1795-02-1010 February 1795[31]
John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll Royal Scots Fusiliers
John Campbell
1723 1806 1796-07-3030 July 1796[32]
Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst Grenadier Guards
Jeffery Amherst
1717 1797 1796-07-3030 July 1796[33]
John Griffin, 4th Baron Howard de Walden Scots Guards
John Griffin
1719 1797 1796-07-3030 July 1796[34]
Studholme Hodgson Grenadier Guards
Studholme Hodgson
1708 1798 1796-07-3030 July 1796[35]
George Townshend, 1st Marquess Townshend 7th Queen's Own Hussars
George Townshend
1724 1807 1796-07-3030 July 1796[36]
Lord Frederick Cavendish Coldstream Guards 1729 1803 1796-07-3030 July 1796[37]
Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond Coldstream Guards
Charles Lennox
1735 1806 1796-07-3030 July 1796[38]
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn Royal Fusiliers
Prince Edward
1767 1820 18055 September 1805[39]
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington 33rd Regiment of Foot
Arthur Wellesley
1769 1852 1813-06-2121 June 1813[40]
Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale — (Royal Family; afterwards King of Hanover)
Ernest Augustus I
1771 1851 18136 November 1813[41]
Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge Hanoverian Guards
Prince Adolphus
1774 1850 1813-11-2626 November 1813[42]
Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh Scots Guards
Prince William Frederick
1776 1834 181624 May 1816[43]
Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha — (Royal Family; afterwards King of the Belgians)
Leopold I
1790 1865 181624 May 1816[44]
Charles Moore, 1st Marquess of Drogheda 12th Dragoons
Charles Moore
1730 1821 1821-07-1919 July 1821[45]
William Harcourt, 3rd Earl Harcourt Grenadier Guards
William Harcourt
1743 1830 1821-07-1919 July 1821[17]
Sir Alured Clarke 50th (Queen's Own) Regiment of Foot
Alured Clarke
1745 1832 1830-07-2222 July 1830[46]
Sir Samuel Hulse Grenadier Guards
Samuel Hulse
1747 or 1748 1837 1830-07-2222 July 1830[47]
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha — (Royal Family)
Prince Albert
1819 1861 18408 February 1840[48]
William II — (King of the Netherlands)
William II
1792 1847 184528 July 1845[49]
Sir George Nugent, 1st Baronet 39th (Dorsetshire) Regiment of Foot
George Nugent
1757 1849 1846-11-099 November 1846[50]
Thomas Grosvenor Grenadier Guards
Thomas Grosvenor
1764 1851 1846-11-099 November 1846[51]
Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey 80th Regiment of Foot (Staffordshire Volunteers)
Henry Paget
1768 1854 1846-11-099 November 1846[52]
FitzRoy Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan 4th Light Dragoons
FitzRoy Somerse
1788 1855 18545 November 1854[53]
Stapleton Cotton, 1st Viscount Combermere 23rd Regiment of Foot
Stapleton Cotton
1773 1865 1855-10-022 October 1855[54]
John Byng, 1st Earl of Strafford 33rd Regiment of Foot
Stapleton Cotton
1772 1860 1855-10-022 October 1855[55]
Henry Hardinge, 1st Viscount Hardinge Queen's Rangers
Henry Hardinge
1785 1856 1855-10-022 October 1855[56]
John Colborne, 1st Baron Seaton East Devonshire Regiment
John Colborne
1779 1863 18601 April 1860[57]
Sir Edward Blakeney 99th Regiment of Foot
Edward Blakeney
1778 1868 18629 November 1862[58]
Hugh Gough, 1st Viscount Gough Seaforth Highlanders
Hugh Gough
1779 1869 18629 November 1862[59]
Prince George, Duke of Cambridge 12th Royal Lancers
Prince George
1819 1904 18629 November 1862[60]
Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde 9th (East Norfolk) Regiment of Foot
Colin Campbell
1792 1863 18629 November 1862[61]
Sir Alexander Woodford 9th (East Norfolk) Regiment of Foot
Alexander Woodford
1782 1870 18681 January 1868[62]
Sir William Gomm 9th (East Norfolk) Regiment of Foot
William Gomm
1784 1875 18681 January 1868[63]
Sir Hew Ross Royal Artillery
Hew Ross
1779 1868 18681 January 1868[64]
Sir John Burgoyne Royal Engineers
John Burgoyne
1782 1871 18681 January 1868[65]
Sir George Pollock, 1st Baronet Bengal Artillery
George Pollock
1786 1872 187024 May 1870[66]
Sir John FitzGerald — (Retired) 1785 1877 1875-05-2929 May 1875[67]
George Hay, 8th Marquess of Tweeddale Grenadier Guards
George Hay
1787 1876 1875-05-2929 May 1875[68]
Edward VII — (Royal Family)
Edward VII
1841 1910 187529 May 1875[69]
Sir William Rowan 52nd (Oxfordshire) Regiment of Foot
William Rowan
1789 1879 1877-06-022 June 1877[70]
Sir Charles Yorke 35th (Royal Sussex) Regiment of Foot
Charles Yorke
1790 1880 1877-06-022 June 1877[71]
Hugh Rose, 1st Baron Strathnairn 93rd (Sutherland Highlanders) Regiment of Foot
Hugh Rose
1801 1885 1877-06-022 June 1877[72]
Robert Napier, 1st Baron Napier of Magdala Bengal Engineer Group
Robert Napier
1810 1890 1883-01-011 January 1883[73]
Sir Patrick Grant 11th Bengal Native Infantry
Patrick Grant
1804 1895 1883-06-2424 June 1883[74]
Sir John Michel 64th (2nd Staffordshire) Regiment of Foot
John Michel
1804 1886 1886-03-2727 March 1886[75]
Sir Richard Dacres Royal Artillery
Richard Dacres
1799 1886 1886-03-2727 March 1886[76]
Lord William Paulet 85th Regiment of Foot (Bucks Volunteers)
William Paulet
1804 1893 1886-07-1010 July 1886[77]
George Bingham, 3rd Earl of Lucan 6th Regiment of Foot
George Bingham
1800 1888 188721 June 1887[78]
Sir Lintorn Simmons Royal Engineers
Lintorn Simmons
1821 1903 1890-05-2121 May 1890[79]
Sir Frederick Haines 4th Regiment of Foot
Frederick Haines
1818 1909 1890-05-2121 May 1890[80]
Sir Donald Stewart, 1st Baronet 9th Bengal Native Infantry
Donald Stewart
1824 1900 1894-05-2426 May 1894[81]
Garnet Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley 12th Regiment of Foot
Garnet Wolseley
1833 1913 1894-05-2426 May 1894[82]
Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, VC Bengal Artillery
Frederick Roberts
1832 1914 189525 May 1895[83]
Prince Edward of Saxe-Weimar 67th (South Hampshire) Regiment of Foot
Prince Edward
1823 1902 189722 June 1897[84]
Sir Neville Bowles Chamberlain 55th Bengal Native Infantry
Neville Chamberlain
1820 1902 190025 April 1900[85]
Wilhelm II, German Emperor — (German Emperor)
Wilhelm II
1859 1941 190127 January 1901[86]
Sir Henry Norman 1st Bengal Native Infantry
Henry Norman
1826 1904 1902-06-2626 June 1902[87]
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Royal Engineers
Prince Arthur
1850 1942 1902-06-2626 June 1902[88]
Sir Evelyn Wood, VC 13th Light Dragoons
Evelyn Wood
1838 1919 1903-04-088 April 1903[89]
Sir George White, VC 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot
George White
1835 1912 1903-04-088 April 1903[90]
Franz Joseph I of Austria — (Emperor of Austria; King of Hungary)
Franz Joseph I
1830 1916 19031 September 1903[91]
Francis Grenfell, 1st Baron Grenfell King's Royal Rifle Corps
Francis Grenfell
1841 1925 1908-04-1111 April 1908[92]
Sir Charles Brownlow 51st Sikhs (Frontier Force)
Charles Brownlow
1831 1916 1908-06-2020 June 1908[93]
Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener Royal Engineers
Herbert Kitchener
1850 1916 190910 September 1909[94]
George V Royal Welsh Fusiliers — (Royal Family)
George V
1865 1936 19107 May 1910[95]
Paul Methuen, 3rd Baron Methuen Scots Guards
Paul Methuen
1845 1932 1911-06-1919 June 1911[96]
William Nicholson, 1st Baron Nicholson Royal Engineers
William Nicholson
1845 1918 1911-06-1919 June 1911[97]
John French, 1st Earl of Ypres 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars
John French
1852 1925 19133 June 1913[98]
Nicholas II of Russia — (Emperor of Russia)
Nicholas II
1868 1918 19161 January 1916[99]
Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig 7th Queen's Own Hussars
Douglas Haig
1861 1928 1917-01-011 January 1917[100]
Sir Charles Egerton 31st (Huntingdonshire) Regiment of Foot
Sir Charles Egerton
1848 1921 1917-03-1616 March 1917[101]
Emperor Taishō (Yoshihito) — (Emperor of Japan)
Taishō
1879 1926 19181 January 1918[102]
Ferdinand Foch 35th Artillery Regiment – (French Army)
Ferdinand Foch
1851 1929 191919 July 1919[14]
Herbert Plumer, 1st Viscount Plumer York and Lancaster Regiment
Herbert Plumer
1857 1932 1919-07-3131 July 1919[103]
Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby 6th (Inniskilling) Dragoons
Edmund Allenby
1861 1936 1919-07-3131 July 1919[104]
Sir Henry Wilson, 1st Baronet Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own)
Henry Wilson
1864 1922 1919-07-3131 July 1919[105]
Sir William Robertson, 1st Baronet 3rd Dragoon Guards
William Robertson
1860 1933 192029 March 1920[106]
Sir Arthur Barrett 44th (East Essex) Regiment of Foot
Arthur Barrett
1857 1926 192112 April 1921[107]
Albert I of Belgium — (King of Belgium)
Albert I
1875 1934 19214 July 1921[108]
William Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood Royal Scots Fusiliers
William Birdwood
1865 1951 192520 March 1925[109]
Sir Claud Jacob Worcestershire Regiment
Claud Jacob
1863 1948 192630 November 1926[110]
George Milne, 1st Baron Milne Royal Artillery
George Milne
1866 1948 192830 January 1928[111]
Alfonso XIII of Spain — (King of Spain)
Alfonso XIII
1886 1941 1928-06-033 June 1928[112]
Hirohito (Emperor Shōwa) — (Emperor of Japan)
Hirohito
1901 1989 1928-06-2626 June 1928[113]
Julian Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy King's Royal Rifle Corps
Julian Byng
1861 1935 1932-07-1717 July 1932[114]
Rudolph Lambart, 10th Earl of Cavan Grenadier Guards
Rudolph Lambart
1865 1946 1932-10-3131 October 1932[115]
Philip Chetwode, 1st Baron Chetwode Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry
Philip Chetwode
1869 1950 193313 February 1933[116]
Sir Archibald Montgomery-Massingberd Royal Artillery
Archibald Montgomery-Massingberd
1871 1947 19357 June 1935[117]
Edward VIII — (Royal Family)
Edward VIII
1894 1972 1936-01-2121 January 1936[118]
Sir Cyril Deverell West Yorkshire Regiment
Cyril Deverell
1874 1947 193615 May 1936[119]
George VI — (Royal Family)
George VI
1895 1952 1936-12-1212 December 1936[120]
Edmund Ironside, 1st Baron Ironside Royal Artillery
Edmund Ironside
1880 1959 194020 July 1940[121]
Jan Smuts — (South African Army)
Jan Smuts
1870 1950 1941-05-2424 May 1941[122]
Sir John Dill Prince of Wales's Leinster Regiment
John Dill
1881 1944 194118 November 1941[123]
John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort, VC Grenadier Guards
John Vereker
1886 1946 1943-01-011 January 1943[124]
Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell Black Watch
Archibald Wavell
1883 1950 1943-01-011 January 1943[125]
Alan Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke Royal Artillery
Alan Brooke
1883 1963 1944-01-011 January 1944[126]
Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis Irish Guards
Harold Alexander
1891 1969 1944-06-044 June 1944[127]
Bernard Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein Royal Warwickshire Regiment
Bernard Montgomery
1887 1976 1944-09-011 September 1944[128]
Henry Maitland Wilson, 1st Baron Wilson Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own)
Henry Maitland Wilson
1881 1964 1944-12-3929 December 1944[129]
Sir Claude Auchinleck 62nd Punjabis (Indian Army)
Claude Auchinleck
1884 1981 19461 June 1946[130]
William "Bill" Slim, 1st Viscount Slim Royal Warwickshire Regiment
William Slim
1891 1970 19484 January 1948[131]
Sir Thomas Blamey — (Australian Army)
Thomas Blamey
1884 1951 1950-06-088 June 1950[132]
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Royal Navy – (Royal Family)
Prince Philip
1921 Living 195315 January 1953[133]
John Harding, 1st Baron Harding of Petherton Somerset Light Infantry
John Harding
1896 1989 195321 July 1953[134]
Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester King's Royal Rifle Corps
Prince Henry
1900 1974 195531 March 1955[135]
Sir Gerald Templer Royal Irish Fusiliers
Gerald Templer
1898 1979 195627 November 1956[136]
Sir Francis Festing Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own)
Francis Festing
1902 1976 19601 September 1960[137]
Mahendra of Nepal — (King of Nepal)
Mahendra of Nepal
1921 1972 196217 October 1962[138]
Haile Selassie I — (Emperor of Ethiopia)
Haile Selassie I
1892 1975 196520 January 1965[139]
Sir Richard Hull 17th/21st Lancers 1907 1989 19658 February 1965[140]
Sir James Cassels Seaforth Highlanders 1907 1996 196829 February 1968[141]
Sir Geoffrey Baker Royal Artillery
Sir Geoffrey Baker
1912 1980 197131 January 1971[142]
Michael Carver, Baron Carver Royal Tank Corps 1915 2001[143] 197318 July 1973[144]
Sir Roland Gibbs King's Royal Rifle Corps 1921 2004[145] 197913 July 1979[146]
Birendra of Nepal — (King of Nepal)
Birendra of Nepal
1945 2001[147] 198018 November 1980[148]
Edwin Bramall, Baron Bramall King's Royal Rifle Corps
Edwin Bramall
1923 2019[149] 19821 January 1982[150]
Sir John Stanier 7th Queen's Own Hussars 1925 2007[151] 1985-07-1010 July 1985[152]
Sir Nigel Bagnall Green Howards 1927 2002[153] 19889 September 1988[154]
Richard Vincent, Baron Vincent of Coleshill Royal Artillery 1931 2018 19912 April 1991[155]
Sir John Chapple 2nd King Edward VII's Own Gurkha Rifles (The Sirmoor Rifles) 1931 Living 199214 February 1992[156]
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent Royal Scots Greys – (Royal Family)
Prince Edward
1935 Living 199311 June 1993[157]
Peter Inge, Baron Inge Green Howards
Peter Inge
1935 Living 199415 March 1994[158]
Charles, Prince of Wales Welsh Guards, Royal Navy and Royal Air Force – (Royal Family)
Charles, Prince of Wales
1948 Living 201216 June 2012[5]
Charles Guthrie, Baron Guthrie of Craigiebank Welsh Guards
Charles Guthrie
1938 Living 201216 June 2012[5]
Michael Walker, Baron Walker of Aldringham Royal Anglian Regiment
Michael Walker
1944 Living 201413 June 2014[6]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Titles and styles are those held by the field marshal when they died, or those currently held in the case of living field marshals; in most cases, these are not the same as the titles and styles held by an officer upon their promotion to the rank, nor (in the case of operational field marshals) those held when the officer retired from active service. All post-nominal letters, with the exception of "VC" (denoting the Victoria Cross) are omitted.
  2. ^ The regiment given is the regiment into which the field marshal was commissioned. This is not necessarily the regiment the officer first joined, nor is it necessarily the regiment in which the officer spent most of his career. A "—" indicates either that the officer did not lead a career in the British Army or that the officer was not initially commissioned into a formal regiment.

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ Brewer's Dictionary.
  2. ^ The Daily Telegraph & 12 April 2008.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Heathcote, Introduction.
  4. ^ The Prince of Wales Archived 29 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine The Queen appoints The Prince of Wales to Honorary Five-Star rank 16 June 2012
  5. ^ a b c BBC News & 16 June 2012.
  6. ^ a b Ministry of Defence & 13 June 2014.
  7. ^ "Photograph of Prince Philip as Captain General Royal Marines wearing the insignia of a field marshal". Getty Images. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  8. ^ Ashcroft, pp. 79–81.
  9. ^ London Gazette 4 September 1860.
  10. ^ London Gazette 3 June 1881.
  11. ^ London Gazette 26 November 1918.
  12. ^ London Gazette 24 December 1858.
  13. ^ Woodward, David R. (May 2006) [September 2004]. "Robertson, Sir William Robert, first baronet (1860–1933)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/35786. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  14. ^ a b Heathcote, pp. 122–125.
  15. ^ Heathcote, pp. 47–52.
  16. ^ Heathcote, pp. 320–326, Table 1.
  17. ^ a b Heathcote, pp. 166–167.
  18. ^ Heathcote, pp. 71–73.
  19. ^ Heathcote, pp. 52–53.
  20. ^ Heathcote, pp. 99–101.
  21. ^ Heathcote, pp. 97–99.
  22. ^ Heathcote, pp. 272–273.
  23. ^ Heathcote, pp. 285–287.
  24. ^ Heathcote, pp. 245–246.
  25. ^ Heathcote, pp. 211–212.
  26. ^ Heathcote, pp. 202–204.
  27. ^ Heathcote, pp. 234–235.
  28. ^ Heathcote, pp. 92–94.
  29. ^ Heathcote, pp. 302–303.
  30. ^ Heathcote, pp. 179–180.
  31. ^ Heathcote, pp. 127–130.
  32. ^ Heathcote, pp. 73–75.
  33. ^ Heathcote, pp. 23–26.
  34. ^ Heathcote, pp. 153–154.
  35. ^ Heathcote, pp. 178–179.
  36. ^ Heathcote, pp. 277–279.
  37. ^ Heathcote, pp. 82–83.
  38. ^ Heathcote, pp. 199–200.
  39. ^ Heathcote, pp. 112–113.
  40. ^ Heathcote, pp. 291–295.
  41. ^ Heathcote, pp. 116–118.
  42. ^ Heathcote, pp. 9–10.
  43. ^ Heathcote, pp. 301–302.
  44. ^ Heathcote, pp. 200–202.
  45. ^ Heathcote, pp. 222–223.
  46. ^ Heathcote, pp. 89–90.
  47. ^ Heathcote, pp. 182–183.
  48. ^ Heathcote, pp. 12–13.
  49. ^ Heathcote, pp. 297–299.
  50. ^ Heathcote, pp. 232–234.
  51. ^ Heathcote, pp. 154–155.
  52. ^ Heathcote, pp. 235–237.
  53. ^ Heathcote, pp. 267–269.
  54. ^ Heathcote, pp. 94–96.
  55. ^ Heathcote, pp. 63–64.
  56. ^ Heathcote, pp. 171–173.
  57. ^ Heathcote, pp. 90–92.
  58. ^ Heathcote, pp. 46–47.
  59. ^ Heathcote, pp. 148–150.
  60. ^ Heathcote, pp. 141–144.
  61. ^ Heathcote, pp. 69–71.
  62. ^ Heathcote, pp. 316–318.
  63. ^ Heathcote, pp. 146–148.
  64. ^ Heathcote, pp. 255–256.
  65. ^ Heathcote, pp. 60–63.
  66. ^ Heathcote, pp. 243–245.
  67. ^ Heathcote, pp. 121–122.
  68. ^ Heathcote, pp. 173–174.
  69. ^ Heathcote, pp. 105–108.
  70. ^ Heathcote, pp. 256–257.
  71. ^ Heathcote, pp. 318–319.
  72. ^ Heathcote, pp. 253–255.
  73. ^ Heathcote, pp. 223–225.
  74. ^ Heathcote, pp. 150–151.
  75. ^ Heathcote, pp. 207–208.
  76. ^ Heathcote, pp. 96–97.
  77. ^ Heathcote, pp. 237–238.
  78. ^ Heathcote, pp. 41–43.
  79. ^ Heathcote, pp. 257–259.
  80. ^ Heathcote, pp. 163–165.
  81. ^ Heathcote, pp. 270–272.
  82. ^ Heathcote, pp. 311–314.
  83. ^ Heathcote, pp. 246–250.
  84. ^ Heathcote, pp. 114–115.
  85. ^ Heathcote, pp. 83–85.
  86. ^ Heathcote, pp. 299–301.
  87. ^ Heathcote, pp. 230–232.
  88. ^ Heathcote, pp. 26–28.
  89. ^ Heathcote, pp. 314–316.
  90. ^ Heathcote, pp. 295–297.
  91. ^ Heathcote, pp. 125–127.
  92. ^ Heathcote, pp. 151–153.
  93. ^ Heathcote, pp. 59–60.
  94. ^ Heathcote, pp. 191–197.
  95. ^ Heathcote, pp. 135–137.
  96. ^ Heathcote, pp. 205–207.
  97. ^ Heathcote, pp. 228–230.
  98. ^ Heathcote, pp. 130–135.
  99. ^ Heathcote, pp. 225–228.
  100. ^ Heathcote, pp. 155–160.
  101. ^ Heathcote, pp. 115–116.
  102. ^ Heathcote, pp. 319–320.
  103. ^ Heathcote, pp. 240–243.
  104. ^ Heathcote, pp. 19–23.
  105. ^ Heathcote, pp. 303–308.
  106. ^ Heathcote, pp. 250–253.
  107. ^ Heathcote, pp. 39–41.
  108. ^ Heathcote, pp. 10–12.
  109. ^ Heathcote, pp. 43–45.
  110. ^ Heathcote, pp. 190–191.
  111. ^ Heathcote, pp. 208–211.
  112. ^ Heathcote, pp. 17–19.
  113. ^ Heathcote, pp. 176–178.
  114. ^ Heathcote, pp. 64–69.
  115. ^ Heathcote, pp. 197–199.
  116. ^ Heathcote, pp. 86–89.
  117. ^ Heathcote, pp. 219–222.
  118. ^ Heathcote, pp. 108–112.
  119. ^ Heathcote, pp. 101–102.
  120. ^ Heathcote, pp. 137–141.
  121. ^ Heathcote, pp. 185–190.
  122. ^ Heathcote, pp. 264–267.
  123. ^ Heathcote, pp. 102–105.
  124. ^ Heathcote, pp. 279–283.
  125. ^ Heathcote, pp. 287–291.
  126. ^ Heathcote, pp. 56–59.
  127. ^ Heathcote, pp. 13–17.
  128. ^ Heathcote, pp. 212–219.
  129. ^ Heathcote, pp. 308–311.
  130. ^ Heathcote, pp. 28–35.
  131. ^ Heathcote, pp. 259–264.
  132. ^ "No. 38930". The London Gazette (Supplement). 2 June 1950. p. 2811.
  133. ^ Heathcote, pp. 238–240.
  134. ^ Heathcote, pp. 167–171.
  135. ^ Heathcote, pp. 174–176.
  136. ^ Heathcote, pp. 273–277.
  137. ^ Heathcote, pp. 118–121.
  138. ^ Heathcote, pp. 204–205.
  139. ^ Heathcote, pp. 160–163.
  140. ^ Heathcote, pp. 180–182.
  141. ^ Heathcote, pp. 79–82.
  142. ^ Heathcote, pp. 37–39.
  143. ^ The Guardian & 12 December 2001.
  144. ^ Heathcote, pp. 75–79.
  145. ^ The Daily Telegraph & 2 November 2004.
  146. ^ Heathcote, pp. 144–146.
  147. ^ BBC News & 2 June 2001.
  148. ^ Heathcote, pp. 45–46.
  149. ^ "Ex-Armed Forces head Lord Bramall dies aged 95". BBC. 12 November 2019. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  150. ^ Heathcote, pp. 53–56.
  151. ^ The Times & 13 November 2007.
  152. ^ Heathcote, pp. 269–270.
  153. ^ The Independent & 11 April 2002.
  154. ^ Heathcote, pp. 35–37.
  155. ^ Heathcote, pp. 283–285.
  156. ^ Heathcote, pp. 85–86.
  157. ^ Heathcote, pp. 113–114.
  158. ^ Heathcote, pp. 183–185.

General

Specific

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