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Fathers of Confederation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A Canadian 3 cent stamp from 1917 based on  Robert Harris's 1884 painting "Fathers of Confederation".
A Canadian 3 cent stamp from 1917 based on Robert Harris's 1884 painting "Fathers of Confederation".

The Fathers of Confederation are the 36 people who attended at least one of the Charlottetown (23 attendees) and Quebec (33) Conferences in 1864 and the London Conference of 1866 (16) in England, preceding Canadian Confederation. The following lists the participants in the Charlottetown, Quebec, and London Conferences and their attendance at each stage.[1][2]

Queen Victoria has been called the "Mother of Confederation".[3] Her role in Confederation is recognized by the celebration of Victoria Day in Canada.

Four other individuals have been labelled as Fathers of Confederation. Hewitt Bernard, who was the recording secretary at the Charlottetown Conference, is considered by some to be a Father of Confederation.[4] The leaders most responsible for bringing three specific provinces into Confederation after 1867 are also referred to as Fathers of Confederation.[1] The provisional government established by Louis Riel ultimately negotiated the terms under which Manitoba entered the Canadian Confederation in 1870.[5] The leadership of Amor De Cosmos was instrumental both in bringing democracy to British Columbia and in bringing the province into Confederation in 1871.[6] The province of Newfoundland entered the Canadian Confederation in 1949 under the leadership of Joey Smallwood, who was then referred to as the "only living Father of Confederation".[7]

Of the 36 Fathers, 11 were Freemasons, notably Macdonald, but including Bernard, Campbell, Carter, Chandler, Galt, Gray, Haviland, Henry, Pope, and Tilley.[8]

Table of participation

Participant[2] Portrait Province (Current) Charlottetown Quebec City London
Sir Adams George Archibald Nova Scotia
Yes
Yes
Yes
George Brown Ontario
Yes
Yes
No
Sir Alexander Campbell Ontario
Yes
Yes
No
Sir Frederick Carter Newfoundland and Labrador
No
Yes
No
Sir George-Étienne Cartier Quebec
Yes
Yes
Yes
Edward Barron Chandler New Brunswick
Yes
Yes
No
Jean-Charles Chapais Quebec
No
Yes
No
James Cockburn Ontario
No
Yes
No
George Coles Prince Edward Island
Yes
Yes
No
Robert B. Dickey Nova Scotia
Yes
Yes
No
Charles Fisher New Brunswick
No
Yes
Yes
Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt Quebec
Yes
Yes
Yes
John Hamilton Gray Prince Edward Island
Yes
Yes
No
John Hamilton Gray New Brunswick
Yes
Yes
No
Thomas Heath Haviland Prince Edward Island
No
Yes
No
William Alexander Henry Nova Scotia
Yes
Yes
Yes
Sir William Pearce Howland Ontario
No
No
Yes
John Mercer Johnson New Brunswick
Yes
Yes
Yes
Sir Hector-Louis Langevin Quebec
Yes
Yes
Yes
Andrew Archibald Macdonald Prince Edward Island
Yes
Yes
No
Sir John A. Macdonald Ontario
Yes
Yes
Yes
Jonathan McCully Nova Scotia
Yes
Yes
Yes
William McDougall Ontario
Yes
Yes
Yes
Thomas D'Arcy McGee Quebec
Yes
Yes
No
Peter Mitchell New Brunswick
No
Yes
Yes
Sir Oliver Mowat Ontario
No
Yes
No
Edward Palmer Prince Edward Island
Yes
Yes
No
William Henry Pope Prince Edward Island
Yes
Yes
No
John William Ritchie Nova Scotia
No
No
Yes
Sir Ambrose Shea Newfoundland and Labrador
No
Yes
No
William H. Steeves New Brunswick
Yes
Yes
No
Sir Étienne-Paschal Taché Quebec
No
Yes
No
Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley New Brunswick
Yes
Yes
Yes
Sir Charles Tupper Nova Scotia
Yes
Yes
Yes
Edward Whelan Prince Edward Island
No
Yes
No
Robert Duncan Wilmot New Brunswick
No
No
Yes

Historic photographs

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Fathers of Confederation". CanadianHistory. 2008. Archived from the original on 2010-08-21. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
  2. ^ a b Bélanger, Claude (2001). "Studies on the Canadian Constitution and Canadian Federalism". Department of History, Marianopolis College. Archived from the original on 2010-06-11. Retrieved 2010-06-21.
  3. ^ Bouard, Arthur; Toffoli, Garry (1991). Royal Observations. Toronto: Dundurn Press Ltd. p. 10. ISBN 1-55002-076-5. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2010. The Queen's role in promoting Canadian unity truly made her the "Mother of Confederation" and at her death Victoria Day, that uniquely Canadian holiday, was created as a memorial day...
  4. ^ Harrison, Robert A (2003). The conventional man. Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press. p. 627. ISBN 0-8020-8842-2. Archived from the original on 2018-03-28. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
  5. ^ The Heritage Centre. "Louis Riel The Provisional Government". Archived from the original on 10 August 2007. Retrieved 23 September 2007.
  6. ^ Frances, Stanford (2002). Canada's Confederation. S&S Learning Materials. p. 44. ISBN 1-55035-708-5. Archived from the original on 2018-03-28. Retrieved 2011-09-02.
  7. ^ Argyle, Ray (2012). Joey Smallwood, Schemer and Dreamer. Dundurn Press. ISBN 9781459703698.
  8. ^ Michael Jenkyns (July 2017). "Canada's Sesquicentennial - Freemasonry and Confederation". Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Canada in the Province of Ontario. Archived from the original on 5 December 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2018.

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 31 March 2019, at 21:35
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