To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Felipe Ángeles

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Felipe Ángeles
Felipe Ángeles.jpg
Felipe Ángeles
BornJune 13, 1868
Zacualtipán, Hidalgo, Mexico
DiedNovember 26, 1919 (age 51)
Ciudad Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico
AllegianceDivisión del Norte
Years of service1892–1919
RankBrigadier General
Battles/warsMexican Revolution

Felipe Ángeles Ramírez (1868–1919) was unique in the Mexican Revolution for first being a general in the Federal Army before joining the revolutionary cause in northern Mexico, serving with General Pancho Villa.[1]

Early life

Felipe Ángeles was born on June 13, 1868 in Zacualtipán, Hidalgo, the son of Felipe Ángeles and Juana Ramírez. The elder Felipe Ángeles was a small farmer who had participated in the war with the United States in 1847 and in the war to remove Emperor Maximilian in 1862.[2]

Education and early military career

Ángeles was educated at the primary level in Molango, Hidalgo. He went on to study in the Instituto Literario in Pachuca, subsequently entering the Military Academy in Mexico City in 1883 at the age of 14. He obtained the rank of lieutenant of engineers in 1892.[3][4] Concentrating on raising the professional level of the officers of the Federal Army through improved education, he took on various lectureships in the military academy. In 1896 he was promoted to captain of artillery, and by 1901 he had obtained the rank of major. Three years later he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel and to full colonel in 1908. That same year, he left for France to study contemporary artillery.[5]

While Ángeles was teaching at the Military Academy he met and courted Clara Kraus, a California woman of German ancestry who was teaching school in Mexico City. They were married in November 1896.[6]

Colonel Ángeles was in Paris as when the Mexican Revolution broke out in late 1910. His request to return to Mexico was rejected, and consequently he did not participate in the Madero revolution. As (Mexico's) Inspector General of Munitions at the Sharpshooting Academy at Mailly, Ángeles perfected the “French 75,” which would become one of the more effective weapons in the Great War.[7] In May 1911, he was awarded the order of Knight of the Legion of Honor by the French government.[8]

Revolutionary activities

Colonel Ángeles returned to Mexico in January 1912. Shortly thereafter, he met with new President Francisco Madero, and Madero appointed Ángeles director of the Military Academy at Chapultepec. While he was director, he had much contact with President Madero, and developed a reputation as a cultured dignified officer and a man of honor. In June 1912, he was promoted to brigadier general.[9]

The Madero government was under attack from many sides, and in August 1912, President Madero sent General Ángeles to Morelos to take charge of the seventh military zone, and battle the Emiliano Zapata insurgency. Ángeles, with Madero's concurrence, changed the harsh military tactics and offered amnesty to those revolutionaries who agreed to lay down their arms. Ángeles unleashed aerial bombardment and modern counter-insurgency warfare against those who refused to surrender, but he did not deliberately target civilians. While this did not end the rebellion, it did much to reduce the level of violence.[10][11][12][13]

Leader of the Constitutionalists Venustiano Carranza poses with his supporters, 1913. Felipe Ángeles stands directly behind him.
Leader of the Constitutionalists Venustiano Carranza poses with his supporters, 1913. Felipe Ángeles stands directly behind him.

In February 1913, a reactionary coup d’état known as La decena trágica ended the Madero government when a conservative military faction attacked the National Palace. The attack was turned back, and the conspirators barricaded themselves within the armory. President Madero appointed General Victoriano Huerta to lead the loyal troops, and then traveled to Morelos to confer with Ángeles. Madero and Ángeles returned to Mexico City, with the understanding that Ángeles would be placed in charge of the forces loyal to Madero. However, the Army staff objected, stating that under army regulations, Ángeles was technically not yet a general, as Congress had not confirmed his appointment. After ten days of fighting, General Huerta, aided by U.S. Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson, reached an accommodation with the rebels. Huerta, supported by the conservative rebel units, arrested President Madero, Vice-President Pino Suarez, and General Ángeles. The president and the vice-president were subsequently assassinated.[14][15][16] Ángeles was arrested with Madero and Pino Suarez. Huerta subjected Ángeles to a sham trial, accusing him of murdering a child during the barrage of La Ciudadela. Ángeles defended himself ably, and Huerta sent him into exile in France rather than in front of a firing squad.[17]

Return to Mexico

While in Paris, General Ángeles made contact with individuals opposed to the new Huerta government. He was persuaded to return to Mexico in October 1913, and join the anti-Huerta forces under Venustiano Carranza in Sonora.[18][19][20] Carranza confirmed Ángeles' rank of brigadier general and appointed him Secretary of War in the Revolutionary Government. However, the powerful Sonoran faction considered Ángeles to be a holdover of the old Díaz regime, and treated him with suspicion and hostility. To placate the Sonorans, Carranza downgraded Ángeles's position to sub-Secretary of War.[21][22][23] While in this position, Ángeles formulated the rebel grand strategy of a three-prong attack south to Mexico City: General Álvaro Obregón to advance south along the western railroad, General Pancho Villa to advance south along the central railroad, and General Pablo González to advance south along the eastern railroad.[24]

In January 1914, Ángeles accompanied Carranza on a visit to Chihuahua to confer with Pancho Villa. Ángeles, unhappy under Carranza, convinced Villa to ask Carranza to put him in charge of his artillery. Villa asked for Ángeles’ services, and Carranza willingly released him. He consequently joined Pancho Villa's Division of the North in March 1914.[25][26][27]

Service with Villa

Winchester rifle that belongs to the general Genovevo de la O and gave as a gift to Felipe Ángeles. Toma de Zacatecas museum, Zacatecas.
Winchester rifle that belongs to the general Genovevo de la O and gave as a gift to Felipe Ángeles. Toma de Zacatecas museum, Zacatecas.

General Ángeles became one of Villa's principal military and intellectual advisers. He participated as Chief of Artillery in the great military triumphs of 1914: the capture of Torreón, the Battles of San Pedro de las Colonias and Paredón, and the capture of Zacatecas in May 1914. Just before the attack on Zacatecas, Ángeles played a major role in the so-called ‘disobedience of the generals' of the Division of the North, countermanding Carranza's order to halt their advance on Zacatecas and Mexico City. The generals’ 'disobedience' ensured the defeat of Huerta's army, but precipitated a split between Carranza and Villa.[28][29]

After the defeat of Huerta, Ángeles participated in the October 1914 Convention of Aguascalientes as Villa's representative. The Convention of Aguascalientes, called to bring an end to hostilities, resulted in a complete break between Villa and Carranza.[30][31] Ángeles remained with the Villa faction as civil war broke out again in early 1915. Ángeles, in his first independent command, captured the city of Monterrey in January 1915.[32][33] However, Villa's forces were decisively defeated in the spring of 1915 by Carranza's General Obregón, and Ángeles was forced to flee Mexico and settle in exile in Texas. There he attempted to make a living as a dairy farmer.[34][35]

While in Texas, he joined the Liberal Mexican Alliance, which sought to bring together exiles of various ideological persuasions linked by the common aim to stop the war and form a coalition government.[36][37] When World War I ended in November 1918, Mexico under Carranza was still engaged in civil war. Ángeles became convinced that the United States would invade and occupy Mexico if the combatants could not reach a peace accord.[38][39] In December 1918, Ángeles returned to Chihuahua clandestinely and joined up again with Pancho Villa. Villa at this time no longer commanded an army, but instead was only able to conduct guerrilla raids. He was then being pursued by both the Mexican and American military. Ángeles, a conciliator, pacifist, and philanthropic socialist wanted peace, but he was unable to convince Villa to cease hostilities.[40][41]

Final year, trial and execution

An equestrian statue of General Ángeles on Bufa Hill, Zacatecas.
An equestrian statue of General Ángeles on Bufa Hill, Zacatecas.

After Villa's raid on Ciudad Juárez in June 1919 (in which Ángeles did not participate), Ángeles became despondent that there was no solution to the long and bloody civil war. Tired, ill, and very disillusioned, he departed Villa's camp. Wandering for a time without funds or support, he was betrayed and arrested by the Carranza government. He was court-martialed in a show-trial in Ciudad Chihuahua. Knowing that Carranza would never pardon him, Ángeles made a heroic and impassioned defense in response to his enemies’ case for the prosecution. At 10:45 pm on November 25, 1919,[42] the court-martial condemned him to death, and on November 26, 1919, in front of the state penitentiary in Chihuahua, he was executed.[43][44]

Legacy

Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador announced on April 24, 2019 that construction on the new Mexico City airport will begin on Monday, April 29, 2019, and that it will be named Felipe Ángeles. The airport is scheduled to begin commercial operations in 2021.[45]

Books

  • Slattery, Matthew: Felipe Ángeles and the Mexican Revolution, 1982
  • Katz, Friedrich: The Life and Times of Pancho Villa, 1998
  • Jackson, Byron: "The Political and Military Role of General Felipe Angeles in the Mexican Revolution, 1914-15" (1976, an unpublished dissertation submitted to the faculty of the Graduate School of Georgetown University, 1976)
  • Felipe Angeles is a major character in The Friends of Pancho Villa (1996), a novel by James Carlos Blake

References

  1. ^ Katz, Friedrich, "Foreword" to Adolfo Gilly, The Mexican Revolution. New York: The New Press 2005, xii-xiii.
  2. ^ The Political and Military Role of General Felipe Angeles in the Mexican Revolution, by Byron L. Jackson, an unpublished dissertation submitted to the faculty of the Graduate School of Georgetown University, 1976, pg 14
  3. ^ Byron Jackson, pg 19
  4. ^ Felipe Angeles and the Mexican Revolution, by Matthew T. Slattery, 1982, pg 11
  5. ^ Byron Jackson, pg 22
  6. ^ Matthew Slattery, pg 18
  7. ^ Meade, Everard Kidder (Spring 2010). "The Passion of the Mexican Revolution: The Trial and Execution of Felipe Ángeles" (PDF). Journal of Historical Biography. 7: 30–99.
  8. ^ Matthew Slattery, pg 23
  9. ^ The Life and Times of Pancho Villa, by Friedrich Katz, 1998, pg 273
  10. ^ Everard Meade, pg 56, 74
  11. ^ Friedrich Katz, pg 274
  12. ^ Matthew Slattery, pg 31
  13. ^ Byron Jackson, pg 14
  14. ^ Friedrich Katz, pgs 275-277
  15. ^ Matthew Slattery, pgs 45-50
  16. ^ Byron Jackson, pgs 40-60
  17. ^ Everard Meade, pg 34
  18. ^ Friedrich Katz, pg 277
  19. ^ Matthew Slattery, pgs 58-59
  20. ^ Byron Jackson, pgs 68-69
  21. ^ Friedrich Katz, pg 277
  22. ^ Matthew Slattery, pgs 59-60
  23. ^ Byron Jackson, pg 82
  24. ^ Matthew Slattery, pg 61
  25. ^ Friedrich Katz, pg 278
  26. ^ Matthew Slattery, pgs 62-63
  27. ^ Byron Jackson, pgs 94-96
  28. ^ Matthew Slattery, pgs 94-101
  29. ^ Byron Jackson, pgs 126-148
  30. ^ Matthew Slattery, pgs 120-124
  31. ^ Byron Jackson, pgs 217-251
  32. ^ Matthew Slattery, pgs 131-135
  33. ^ Byron Jackson, pgs 262-265
  34. ^ Matthew Slattery, pgs 159-160
  35. ^ Byron Jackson, pg 316
  36. ^ Matthew Slattery, pgs 160-161
  37. ^ Byron Jackson, pgs 321-322
  38. ^ Matthew Slattery, pg 163
  39. ^ Byron Jackson, pg 322
  40. ^ Matthew Slattery, pg 174
  41. ^ Byron Jackson, pg 324
  42. ^ Meade, Everard Kidder (Spring 2010). "The Passion of the Mexican Revolution: The Trial and Execution of Felipe Ángeles" (PDF). Journal of Historical Biography. 7: 30–99.
  43. ^ Matthew Slattery, pgs 176-183
  44. ^ Byron Jackson, pg 325
  45. ^ "President announces construction will begin Monday on new airport", Mexico News Daily, Mexico City, April 24, 2019, retrieved April 24, 2019
Military offices
Preceded by
Joaquín Beltrán Castañares
Director of the Heroico Colegio Militar
1912–1913
Succeeded by
Miguel Bernard
This page was last edited on 18 October 2021, at 14:13
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.