To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Portrait of Natalia Pushkina by Alexander Brullov, 1831-2
Detail from La belle ferronnière, school of Leonardo da Vinci, 1490-96
Detail from La belle ferronnière, school of Leonardo da Vinci, 1490-96

A ferronnière is a style of headband that encircles the wearer's forehead, usually with a small jewel suspended in the centre.[1] The original form of the headband was worn in late fifteenth-century Italy, and was rechristened a ferronnière at the time of its revival in the second quarter of the nineteenth century for both day and (more frequently) formal and evening wear.[2][3]

Etymology

The term ferronnière for describing such headbands was coined in the early nineteenth century. Merriam-Webster date the earliest use of the term to 1831,[4] and the Oxford English Dictionary notes that their record of the earliest usage of the term is located in a mid-19th-century publication called World of Fashion.[5] Some sources suggest that the term was contemporary to the 1490s.[6][7][8]

The ferronnière is often said to be named after a 1490s portrait attributed to the school of Leonardo da Vinci, the La belle ferronnière, where the sitter wears such an ornament.[2][3][9][10] However, this painting's title was assigned in the 18th century,[11] well after it was painted, under the erroneous assumption that it portrayed Madame Le Féron, a reputed mistress of Francis I of France; or another mistress who was allegedly an iron merchant's wife.[9][10] The literal translation of ferronnière in English is "ironmonger."[10] In their catalogue, the Louvre suggest that La belle ferronnière was so-called because of her forehead ornament, a theory that is supported by other scholars,[11][12] but other sources conclude that the ornament was named after the painting, due to the term's specific application apparently not existing prior to the 19th century.[5][9][10]

In fashion

The original ornament that later became called a ferronnière was popular in 15th-century Italy, where it could be made from metal or jewels.[6]

The nineteenth-century ferronnière was worn from the late 1820s to the early 1840s, when it was considered to enhance a high forehead, and by the 1850s, it had fallen out of fashion.[2] One contemporary source from 1831 describes the ferronnière as "a small plait of hair, adorned in the centre of the forehead by a large brilliant, from which depends another brilliant of the pear shape."[13] It has been described as one of the most widely worn examples of historicism in early Victorian fashion, worn as a tribute to the Renaissance alongside beaded belts called cordelières inspired by medieval clothing and hairstyles named after historic women such as Agnès Sorel and Blanche of Castile.[14] The ferronnière could be worn for either day or evening.[14] Alternative terms for similar ornaments were the bandelette and the tour de tête.[15][16]

References

  1. ^ Lewandowski, Elizabeth J. (2011). The complete costume dictionary. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, Inc. p. 106. ISBN 9780810840041.
  2. ^ a b c Tetzeli von Rosador, Kurt (1984). "Gems and Jewellery in Victorian Fiction". The Yearbook of research in English and American literature. Tübingen: Narr. p. 289. ISBN 9783110098990. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  3. ^ a b Vookles, Laura (1986). The Jewelers' Eye: Nineteenth-century Jewelry in the Collection of Nancy and Gilbert Levine. Hudson River Museum. p. 102.
  4. ^ "Definition of FERRONNIÈRE". www.merriam-webster.com. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  5. ^ a b "Ferronière - definition of ferronière in English". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  6. ^ a b Tortora, Phyllis G.; Eubank, Keith. Survey of Historic Costume. A&C Black. p. 192. ISBN 9781563678066.
  7. ^ King, Ross (2012). Leonardo and the Last Supper. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 293. ISBN 1408834278.
  8. ^ Boussel, Patrice (1980). Leonardo da Vinci. Secaucus, N.J.: Chartwell Books. ISBN 1555211038.
  9. ^ a b c Viardot, Louis (1870). Wonders of Italian art. C. Scribner & Company. p. 102.
  10. ^ a b c d Crispino, Enrica. Leonardo. Ediz. inglese. Giunti Editore. p. 64. ISBN 9788809025486.
  11. ^ a b de Silvestri, Paolo. Leonardo, or the universal genius. ATS Italia Editrice. p. 52. ISBN 9788875718732.
  12. ^ "Portrait de femme, dit La Belle Ferronnière". cartelen.louvre.fr (in French). Louvre Museum Official Website. Retrieved 1 March 2017. La confusion a été facilitée par le bijou, appelé ferronnière, que le modèle porte sur le front.
  13. ^ The Atheneum, Volume 29. 1831. p. 295.
  14. ^ a b Flower, Margaret (1973). Victorian Jewellery (2013 reprint). Read Books Ltd. ISBN 9781447483816.
  15. ^ The Lady's Magazine and Museum. April 1833. p. 183.
  16. ^ Metz, Nancy Aycock. The Companion to Martin Chuzzlewit. Helm Information Limited. p. 405. ISBN 9781873403846. The allusion is to a tour de tete, also known as a ferroniere, an oval or circular brow-ornament held in place by a thin chain. This fashionable ornament - which was said to give the wearer a look of 'erudition' - was copied from a painting by Leonardo da Vinci...


This page was last edited on 4 September 2019, at 21:19
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.