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Executive Office of the President of the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Executive Office of the President
Seal of the Executive Office of the President of the United States 2014.svg
Seal of the Executive Office
Flag of the Executive Office of the President of the United States.svg
Flag of the Executive Office
Agency overview
FormedJuly 1, 1939; 79 years ago (1939-07-01)
JurisdictionU.S. Federal Government
HeadquartersWhite House, Washington, D.C.
Employees4,000 (approximately)
Annual budget$300–400 million
Agency executives
Websitewww.whitehouse.gov

The Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP) is a group of agencies[1] at the center of the executive branch of the United States federal government. The EOP supports the work of the President. It consists of several offices and agencies, such as the White House Office (the staff working directly for and reporting to the President, including West Wing staff and the President’s closest advisers), National Security Council or Office of Management and Budget.

With the increase in technological and global advancement, the size of the White House staff has increased to include an array of policy experts to effectively address various fields of the modern day. There are about 4,000 positions in the Executive Office of the President, most of which do not require confirmation from the U.S. Senate. The budget for the EOP in FY 2017 was $714 million.[2]

The Executive Office is overseen by the White House Chief of Staff, since January 2, 2019 held by acting Chief of Staff, Mick Mulvaney, appointed by Donald Trump, the current and 45th President of the United States.[3][4][5][6]

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  • ✪ How Presidents Govern: Crash Course Government and Politics #14
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Transcription

Hi, I'm Craig, and this is Crash Course Government and Politics and today we're gonna talk about government. I know what you're thinking, 'Craig we're been talking about government for thirteen weeks'. To that I say, you got me, but let's talk about actual governing, in particular the executive branch tools and strategies that the president uses to try to get things done. I mean, the president's just one person, for now - who knows what sort of animal-human hybrid will be president in the future - but there's a lot of presidenting to be done in the United States So we usually just talk about the president as if he's the entire executive branch, but obviously there's more to it than that, Technically, the entire federal bureaucracy is part of the executive branch, but it's really big and complicated. For today, let's just look at the top-levels. The big-wigs. The Hank Greens. The head honchos. The ones that deal most directly with the president. Hank Green doesn't work for the Government. At the top of the organizational pyramid is the president, of course, and I suppose just below him is the vice president, ready to break a tie in the Senate, or step in if the president dies, or go to a shopping mall opening on behalf of the president. To paraphrase Truman's desk, the buck stops with the president, meaning he has the ultimate decision in important matters and therefore takes the blame when they go wrong. George W. Bush once called himself the decider, and there's a lot of truth to that description, but many, probably most, policy decisions are made at lower levels, because there are just too many of them for the president to make them all. The president is served directly by the White House Staff, which is made up mostly of trusted policy and political advisors called "special assistants" Special assistant, I need more coffee! Other than television versions, we don't see much of the White House staff, except for the press secretary, who's the public spokesperson for the president, and maybe the Chief of Staff can be a public figure as well. Next in terms of proximity to the president and influence on his decisions is the Executive Office of the President. It's staffed by various advisers and policy experts. They're selected by the president and his office rather than by rising through the ranks of government employment, or they're chosen for political reasons like many cabinet secretaries. The officials in the EOP give important advice to the president on specified topics. Although there are a lot of different departments in the EOP, probably the most important are the National Security Council, the Council of Economic Advisors, and the Office of Management and Budget, the OMB. The Cabinet used to be very important in advising the president, and still can be, but that depends on the president. Some presidents rely a lot on the heads of Cabinet departments, and usually the Secretary of State and the Secratary of Defence play a significant role in the administration, especially if there's a lot of foreign policy issues to deal with The Cabinet secretaries tend to become prominent when bad things happen. For example in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, the Treasury Secretary was in the news a lot. You sometimes hear a lot about the Attorney General, who heads the Justice Department when civil rights issues crop up, like same-sex marriage or affirmative action. And if there's a terrorist threat, you might be seeing a lot more of the Secretary of Homeland Security There are also independent agencies and government corporations, which, historically speaking are relatively new, with the exception of the postal service. The postal service is one of the oldest functioning government agencies, although it's now a government corporation, which means it's supposed to earn money and be self-funding. My fiancee's dad worked for the postal service so...postal workers are awesome, sir. Sadly, the postal office isn't doing that great financially, so buy a stamp once in a while! Send a letter to an old friend or something. How else are you going to send it without the post office? The Eagle? No. Amtrak is the other well-known government corporation and it isn't profitable either. How else are you gonna get around? The eagle isn't big enough to take you. Unless you're Gandalf. Independent agencies and regulatory commissions appear in the news a lot, usually in stories buried in the back pages, or whatever the digital equivalent of the back pages are. Your uncle's blog? But they're rarely called independent agencies. NASA's probably the best known independent agency, because everyone knows space travel is awesome. Watch Crash Course Astronomy as well as Sci Show Space. But for now keep watching Government and Politics, thanks. But other more down-to-earth agencies include the Federal Trade Commission, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and the Federal Communications Commission. It's easy to remember those three are regulatory commissions, because they have the word 'commission' built right in, so that's helpful. And for most of us, even if we don't realize it, the most important independent federal agency is the Federal Reserve System, which manages banking and monetary policy, and which will get its own episode later, because it's really important and kind of mysterious. Will I get my own episode later? How Craig relates to the government? I'm kind of mysterious. So that's the structure of the executive branch, more or less. These agencies are the tools that the government has to make policy and to implement it. They are the heart and soul of actual governing but they aren't all that fun, especially when you look at what strategies the president uses to actually govern. Political scientists will tell you, and I'm not gonna argue with them, they're scientists, they went to college, that the president has three main strategies at his disposal: Party leadership, mobilizing public opinion, and administrative strategies. One of these is much more important than the other two. Which one is it, can you guess? Which one? It's not party leadership, but the president is the leader of his political party and can use it to create and manage policy, especially in Congress, where party matters a lot. The president usually appoints members of his own party to head agencies. And once appointed, party affiliation doesn't matter much to an agency head, because he's not running for office. Control of the party makes it easier for the president to get choices through congress though. This strategy doesn't work when there's divided government, but when one party controls both chambers of Congress and the White House, it's easier for the president to use his position as party leader as leverage to accomplish his policy goals When they're in different parties? Not so much. Hoo, it's more like this. That was my third eagle punch of the video. Mobilizing public opinion is also not the most important tool in the president's toolbox, but going public is what I'm going to talk about right now. The president's access to the media is almost limitless. Now that doesn't mean he gets free Netflix, although he might, especially if he just shares a log-in with the vice president or something. But, if he wants a press conference, or a speech on national TV, he gets it. This use of the media is sometimes called the bully pulpit, and it sounds like a big policy stick, but it has a downside. Basically, it's not really gonna work if the president isn't popular, and his approval rating almost always declines the longer he is in office This leaves us the third tool that the president can use to get things done, administrative strategy. Yes, that's the most important one, using administrative agencies to make and carry out policies. Hoo-hah, yeah! Let's go to the Thought Bubble. There are a number of ways that the president can use his administrative offices to bring about the objectives he wants. Over time the president has expanded the size and capacities of the executive office of the president, especially since the New Deal. This enlarged EOP gathers information about policies, plans programs, communicates with constituents, including Congress and interest groups and it can supervise other agencies and check up on how they're working. One of the most important examples of this is the expanded reach of the office of management and budget, or OMB, to plan the budget and exercise huge influence over how government money is spent. Another administrative strategy that the president can use is regulatory review. Federal agencies are usually required to make rules for how they operate. The president's office can review these rules, make suggestions, or even order agencies to adopt certain rules. This can have enormous direct and indirect influence over how the rule is implemented. To give an example, president Bill Clinton ordered the FDA to make rules so that tobacco companies couldn't advertise to children, so you don't see cigarette ads on kids' TV, or any TV actually, and that's why teenagers never smoke, ever. They just ride their heelies around and play Pokenan. The president can also try to influence the way a law is implemented by issuing a signing statement when he signs a bill into law. This is the White House's interpretation of what the law means and they become a part of the legislative history that courts can use if the laws are challenged, although it's not clear that they have any real legal weight, and they might violate separation of powers because courts are supposed to decide what a law means, not the president. The most important administrative strategy that the president has at his disposal is the executive order. These are presidential directives that have the force of law and presidents have used them for major policies that would have been difficult to get through Congress. Thanks, Thought Bubble. When I say that executive action has been used to push through major policies, I mean MAJOR policies, like purchasing Louisiana, annexing Texas, emancipating the slaves, interning Japanese Americans during WWII, desegregating the army, creating the peace corps, and implementing affirmative action. Presidents increasingly rely on administrative strategies for a number of reasons, but especially because they work. Administrative strategies usually happen outside of the public eye, which makes it easier for the president to act Courts usually defer to administrative actions, especially in the area of national defense. And administrative action can be much more efficient than having to wait for a majority of 535 members of Congress to agree on something, especially if it's something important. But the increasingly large and powerful executive branch is controversial, and critics have worried about the growing power of the president since FDR, or maybe even since Jackson. There's an argument that the founders of the country preferred a weak executive branch, and not because all that administration is expensive, but there are also a few arguments in favor of an expanded presidency that you should know about. The first is that in emergencies the nation needs a leader who can act fast, and the president is the best suited to be that leader. Maybe Captain America as well, but he's fictional. Of course this could potentially give him an incentive to create emergencies and further increase his power, but how about let's not get cynical, ok? The second argument holds that the president is more able to act in the public interest because he's the center of public attention and thus easily held accountable, and because he only has to run for re-election once. The third argument in favor of a powerful president is that he is the only nationally elected official and thus the most democratic one. The only nationally elected official? Really? What about errrr....oh yeah, you're right. The idea is that since most people pay attention to the presidential elections by choosing one person over another, the majority of the public is implicitly endorsing his policies. I mean, everyone loves the president's policies. Everyone. Do you buy it? I'm not sure that I do. Maybe you do. But, increasing the complexity of our understanding is kind of what we do here at Crash Course. Thanks for watching, I'll see you next time. Crash Course Government and Politics is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios. Support for Crash Course US Government comes from Voqal. Voqal supports non-profits that use technology and media to advance social equity. Learn more about their mission and initiatives at voqal.org Crash Course was made with the help of these presidents of the United States. Thanks for watching.

Contents

History

In 1939, during Franklin D. Roosevelt's second term in office, the foundations of the modern White House staff were created. Based on the recommendations of a presidentially commissioned panel of political science and public administration experts that was known as the Brownlow Committee, Roosevelt was able to get Congress to approve the Reorganization Act of 1939. The Act led to Reorganization Plan No. 1,[7] which created the EOP,[8] which reported directly to the president. The EOP encompassed two subunits at its outset: the White House Office (WHO) and the Bureau of the Budget, the predecessor to today's Office of Management and Budget, which had been created in 1921 and originally located in the Treasury Department. It absorbed most of the functions of the National Emergency Council.[9] Initially, the new staff system appeared more ambitious on paper than in practice; the increase in the size of the staff was quite modest at the start. But it laid the groundwork for the large and organizationally complex White House staff that would emerge during the presidencies of Roosevelt's successors.[10]

Roosevelt's efforts are also notable in contrast to those of his predecessors in office. During the 19th century, presidents had few staff resources. Thomas Jefferson had one messenger and one secretary at his disposal, both of whose salaries were paid by the president personally. It was not until 1857 that Congress appropriated money ($2,500) for the hiring of one clerk. By Ulysses S. Grant's presidency (1869–1877), the staff had grown to three. By 1900, the White House staff included one "secretary to the president" (then the title of the president's chief aide), two assistant secretaries, two executive clerks, a stenographer, and seven other office personnel. Under Warren G. Harding, there were thirty-one staff, although most were clerical positions. During Herbert Hoover's presidency, two additional secretaries to the president were added by Congress, one of whom Hoover designated as his Press Secretary. From 1933 to 1939, even as he greatly expanded the scope of the federal government's policies and powers in response to the Great Depression, Roosevelt muddled through: his "brains trust" of top advisers were often appointed to vacant positions in agencies and departments, whence they drew their salaries since the White House lacked statutory or budgetary authority to create new staff positions.

After World War II, in particular during the presidency of Dwight David Eisenhower, the staff was expanded and reorganized. Eisenhower, a former U.S. Army general, had been Supreme Allied Commander during the war, and brought ideas of effective organization from that experience.[11]

Today, the staff is much bigger. Estimates indicate some 3,000 to 4,000 persons serve in EOP staff positions with policy-making responsibilities, with a budget of $300 to $400 million (George W. Bush's budget request for Fiscal Year 2005 was for $341 million in support of 1,850 personnel).[12]

Organization

Senior staff within the EOP have the title Assistant to the President, second-level staff have the title Deputy Assistant to the President, and third-level staff have the title Special Assistant to the President.

The core White House staff appointments, and most EOP officials generally, are not required to be confirmed by the U.S. Senate, although there are a handful of exceptions (e.g., the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Chair and members of the Council of Economic Advisers, and the United States Trade Representative).

The information in the following table is current as of April 4, 2018. Only principal executives are listed; for subordinate officers, see individual office pages.

Agency Principal executive Incumbent
White House Office White House Chief of Staff Mick Mulvaney (Acting)
National Security Council Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs John R. Bolton
Council of Economic Advisers Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers Kevin Hassett
Council on Environmental Quality Managing Director of the Council on Environmental Quality Vacant
Executive Residence Staff and Operations White House Chief Usher Timothy Harleth[13]
Office of Administration Director of the Office of Administration Marcia Lee Kelly
Office of Management and Budget Director of the Office of Management and Budget Mick Mulvaney
Office of National Drug Control Policy Director of National Drug Control Policy James W. Carroll (Acting)
Office of Science and Technology Policy Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy Vacant
Office of the United States Trade Representative United States Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer
Office of the Vice President of the United States Chief of Staff to The Vice President Nick Ayers

White House Offices

The White House Office (including its various offices listed below) is a sub-unit of the Executive Office of the President (EOP). The various agencies of the EOP are listed above.

Budget history

Year Budget
2017 $714 million[2]
2016 $692 million[14]
2015 $676 million[15]
2014 $624 million[16]
2013 $650 million[17]
2012 $640 million[18]
2011 $708 million[19]
2010 $772 million[20]
2009 $728 million[21]
2008 $682 million[22]
2007 $need cite million[23]
2006 $need cite million[23]
2005 $need cite million[23]
2004 $need cite million[23]
2003 $386 million[23]
2002 $451 million[23]
2001 $246 million[23]
2000 $283 million[23]
1999 $417 million[23]
1998 $237 million[23]
1997 $221 million[23]
1996 $202 million[23]
1995 $215 million[23]
1994 $231 million[23]
1993 $194 million[23]

See also

References

  1. ^ Harold C. Relyea (26 November 2008). The Executive Office of the President: A Historical Overview (PDF) (Report). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  2. ^ a b "FY 2017 Omnibus Summary – Financial Services and General Government Appropriations" (PDF). House Appropriations Committee. May 1, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  3. ^ Hartnett, Cass. "Library Guides: United States Federal Government Resources: The Executive Office of the President". guides.lib.uw.edu. Retrieved 2019-01-05.
  4. ^ Trump, Donald J. (2018-12-14). "I am pleased to announce that Mick Mulvaney, Director of the Office of Management & Budget, will be named Acting White House Chief of Staff, replacing General John Kelly, who has served our Country with distinction. Mick has done an outstanding job while in the Administration..." @realDonaldTrump. Retrieved 2019-01-05.
  5. ^ Swanson, Ian (2018-12-14). "Trump names Mulvaney acting chief of staff". TheHill. Retrieved 2019-01-05.
  6. ^ O'Toole, Molly. "John F. Kelly says his tenure as Trump's chief of staff is best measured by what the president did not do". latimes.com. Retrieved 2019-01-05.
  7. ^ Roosevelt, Franklin D. (April 25, 1939). "Message to Congress on the Reorganization Act". John T. Woolley and Gerhard Peters. The American Presidency Project. Santa Barbara: University of California. Retrieved May 6, 2011.
  8. ^ Mosher, Frederick C. (1975). American Public Administration: Past, Present, Future (2nd ed.). Birmingham: University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-4829-8.
  9. ^ Roosevelt, Franklin D. (May 9, 1939). "Message to Congress on Plan II to Implement the Reorganization Act". John T. Woolley and Gerhard Peters. The American Presidency Project. Santa Barbara: University of California. Retrieved May 6, 2011. The plan provides for the abolition of the National Emergency Council and the transfer to the Executive Office of the President of all its functions with the exception of the film and radio activities which go to the Office of Education.
  10. ^ Relyea, Harold C. (March 17, 2008). "The Executive Office of the President: An Historical Overview" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  11. ^ Patterson, Bradley H. (1994). "Teams and Staff: Dwight Eisenhower's Innovations in the Structure and Operations of the Modern White House". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 24 (2): 277–298. JSTOR 27551241.
  12. ^ Burke, John P. "Administration of the White House". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Archived from the original on November 17, 2010. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
  13. ^ Bennett, Kate (June 23, 2017). "Trump family hires familiar face as chief usher". CNN.
  14. ^ "Appropriations Committee Releases Fiscal Year 2016 Financial Services Bill". House Appropriations Committee. May 24, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  15. ^ "Appropriations Committee Releases Fiscal Year 2015 Financial Services Bill". House Appropriations Committee. July 16, 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  16. ^ "Appropriations Committee Releases Fiscal Year 2014 Financial Services Bill". House Appropriations Committee. July 17, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  17. ^ "Appropriations Committee Releases Fiscal Year 2013 Financial Services Bill". House Appropriations Committee. June 5, 2012. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  18. ^ "Appropriations Committee Releases Fiscal Year 2012 Financial Services Bill". House Appropriations Committee. June 15, 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  19. ^ "Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2011 Appropriations". Congressional Research Service. July 11, 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  20. ^ "Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2010 Appropriations" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. February 4, 2010. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  21. ^ "Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2009 Appropriations" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. May 12, 2009. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  22. ^ "Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2008 Appropriations". Congressional Research Service. December 20, 2007. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Historical Tables, Table 4.1—OUTLAYS BY AGENCY: 1962–2022". OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET. January 20, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.

External links

This page was last edited on 27 January 2019, at 23:07
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