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The Devil whispers to the Antichrist; detail from Deeds and Sermons of the Antichrist, Luca Signorelli, 1501, Orvieto Cathedral
The Devil whispers to the Antichrist; detail from Deeds and Sermons of the Antichrist, Luca Signorelli, 1501, Orvieto Cathedral

In religion, a false prophet is one who falsely claims the gift of prophecy or divine inspiration, or who uses that gift for evil ends. Often, someone who is considered a "true prophet" by some people is simultaneously considered a "false prophet" by others, even within the same religion as the "prophet" in question. The term is sometimes applied outside religion to describe someone who fervently promotes a theory that the speaker thinks is false.

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  • ✪ Is TB Joshua a false prophet? (Update)
  • ✪ Joel Osteen - The False Prophet of A New World Religion!
  • ✪ False Prophet Bill Johnson EXPOSED HD, 1280x720p
  • ✪ Beyond Today -- The Beast and the False Prophet (4K)
  • ✪ Is The Pope The False Prophet Of The Apocalypse?


so recently I made a video called why false prophets are so dangerous and this video was inspired by an alleged prophecy by the popular televangelist TV Joshua according to his ministry's YouTube channel TV Joshua was said to predict the death of 94 year-old George HW Bush now I had my criticisms to the ledge prophecy and so the conclusion that I drew from it was this either this guy is the most suitable and the most obvious false prophet of our generation and he's deceiving people and leading them astray as the Bible predicted and actually got right or this guy wasn't talking about bush and in that case and this video shouldn't be floating around anyway so the conclusion that I drew from the short video that was put out by TV Joshua's ministry was that he's either a false prophet or the prophecy was not about Bush and if the prophecy wasn't about Bush then his ministry should pull down the video from their YouTube channel so I think that that conclusion was perfectly reasonable however most of his followers thought I concluded something else and they responded in kind soon after I posted the video I got hundreds and hundreds of comments saying that in that short video I concluded that TB Joshua was a false prophet I didn't I never even said he was a false prophet but I can understand how that seemed implied so given the large amount of comments that said that if I just watched his sermons on his videos I would see that he's a true prophet of God and given the fact that I haven't heard of him prior to that video I was genuinely curious the reasons that his followers said that he was a true prophet so I spent the next several days watching several of his videos and several of his sermons and I read every single comment posted on my video leading up until the day and as of today there's around 1,500 comments or so so I read every single one of them and I responded to several of them I really wanted to get a better idea of why so many of his followers said that he was a true prophet so without a doubt by far the most common comments that I got was that I was obviously evil I obviously serve Satan it was full of demons simply because I did not believe that TB Joshua was a true prophet the largest reason that people gave me 4y TB Joshua was a true prophet was because they claimed that he prophesied he cast out demons he performed miracles and healings and so on to get an idea of some of the comments here's just a few of them and just a quick disclaimer most of the commentators first language was not English so I did my best to try to read their comments in the way that they intended it to be but I still put the comment on the screen so that way you can read the comments for yourself so many thousands were Hills saved and received miracles through the Prophet TB Joshua he is a true prophet shut your mouth and go to hell you look sick obviously you're evil cuz he steals so many and perform many miracles what have you done except hate you are not thinking correct you are controlled by Satan you are evil I'm sure you're making a video about TB Joshua's name because you're looking for members to sign up to your channel here on YouTube be careful how you run that stupid mouth concerning him I'm sure if you would have come across people who have been delivered through him they would beat you to death you are just an attention seeker this retarded weed smoking program African American has the audacity to call TB Joshua a false prophet stop all that foolish talk and go experience God yourself like I went there and changed my life and stopped that black on black hating and foolish talking you're nobody and you're sent by demons to be known shut the F up and disappear you'll never progress in life unless you repent now there's hundreds and hundreds of comments like that and if you want to go read them feel free the link to the first video is in the description now my point is not to bash these people or to demonize them I don't hold any grudges towards any of these people nor do I wish them harm in any kind of way I want nothing more but for them and myself to continue to grow in the Grace and the knowledge of our true Lord and Savior Jesus Christ the point is if you search any video critiquing people like Benny Han or Kenneth Copeland or anybody that they would consider a false prophet you're gonna see the same lines of argument being put forth by those peoples followers so I did a really quick youtube search and the first video that I found criticizing Benny Hinn I looked at the comments and here are some of the comments that I found from his followers I got healed in the name of Jesus watching his program on TV I don't care if anybody is judging them height of shamelessness in this world possibie negan is not a false prophet he's a true man of God that Jesus and the God that he serves saves hills and sets men and women free I don't know why this stupid negative video was posted on YouTube don't knock him unless you get to know him this man of God is real the anointing of God is on him I rebuke every negative comment in Jesus name I went to three separate Benny Han gatherings in Texas during the 1990s what I observed and experienced I could only do five is supernatural you are mad and deceived you're lying Benny Hinn is a wonderful man of God and was born in Israel you are obviously not a Christian I myself was healed from an illness I had for 27 years so as you can see people are testing two miracles and they believe that anybody who disagrees and criticizes Benny Hinn is obviously evil on the first video that I could find fatiguing Kenneth Copeland this Rick guy the one who created the video is another one of those Satanists always finds fault with God's anointed anyone who has spiritual revelation of God's Word would know that Kenneth Copeland is on the right track like I said the blind and lost don't know the Word of God or even know how to operate in the spirit so it's no wonder that they don't understand it try getting reborn first quit trying to worry about whether someone is falsifying anything once you line yourself up with the true Word of God you will understand the words of Kenneth Copeland now there's plenty more but you get the point the followers of these men and anybody that you would consider a false prophet are going to be defended by their followers in the exact same way they're gonna say that these people perform miracles and are anointed and are healing people and so on so at this point we should be asking ourselves are all of these teachers and prophets men of God but the problem here is that all of their views contradict in incompatible ways for example Kenneth Copeland says that God is about six-two six-three weighs a couple hundred pounds and has a hand span of about nine inches because all of the different views contradict in incompatible ways how do we know who's right and who's wrong well as Christians I hope we all agree that our ultimate authority concerning prophets should be found first and foremost in Holy Scripture we should trust the scriptures to a much higher degree than any self-proclaimed prophet if the miracles that they do are supposed to attest to the truth of the word of God then at minimum what they do and say should line up with the Word of God if what they doin say does not line up with the Word of God then they're really no different than all of the gurus the shamans and the cult leaders whose followers say that they perform miracles sooo so I hope that we can all agree so far so now the obvious question is what do the scriptures say well first there's warnings of false prophets all over the Bible and second Thessalonians we read how the Antichrist would use all sorts of displays of power and signs and wonders to serve the lie we also read in the book of Revelation and many other play in the Bible how Satan and the Antichrist would use size in miracles to deceive people Jesus himself warned about false prophets and how they will deceive people he says for false Christ's and false prophets will rise and show great signs and wonders to deceive if possible even the elect in Matthew 7 when Jesus is talking about false prophets he gets to a point where he says many will say to me on that day Lord Lord did we not prophesy in your name and in your name cast out demons and in your name perform many miracles and then I will declare to them I never knew you depart from me you who practice lawlessness so if there's one thing that's clear from this is that we cannot judge a true man of God based off of things like prophecy healings casting out demons and miracles on the contrary the Bible actually tells us that people are deceived by those things those are the things that the Bible warns over and over and over that false prophets were use to deceive many but many of TV's followers and apparently TV himself seem to argue the exact opposite and response of people saying that he's using evil forces TB is quoted saying it is not possible for a single person to be working outstanding miracles signs and wonders which millions of other Nigerians cannot do and for such a person to be an agent of Satan but the Bible says the literal opposite it says that people can and will be deceived by these signs and miracles I just can't stress that enough why it's so important that we go back to Scripture is because looks can be deceiving even Satan and the Antichrist will come as Angels of Light it's not as though Satan's gonna come looking evil and being outwardly obvious of course not we would expect for Satan to be charming and smooth and to not look evil that's the entire point sometimes we can know from externally bad behavior but not always like even take the Pharisees to men they look outwardly righteous this is why false prophets are said to be wolves who look and act like sheep so if we can't determine if a man is the true prophet of God by looking at things like signs and wonders and miracles and that sort of thing then how does scriptures say that we can tell if a man is a true prophet of God one of the places that's the most clear and the most straightforward is found in Deuteronomy 18 starting at verse 20 we read but the Prophet who speaks a word presumptuously and my name which I have not commanded him to speak or which he speaks in the name of other gods that prophet shall die so what we have here is that the Israelites were required to pump false prophets to death based off of one false prophecy so for those of TV's followers who told me that it's not that big of a deal he gets some prophesies wrong but he gets a lot of them right well it seems that God takes it a bit more seriously than they do in the next verse the question is raised you may say in your heart how will we know the word which the Lord has not spoken verse 22 when a prophet speaks in the name of the Lord if that thing does not come about or come true that is the thing which the Lord has not spoken the prophet has spoken it presumptuously you shall not be afraid of him so it's clear that if a prophecy does not come true then it's not from the Lord and you shouldn't be afraid to call them out on it so now the final question is has TB Joshua ever uttered a false prophecy during the u.s election between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton TV Joshua prophesied that a woman was going to win the u.s. 2016 election on November 6 he wrote ten days ago I saw the new president of America with an arrow win the new president will be facing several challenges over many issues including passing bills attempt to possibly pass a vote of no-confidence on the new president the boat of the new president will be rocked by the way in order not to keep you in suspense what I frankly saw is a woman now this was just a few days before the election when the polls convinced everybody that Hillary Clinton was going to win but on November 9 2016 Hillary Clinton did not win Donald Trump did so how did Joshua respond after the news came in that Hillary Clinton did not win the internet went crazy there were thousands and thousands of tweets talking about TB Joshua filled prophecy at a point when the criticism was at a high point the post that TV Joshua made was somehow deleted but of course after that the criticism kept climbing and people began to criticize him about the leading but so later that the leader post has actually reposted and his ministry said that it was a mistakenly removed and was reposted since that's not their policy the next week at Ashurst service he responded and I've include that video in the description as well if you want to watch that and hear for yourself in the video he basically starts off by saying that the reason why people thought he had a false prophecy is because you have to have spiritual eyes in order to understand spiritual things he then proceeded to say that the prophecy was actually about the popular vote he says we have seen the outcome of the election in America having read you will notice that it's all about the popular vote the vote of the majority of Americans now this is significant and the reason why is because by saying this he's affirming that the prophecy did come to pass and the prophecy was a true prophecy but does that sound right to you his prophecy was out the new president and the new presidents duties right but clearly even if someone does win the popular vote they still did not become president nor do they have all of the duties that are given to the president and the duties that he mentioned that he saw in his prophecy and later he gave you at another response he says thousands of people that heard my prophecy prayed to God they fasted and prayed that God should change the prophecy that a prophecy was disclosed and did not come to pass does not mean that it is not authentic hmm so now he's saying that the prophecy did not come to pass because it was changed by the prayers of the American people but the problem with that is now he's actually affirming that the prophecy did not come true but his previous excuse said that the prophecy did come true and you needed spiritual eyes to discern that it was all about the polls so which one is it did the prophecy come true or did the prophecy not come true think about it Joshua had a 50-50 chance and he still got the prophecy wrong and now some of his followers are saying that the prophecy still did come true while the rest of them are saying that God changed the prophecy so now we have his followers holding two different views that are mutually exclusive so if you're one of those that are aware of this prophecy and you still believe that TB Joshua is a true prophet of God I just want to ask how could God or anybody else possibly show you that he is indeed a false prophet if Scripture is clear about how we can determine a false prophet and we refuse to accept that criteria then the only conclusion is that we have more faith in men than we do scripture is our unwavering faith in Scripture or is it in men like TV Joshua after the failed prophecy we saw a lot of people who echoed the same kind of thing that this Commodore did here this Commodore says the TV Joshua I will always believe in your prophecies through thick and thin this is why the Bible says the scripture is not only good for teaching preaching and encouragement but it's also good for correcting and rebuking our faith on our trust should be grounded first and foremost not in these other signs not in these miracles not in these men not in these alleged prophets but only in the gospel that's found in the Holy Scripture in a nutshell the true gospel says that none of us are perfect and we cannot be perfect on our own so God took on human flesh and came into the world to pay for our wrongdoings and this is a free gift of grace for all who will cept his offer bounine our trust in Christ allows us to be rightly related to God so that way when God sees us he doesn't see our righteousness our righteousness is filthy rags every single one of us besides Jesus but instead God sees crisis' righteousness in us so why is it in so many of the churches is that not the center of the message that you hear and if there's one thing that I found that's common in all of these churches where people believe that they're under the teachings of a true prophet is that they believed that they couldn't possibly be deceived now I for one I honestly don't doubt their sincerity in the slightest but sincerity is not a safeguard against the seat all of these people believe that everybody else is wrong and they're right based off of their own internal subjective experience however they could or could not be right but the only way to know is to go off of the source and the foundation of all of this that we believe and that's the Holy Scriptures God knew just how easy it was for us to be deceived which is why he punched warnings over and over and over and over and over in the scriptures for us to be on guard against false Gospels and false teachings as the Scriptures make perfectly clear all of us attempted to drift away and go after something else that distracts us from the true heart of the gospel one of the main other criticisms that I got in my video was that I ought to be afraid because I critiqued the man of God but as we already saw many of TV Joshua's followers believe that if I could take TV Joshua I was therefore rejecting God and I was evil and our worship Satan in other words if you reject TB Joshua I think you're rejecting Jesus Christ I got hundreds of comments warning me that the Bible says not to touch God's anointed and because I talked about TB Joshua I'm touching God's anointed and therefore I'm falling under God's wrath and curse but not surprisingly this scripture has been used in defense of every single false prophet of our generation but let's go ahead and talk about that in the next video so the next time that someone tells you that they know someone is a true prophet because they're performing miracles and healings and so on what are you gonna say bro what do you mean



Fate of The False Prophet, Revelation 16, Beatus de Facundus, 1047
Fate of The False Prophet, Revelation 16, Beatus de Facundus, 1047

Throughout the New Testament, there are warnings of both false prophets and false Messiahs, and believers are adjured to be vigilant. The following verses (Matthew 7:15-20) are from the Sermon on the Mount:

"Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing but inwardly are ravenous wolves. You will know them by their fruits. Are grapes gathered from thorns, or figs from thistles? So, every sound tree bears good fruit, but the bad tree bears evil fruit. A sound tree cannot bear evil fruit, nor can a bad tree bear good fruit. Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. Thus you will know them by their fruits."

The New Testament addresses the same point of a false prophet predicting correctly and Jesus predicted the future appearance of false Christs and false prophets, affirming that they can perform great signs and miracles. The following verses are from the Olivet Discourse:

"Take heed that no one leads you astray. For many will come in my name, saying, I am the Christ, and they will lead many astray. [...] Then if any one says to you, Lo, here is the Christ! or There he is!, do not believe it. For false Christs and false prophets will arise and show great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect. Lo, I have told you beforehand. So, if they say to you, Lo, he is in the wilderness, do not go out; if they say, Lo, he is in the inner rooms, do not believe it." (Matthew 24:4-5, 24:23-26)

In the Gospel of Luke, Jesus brought out an ethical application for his disciples using the analogy of false prophets in the Old Testament:

"Woe to you, when all men speak well of you, for so their fathers did to the false prophets." (Luke 6:26)

In the Acts of the Apostles, Paul and Barnabas encountered a false prophet named Elymas Bar-Jesus on the island of Cyprus:

"When they had gone through the whole island as far as Paphos, they came upon a certain magician, a Jewish false prophet, named Bar-Jesus. He was with the proconsul, Sergius Paulus, a man of intelligence, who summoned Barnabas and Saul and sought to hear the word of God. But Elymas the magician (for that is the meaning of his name) withstood them, seeking to turn away the proconsul from the faith. But Saul, who is also called Paul, filled with the Holy Spirit, looked intently at him and said, “You son of the devil, you enemy of all righteousness, full of all deceit and villainy, will you not stop making crooked the straight paths of the Lord? And now, behold, the hand of the Lord is upon you, and you shall be blind and unable to see the sun for a time.” Immediately mist and darkness fell upon him and he went about seeking people to lead him by the hand. Then the proconsul believed, when he saw what had occurred, for he was astonished at the teaching of the Lord." (Acts 13:6-12)

This particular story likewise best matches the model found in Deuteronomy. The claim here is that Elymas is trying to turn Sergius Paulus from the true faith, just like the false prophet described in the preceding verses. In these verses, we do not see Elymas prophesying as the term is popularly understood, so the model seems to fit this scenario best.

The Second Epistle of Peter makes a comparison between false teachers and false prophets and how the former will bring in false teachings, just like the false prophets of old:

"But false prophets also arose among the people, just as there will be false teachers among you, who will secretly bring in destructive heresies, even denying the Master who bought them, bringing upon themselves swift destruction. And many will follow their licentiousness, and because of them the way of truth will be reviled. And in their greed they will exploit you with false words; from of old their condemnation has not been idle, and their destruction has not been asleep." (2 Peter 2:1-3)

The First Epistle of John warns those of the Christian faith to test every spirit because of these false prophets:

"Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits to see whether they are of God; for many false prophets have gone out into the world. By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit which confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is of God, and every spirit which does not confess Jesus is not of God. This is the spirit of antichrist, of which you heard that it was coming, and now it is in the world already." (1 John 4:1-3)

The false prophet of Revelation

One well-known New Testament false prophet is the false prophet mentioned in the Book of Revelation. The Apocalypse's false prophet is the agent of the Beast, the Antichrist, and he is ultimately cast with the Beast into the lake of "fire and brimstone" (Revelation 19:20, 20:10). Another mention of a false prophet in the New Testament is an antichrist spirit which denies the Son.[1][2]


The Quran portrays Muhammad as the Seal of the Prophets,[3] which is understood by mainstream Sunni and Shia Muslims to mean that anyone who claims to be a new prophet after him is a false prophet.[4] All mainstream Muslim scholars' perspectives from both Sunni and Shia denominations do not see the second coming of the Messiah as the coming of a new prophet, as the Islamic Messiah Jesus had already been an existing prophet, and will rule by the Qur'an and Sunnah of Muhammad, bringing no new revelation or prophecy.

Thawban ibn Kaidad narrated that Muhammad said;

"There will be 30 dajjals among my Ummah. Each one will claim that he is a prophet; but I am the last of the Prophets (Seal of the Prophets), and there will be no Prophet after me."

— Related by Ahmad ibn Hanbal as a sound hâdith.

Abu Hurairah narrated that Muhammad said;

"The Hour will not be established until two big groups fight each other whereupon there will be a great number of casualties on both sides and they will be following one and the same religious doctrine, until about 30 dajjals appear, and each of them will claim that he is Allah's Apostle..."

— Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 88: Afflictions and the End of the World, Hâdith Number 237.[5]

Muhammad also stated that the last of these Dajjals would be the False Messiah, al-Masih ad-Dajjal (Antichrist):

Samra ibn Jundab reported once Muhammad (while delivering a ceremonial speech at an occasion of a solar eclipse) said;

"Verily by Allah, the Last Hour will not come until 30 dajjals will appear and the final one will be the One-eyed False Messiah."

— Related by Imam Ahmed and Imam Tabarani as a sound hâdith.

Anas ibn Malik narrated that Muhammad said;

"There is never a prophet who has not warned the Ummah of that one-eyed liar; behold he is one-eyed and your Lord is not one-eyed.[6] Dajjal is blind of one eye[7] On his forehead are the letters k. f. r. (Kafir)[6] between the eyes of the Dajjal[8] which every Muslim would be able to read."[7][9]

— Sahih Muslim, Book 41: The Book Pertaining to the Turmoil and Portents of the Last Hour, Chapter 7: The Turmoil Would Go Like The Mounting Waves of the Ocean, Ahâdith 7007-7009.

Imam Mahdi, the redeemer according to Islam, will appear on Earth before the Day of Judgment.[10][11] At the time of the Second Coming of Christ,[12] the Prophet 'Isa (Jesus Christ son of Mary) will kill al-Masih ad-Dajjal (The Antichrist).[13] Muslims believe that both Jesus and Mahdi will rid the world of wrongdoing, injustice and tyranny, ensuring peace and tranquility.[14]


Jesus is rejected in Judaism as a failed Jewish Messiah claimant and a false prophet.[15][16][17]

"If a prophet, or one who foretells by dreams, appears among you and announces to you a miraculous sign or wonder, and if the sign or wonder of which he has spoken takes place, and he says, 'Let us follow other gods' (gods you have not known) 'and let us worship them,' you must not listen to the words of that prophet or dreamer. The Lord your God is testing you to find out whether you love him with all your heart and with all your soul. It is the Lord your God you must follow, and him you must revere. Keep his commands and obey him; serve him and hold fast to him. That prophet or dreamer must be put to death, because he preached rebellion against the Lord your God, who brought you out of Egypt and redeemed you from the land of slavery; he has tried to turn you from the way the Lord your God commanded you to follow. You must purge the evil from among you" (Deuteronomy 13:1–5 NIV).

The Books of Kings records a story where, under duress from Ahab, the prophet Micaiah depicts God as requesting information from his heavenly counsel as to what he should do with a court of false prophets. This depiction is recorded in 1 Kings 22:19–23:

"Micaiah continued, 'Therefore hear the word of the Lord: I saw the Lord sitting on his throne with all the host of heaven standing around him on his right and on his left.' And the Lord said, 'Who will entice Ahab into attacking Ramoth Gilead and going to his death there?'"
"One suggested this, and another that. Finally, a spirit came forward, stood before the Lord and said, 'I will entice him.'"
"'By what means?' the Lord asked."
"'I will go out and be a lying spirit in the mouths of all his prophets,' he said."
"'You will succeed in enticing him,' said the Lord. 'Go and do it.'"
"So now the Lord has put a lying spirit in the mouths of all these prophets of yours. The Lord has decreed disaster for you" (1 Kings 22:19–23 NIV).

It is possible that Micaiah meant to depict the false prophets as a test from YHWH. It is also possible that it was meant as a slur on Ahab's prophets, such as Zedekiah, the son of Chenaanah.[18]

The penalty for false prophecy, including speaking in the name of a god other than YHWH or speaking presumptuously in YHWH's name, is capital punishment.[19] Likewise, if a prophet makes a prophecy in the name of YHWH that does not come to pass, that is another sign that he is not commissioned of YHWH and that the people need not fear the false prophet.[20]

The Jewish Koine Greek term pseuoprophetes occurs in the Septuagint Jeremiah 6:13, 33:8,11 34:7, 36:1,8, Zechariah 13:2, Josephus' Antiquities 8-13-1,10-7-3, War of the Jews 6-5-2, and Philo Specific Laws 3:8. Classical pagan writers use the term pseudomantis.

Use outside religion

The term false prophet is sometimes applied outside religion, to describe promoters of scientific, medical, or political theories which the author of the phrase thinks are false. Paul Offit's 2008 book Autism's False Prophets applied the phrase to promoters of unproven theories and therapies such as the thiomersal controversy and chelation therapy.[21] Ronald Bailey's 1993 book Ecoscam: The False Prophets of Ecological Apocalypse applied the phrase to promoters of the global warming hypothesis; however, by 2005 Bailey had changed his mind, writing "Anyone still holding onto the idea that there is no global warming ought to hang it up."[22]

See also

References and notes

  1. ^ Gunny, Ahmad (19 Apr 2011). Prophet Muhammad in French and English Literature: 1650 to the Present. The Islamic Foundation. p. 94. ISBN 0860374785.
  2. ^ Tolan, John Victor, ed. (15 September 2000). Medieval Christian Perceptions of Islam: A Book of Essays. Routledge. p. 99. ISBN 0415928923.
  3. ^ Quran 33:40
  4. ^ Quran 9:128–129
  5. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 9:88:237
  6. ^ a b Sahih Muslim, 41:7007
  7. ^ a b Sahih Muslim, 41:7009
  8. ^ Sahih Muslim, 41:7008
  9. ^ "The Signs Before the Day of Judgment by Ibn Kathîr". 2005-07-03. Archived from the original on 2012-03-15. Retrieved 2012-05-24.
  10. ^ Martin 2004: 421
  11. ^ Glasse 2001: 280
  12. ^ [Quran 3:55]
  13. ^ Sahih Muslim, 41:7023
  14. ^ Momen 1985: 166-8
  15. ^ Berger, David; Wyschogrod, Michael (1978). Jews and "Jewish Christianity". [New York]: KTAV Publ. House. ISBN 0-87068-675-5.
  16. ^ Singer, Tovia (2010). Let's Get Biblical. RNBN Publishers; 2nd edition (2010). ISBN 978-0615348391.
  17. ^ Kaplan, Aryeh (1985). The real Messiah? a Jewish response to missionaries (New ed.). New York: National Conference of Synagogue Youth. ISBN 978-1879016118. The real Messiah (pdf)
  18. ^ Mordechai Cogan, 1 Kings: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary, Anchor Bible Commentaries, Yale 2001
  19. ^ Deut 18:20
  20. ^ Deut 18:22
  21. ^ Offit, Paul A. (2008). Autism's False Prophets: Bad Science, Risky Medicine, and the Search for a Cure. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-14636-4.
  22. ^ Bailey R (2005-08-11). "We're all global warmers now". Reason.
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