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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fjäll landscape in Padjelanta, Swedish Lapland
Fjäll landscape in Padjelanta, Swedish Lapland
Børvasstindene in Norway, near Bodø
Børvasstindene in Norway, near Bodø

A fell (from Old Norse fell, fjall, "mountain"[1]) is a high and barren landscape feature, such as a mountain range or moor-covered hills. The term is most often employed in Fennoscandia, the Isle of Man, parts of Northern England, and Scotland.

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  • ✪ The Reason Lupe Fiasco Fell Off!
  • ✪ MYSTERIOUS Animals That FELL From The Sky!

Transcription

What’s poppin yall; it’s no doubt in anybody’s mind that it’s been a number of years since Lupe Fiasco has fallen off. But what I see people commonly misconstrue or do some revisionist history is saying that he was ever really HUGE or mainstream to the extent that he was topping the charts and getting #1 albums. The funniest thing is that the album people criticize him the most for was his most successful album. Before we get into that; please like the video but more importantly subscribe and hit the notification bell so you never miss a video. Also follow me on instagram it’s on the screen; I do first reaction mini album reviews on there as well as content too short to make it onto the YouTube channel. This video is gonna focus mainly on why I think he fell off and the events that led to that; I may or may not do another video solely based on his career and accomplishments that I feel should be highlighted because he is one of my favorite and also one of the best rappers of ALL time, and this generation especially the 2000s babies seem to not even acknowledge what he’s done and see him as some washed up rapper that was decent in the 2000s when he is anything but. First we need to get rid of the misconceptions people have of why he fell off. The first one being that he was ever the biggest rapper in the game or anything like that. The albums that people always say he should go back to and reminisce on are Food & Liquor released in 2006 and The Cool released in 2007. Both of these are undoubtedly classic albums but Food and Liquor has still yet to go Gold and The Cool is Gold but not platinum. And these were years that many rappers were going platinum; neither of them debuted at #1, Food and Liquor was #8 and The Cool was #14. This isn’t to say that these albums weren’t impactful; they were huge in the hip hop scene and how much they were talked about, along with the Kanye West and Jay-Z cosign paired with nostalgia people have for them may be among the reasons people thought they were much more commercially successful than they were. So even when people say Lupe Fiasco was at his peak he still was never the biggest rapper in the game when it came purely to the numbers. Between 2007 and 2011 there would be a span of 4 years where Lupe didn’t release a single album. He was having trouble with his label Atlantic Records and wanted to release an album that would eventually be Food & Liquor 2 called The Great American Rap Album and there were also talks of him releasing lupEND and finishing his career there in 2009 but they weren’t having it. In the meantime he released one mixtape; Enemy of the state: A love story in 2009 to hold his fans over. 4 years without an album you might think this definitely what caused him to fall off but no it wasn’t. After a struggle with the label and his fans protesting outside Atlantic Records for them to finally release it they did and it would end up being his first #1 album selling 204,000 first week. Much of his hip hop purist fans hated it but the single Show Goes On ended up going double platinum and the album was nominated for a grammy. He was asked about the album in an interview and gave the response: “One thing I try to stress about this project is, I love and hate this album. I listen to it and I’ll like some of the songs. But when I think about what it took to actually get the record together and everything that I went through on this record — which is something I can’t separate — I hate this album. A lot of the songs that are on the album, I’m kinda neutral to. Not that I don’t like them, or that I hate them, it’s just I know the process that went behind it. I know the sneaky business deal that went down behind this song, or the artist or singer or songwriter who wrote this hook and didn’t want to give me this song in the first place. So when I have that kind of knowledge behind it, I’m just kind of neutral to it like, ‘Another day, another dollar’. As opposed something like The Cool, which is more of my own blood, sweat, and tears, and my own control. With this record, I’m little bit more neutral as to the love for the record. I don’t like the process behind Lasers. The music is dope but I just don’t like the process. We were literally at the point where all this music was done except for a couple songs that we did after the protest. So the bulk of the album was done. And we were talking about shelving the album and going to another label, that’s where we were like, ‘If you put the record out, put it out. Either move on to another album or can it and we’ll do other records at another label’. The business of it got solved. I’m happy for the fans, this is their album. This is the album that they fought for and that’s what made me do songs like ‘Words I Never Said’ and ‘All Black Everything’.” A lot of people would abandon him after this but one thing that definitely got him black balled from the industry was a statement he made on June, 2011 on national television when he called President Obama a terrorist. “I’m trying to fight the terrorism that’s causing the other forms of terrorism. You know the root cause of terrorists is the stuff the U.S. government allows to happen. The foreign policies that we have in place in different countries that inspire people to become terrorists.” “I don’t get involved in politics,” he said. “It’s meaningless. If I’m going to say I stand behind this person and write on a piece of paper that says, ‘Yeah, I stand for this person,’ then I have to take responsibility for everything he does cause that’s just who I am as a human being. So politicians aren’t going to do that because I don’t want you to bomb some village in the middle of nowhere.” Yall know how much hip hop loves Obama so for him to have said this even though he clarified and stated he meant the president’s before and after; caused a huge storm of negative press and many people were distancing themselves from him. Years later though he would still stand by what he said and not take it back; which I really respected someone who basically committed career suicide and didn’t apologize for it because it was what he believed in. His 2012 album Food and Liquor 2 got a bunch of hate and love; the most love being that it was nominated for a grammy for best rap album of the year and it didn’t sell nearly as well as LASERS but it was a great album. After this is where he became almost irrelevant in the eyes of the hip hop world, that being the newer and younger fans. But overall even with the statement on Obama being thrown to the side he never fit the mold of what a rapper was supposed to be for any of the eras he was in. He never wore really flashy jewelry or threatened people with violence, he was on the fashion tip a minute ago in 2007 with the Goyard purses your favorite rapper wears now and belts and japanese brands like bape, undercover, cdg, visvim and others. He was always political and socially conscious but not in the way that people wanted him to be or wanted to hear. There are many artists out right now that try to be politically aware or socially conscious in their raps but they make sure to tailor it directly to what is appealing to the majority of rap listeners instead of just outright saying what they believe. The way lupe did it was true to himself and it rubbed a lot of people the wrong way most of the time and made him more and more hated. He was also always seen as a nerd; he loved video games particularly fighting games that he’s been more vocal about within the past couple of years but never showed that edge to him, which is definitely there, but he always gave off this vibe that he wanted to be a legitimate role model to the younger fans. All of these reasons put together and coupled with the fact that less and less people care about the type of music he makes and are more interested in turn up rap; and with songs like dumb it down refusing to conform to that standard, he just distanced himself from music entirely and has said so multiple times that once his album drogas is out he would retire. I don’t know if skulls is still going to come out at this point. Lupe Fiasco, in my opinion never wanted to become the conscious capitalist. He was far too opinionated and actually had the brains to not be manipulated by record labels and that eventually led to his decline in popularity but his music quality has not gone anywhere. His 2015 album Tetsuo & Youth is up there with his first two albums in terms of quality and it’s a shame people still sleep on it. But lemme know what yall think in the comments for people who actually followed lupe fiasco career from 2005 onward; why do you think he fell off? And for the younger people that aint know about him, when did you first hear his name? Like and subscribe and hit that notification bell if you enjoyed, thank you for watching, peace!

Contents

Etymology

The English word "fell" comes from Old Norse fell and fjall (both forms existed).[1] It is cognate with Danish fjeld, Faroese fjall and fjøll, Icelandic fjall and fell, Norwegian fjell with dialects fjøll, fjødd, fjedd, fjedl, fjill, fil(l), and fel,[2] and Swedish fjäll, all referring to mountains rising above the alpine tree line.[3]

British Isles

View of the Scafell massif from Yewbarrow, Wasdale, Cumbria. In the valley are older enclosures and higher up on the fell-side are the parliamentary enclosures following straight lines regardless of terrain.
View of the Scafell massif from Yewbarrow, Wasdale, Cumbria. In the valley are older enclosures and higher up on the fell-side are the parliamentary enclosures following straight lines regardless of terrain.

In Northern England, especially in the Lake District and in the Pennine Dales, the word "fell" originally referred to an area of uncultivated high ground used as common grazing usually on common land and above the timberline. Today, generally, "fell" refers to the mountains and hills of the Lake District and the Pennine Dales.

Names that originally referred to grazing areas have been applied to these hilltops. This is the case with Seathwaite Fell, for example, which would be the common grazing land used by the farmers of Seathwaite. The fellgate marks the road from a settlement onto the fell (see photograph for example), as is the case with the Seathwaite Fell. In other cases the reverse is true; for instance, the name of Wetherlam, in the Coniston Fells, though understood to refer to the mountain as a whole, strictly speaking refers to the summit; the slopes have names such as Tilberthwaite High Fell, Low Fell and Above Beck Fells.

Fell Lane, near Ingleton towards the fellgate and Ingleborough, North Yorkshire, England
Fell Lane, near Ingleton towards the fellgate and Ingleborough, North Yorkshire, England

The word "fell" is also used in the names of various breeds of livestock, bred for life on the uplands, such as Rough Fell sheep, Fell Terriers and Fell ponies.

It is also found in many place names across the North of England, often attached to the name of a community; thus the township of Cartmel Fell.

In northern England, there is a Lord of the Fells – this ancient aristocratic title being associated with the Lords of Bowland.

Groups of cairns are a common feature on many fells, often marking the summit – there are fine examples on Wild Boar Fell in Mallerstang Dale, Cumbria, and on Nine Standards Rigg just outside Kirkby Stephen, Cumbria.

As the most mountainous region of England, the Lake District is the area most closely associated with the sport of fell running, which takes its name from the fells of the district. "Fellwalking" is also the term used locally for the activity known in the rest of Great Britain as hillwalking.

The word "fell" also enjoys limited use in Scotland, with for example the Campsie Fells in Central Scotland, to the North East of Glasgow. One of the most famous examples of the use of the word "fell" in Scotland is Goat Fell, the highest point on the Isle of Arran. Criffel and the nearby Long Fell in Galloway may be seen from the northern Lake District of England. Peel Fell in the Kielder Forest is situated on the border between the Scottish Borders to the North and the English county of Northumberland to the South.

Fennoscandia

Road across the barren Hardangervidda plateau, Norway.
Road across the barren Hardangervidda plateau, Norway.

Norway

In Norway, fjell, in common usage, is generally interpreted as simply a summit or area of greater altitude than a hill, which leads to a great deal of local variation in what is defined as a fjell. Fjell is mostly used about areas above the forest line. Distinct summits can be referred to as et fjell (a mountain). High plateaus (vidde landscape) such as Hardangervidda are also regarded as fjell.[4][5] Professor of geography at the University of Bergen, Anders Lundeberg, has summed up the problem by stating, "There simply is no fixed and unambiguous definition of fjell."[6] Ivar Aasen defined fjell as a "tall berg", primarily referring to a berg that reaches an altitude where trees don't grow, lower berg are referred to as "berg", ås (hill, ridge) or hei (moor, heathland). The fixed expression til fjells refers to mountains (or uplands) as a collective rather than a specific location or specific summit (the "s" in til fjells is an old genitive form remaining only in fixed expressions). According to Ivar Aasen, berg refers to cliffs, bedrock and notable elevations of the surface underpinned by bedrock; berg also refers to the substance of bedrock.[7][8] For all practical purposes, fjell can be translated as "mountain" and the Norwegian language has no other commonly used word for mountain.

Sweden

In Sweden, fjäll refers to any mountain or upland high enough that forest will not naturally survive at the top, in effect a mountain tundra. Fjäll is primarily used to describe mountains in the Nordic countries, but also more generally to describe mountains shaped by massive ice sheets, primarily in Arctic and subarctic regions.

Finland

In Finnish, the mountains characteristic of the region of Lapland are called tunturi (plural: tunturit), i.e. "fell". A tunturi is a hill high enough that its top is above the tree line and has alpine tundra. In Finnish, the geographical term vuori is used for mountains recently uplifted and with jagged terrain featuring permanent glaciers, while tunturi refers to the old, highly eroded, gently shaped terrain without glaciers, as found in Finland.[9] They are round inselbergs rising from the otherwise flat surroundings. The tree line can be at a rather low altidude, such as 600 m in Enontekiö, owing to the high latitude. The fells in Finnish Lapland form vestiges of the Karelides mountains, formed two billion years ago. Also, the term tunturi is also generally used to refer to treeless plains at high altitudes in far north regions. The term tunturi, originally a word limited to far-Northern dialects of Finnish and Karelian, is a loan from Sami, compare Proto-Sami *tuontër, South Sami doedtere, Northern Sami duottar, Inari Sami tuodâr "uplands, mountains, tundra", Kildin Sami tūndâr, which means "uplands, treeless mountain tract" and is cognate with Finnish tanner "hard ground".[10] From this Sami word, the word "tundra" is borrowed, as well, through the Russian language.[11][12] Hills that are over 50 m high, but do not reach the tree line are referred to as vaara, while the general term for hills including hills of 50 m or less is mäki.[13] In place names, however, tunturi, vaara and vuori are used inconsistently, e.g. Rukatunturi is technically a vaara, as it lacks alpine tundra.

Förfjäll

The term förfjäll (literally "fore-fell") is used in Sweden and Finland[14] to denote mountainous zones lower and less dissected than the fell proper. However, its more pronounced relief, its often higher amount of plateaux, and its coherent valley systems distinguishes the förfjäll also from the undulating hilly terrain (bergkullsterräng) and the plains with residual hills (bergkullslätt). Generally, the förfjäll do not surpass 1000 m ASL. As a geomorphic unit, the förfjäll extends across Sweden as a 650-km-long and 40- to 80-km-broad belt from Dalarna in the south to Norrbotten in the north.[15]

  • bekkr - 'stream' » beck
  • dalr - 'valley' » dale
  • fors - 'waterfall' » force/foss
  • fjallr - 'mountain' (usually a large, flat mountain) » fell
  • gil - 'ravine' » gill/ghyll
  • haugr - 'hill' » howe
  • pic - 'peak' » pike
  • sætr - 'shieling' » side/seat
  • tjorn - 'small lake' » tarn
  • þveit - 'clearing' » thwaite


See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Falk and Torp (2006:161).
  2. ^ Norsk Stadnamn Leksikon: Grunnord
  3. ^ Bjorvand and Lindeman (2007:270–271).
  4. ^ "Bokmålsordboka | Nynorskordboka". ordbok.uib.no. Retrieved 2019-11-03.
  5. ^ Spjeldnæs, Nils (2019-10-31), "fjell", Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian Bokmål), retrieved 2019-11-03
  6. ^ Tufto, Jon. "- Fløyen er ikke et fjell". bt.no. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  7. ^ Nesset, Kåre (1964). No lærer vi grammatikk. Oslo: Aschehoug.
  8. ^ Aasen, Ivar (1918): Norsk ordbog med dansk forklaring. Vestmannalaget/Cammermeyer.
  9. ^ Web-Facta, WSOY 2003.
  10. ^ Aikio, Ante (2009). The Saami Loanwords in Finnish and Karelian. Oulu: unpublished dissertation. p. 283. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
  11. ^ Aapala, Kirsti. "Tunturista jängälle". Kieli-ikkunat. Archived from the original on 2006-10-01. Retrieved 2009-11-29.
  12. ^ Itkonen, Erkki (1945). "Tanner, tunturi, tundra (Zusammenfassung: Finn. tanner 'Feld', tunturi 'Fjell, hochgelegene Bergfläche (im hohen Norden)' und tundra 'Tundra')". Virittäjä: 384.
  13. ^ http://www.kysy.fi/kysymys/maaston-muodoista-tuli-juttua-ja-yksimielisyyteen-ei-paasty-millon-harju-ja
  14. ^ Behrens, Sven; Lundqvist, Thomas. "Finland: Terrängformer och berggrund". Nationalencyklopedin (in Swedish). Cydonia Development. Retrieved November 30, 2017.
  15. ^ Terrängformer i Norden (in Swedish). Nordiska ministerrådet. 1984. p. 10.

References

This page was last edited on 23 December 2019, at 06:00
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