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Eustace Grenier

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Eustace I Granier
Lord of Sidon
Reignb. 1110–1123
SuccessorEustace II
Lord of Caesarea
Reign1110–1123
SuccessorWalter
Died15 June 1123
Burial
SpouseEmma
IssueWalter
Eustace II
Names
Eustachius Granarius
HouseGranier or Grenier
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Eustace I Granier, also known as Eustace Grenier or Eustace Garnier, called in Latin Eustachius Granarius in the charters[1] (died on 15 June 1123), was a nobleman from the Diocese of Thérouanne in the County of Saint-Pol[a] who went to the Holy Land either during the First Crusade or around 1100. He became an influential retainer of King Baldwin I of Jerusalem, who granted the Lordship of Sidon and Lordship of Caesarea to him. After Baldwin II of Jerusalem was captured in April 1123 by Belek Ghazi, Eustace was elected Constable of Jerusalem and Bailiff of Jerusalem. Shortly before his death in 1123, he defeated a Fatimid army as the Battle of Yibneh near Ibelin.

Early life

Eustace Granier's place of origin is given by a poem in Latin, the Versus de viris illustribus diocesis Tarvanensis qui in sacra fuere expeditione writen by an unknown author who was one of his contemporaries : [3]. In this poem he is cited among the knights of the Diocese of Thérouanne who accompanied Baldwin of Boulogne, the future King of Jerusalem, to the Holy Land. The author writes :
"Par Belramensis, fit princeps Caesariensis
Eustachius notus miles, cognomine Gernirs"
(Trad) :
"Peer of Belrem became prince of Caesarea
Eustace famous soldier, named Gernirs"

Historian Alan V. Murray in his book The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A Dynastic History 1099-1125 (2000) writes :
"However, his origins can be established with a high degree of certainty. The Versus de viris illustribus diocesis Tarvanensis qui in sacra fuere expeditione identifies him as a Fleming from the Diocese of Thérouanne."[2] According to his analysis of the text and his research, Eustace Granier was a military official in the castle of Beaurainville in the County of Saint-Pol.[4] He was a rear-vassal of Eustace III of Boulogne,[5] because the counts of Saint-Pol held Beaurainville in fief from the Counts of Boulogne.[4] Eustace's surname implies that either Eustace or one of his ancestors was responsible for the management of a store-house. Alan V. Murray says, Eustace most probably came to the Holy Land in the retinue of his lord, Hugh II of Saint-Pol, during the First Crusade.[4] Jonathan Riley-Smith writes that Eustace arrived to the Kingdom of Jerusalem after 1099.[6]

In the Kingdom of Jerusalem

One of the most important lords of the Kingdom of Jerusalem

Eustace became one of the most trusted officials of the younger brother of Eustace III of Boulogne, Baldwin I of Jerusalem.[5] His participation in the Third Battle of Ramla in August 1105 was the first recorded event of his life in the Kingdom of Jerusalem.[7] Baldwin appointed him and Pagan of Haifa to start negotiations with Bertrand of Toulouse, William Jordan of Cerdanya and Tancred, the regent of Antioch, about the organization of a conference where they could resolve their conflicts.[5] The crusader leaders assembled near Tripoli and reached a compromise in June 1109.[8] Their reconciliation enabled their united armies to force the defenders of Tripoli to surrender on 26 June.[9]

Baldwin I granted Caesarea to Eustace before September 1110.[7][6] Eustace also received Sidon, which was captured by the united forces of Baldwin I and Sigurd I of Norway on 5 December.[7][10] He participated in Baldwin I's military campaigns against Shaizar in 1111.[7] In the same year, he financed the building of siege machines during the unsuccessful siege of Tyre.[7]

The lordships of Caesarea and Sidon and his wife's dowry made Eustace the most powerful noblemen in the entire kingdom.[4] He also had preeminent position in the royal council.[4] He was one of the four secular lords to attend the legislative assembly that Baldwin I's successor, Baldwin II of Jerusalem, and Warmund, Patriarch of Jerusalem held at Nablus on 16 January 1120.[11] The assembly passed decrees that regulated the collection and spending of tithes and ordered the persecution of adultery, procuring, homosexuality, bigamy and sexual relations between Christians and Muslims.[12]

Constable and Bailiff of Jerusalem

After The Artuqid prince Belek Ghazi captured Baldwin II on 18 April 1123.[13] Patriarch Warmund convoked an assembly to Acre where Eustace was elected Constable of Jerusalem and Bailiff of Jerusalem to administer the kingdom during the king's captivity.[14] Baldwin took possession of the fortress of Kharpurt where he had been held in captivity.[15] Eustace soon sent reinforcements to Kharpurt to assist the king, but Balak ibn Bahram recaptured the fortress by the time the crusader troops reached it.[15]

A Fatimid army invaded the kingdom from Ascalon in May 1123.[16][17] Eustace attacked the invaders near Ibelin and defeated them on 29 May.[16][17] He did not long survive his victory, because he died on 15 June 1123.[18] He was buried in the Church of Saint Mary of the Latins.[4] According to William of Tyre he was "a wise and prudent man, with great experience in military matters".[19]

Family

Eustace married Emma of Chocques, the niece of Arnulf of Chocques, the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem.[4] Arnulf gave Jericho to Eustace as Emma's dowry, although the town had been the property of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.[4][20]

With Emma, Eustace was the father of the twins, Gerard (also known as Eustace II) and Walter, who succeeded him in Sidon and Caesarea respectively.[4][6][21] Emma married Hugh II of Le Puiset, Count of Jaffa.[21] The relationship between her second husband and her sons was tense.[22]

His descendant Julian Grenier sold the Lordship of Sidon to the Knights Templar after it was destroyed by the Mongols in 1260 after the Battle of Ain Jalut.[23]

His descendants continued to rule the Lordship of Caesarea until it became the property of John Aleman by right of his marriage to Margaret Grenier in 1238 or 1243.[24]

The Granier or Grenier family became extinct with two brothers : Balian II (who died at Botron in 1277) and John (who died in Armenia in 1289), they were the sons of Julian Grenier (died in 1275), lord of Sidon and his wife Euphemia, daughter of Hethum I, King of Armenia.[25]

Notes

  1. ^ Alan V. Murray in his book The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A Dynastic History 1099-1125 (2000) writes : "However, his origins can be established with a high degree of certainty. The Versus de viris illustribus diocesis Tarvanensis qui in sacra fuere expeditione identifies him as a Fleming from the diocese of Therouanne : Par belramensis, fit princeps Caesariensis / Eustachius notus miles, cognomine Gernirs. The form Gernirs is also used by William of Tyre, and seems to be a vernacular equivalent of the latin forms of Eustace’s surname which would seem to indicate an official in charge of a granarium (store-house), although as this appears to have become a hereditary surname carried on by his descendants it does not necessary reveal anything about Eustace himself. The phrase par belramensis can most satisfactorily be explained as the noun par in the sense of peer, a military office with an attached fief known in the county of Flanders from the mid-eleventh century, plus an adjective deriving from a toponym; since this must necessarily be sought in the diocese of Thérouanne it must refer to Beaurain-château (F, Pas-de-Calais, arr. Montreuil-sur-Mer) on the River Canche, which is mentioned in 723 as Belrinio super Qanchia sitas in pago Tarvaninse and in the eleventh and twelfth centuries as Belrem and castellum de Belrain. As Beaurain-Château was part of the county of Saint-Pol, held from the count of Boulogne, it is likely that Eustace was originally on crusade with Count Hugh of Saint-Pol and his son Engelrand."[2]

References

  1. ^ Hans Eberhard Mayer, Kings and Lords in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, Variorum, 1994, p. 122.
  2. ^ a b Alan V. Murray, The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A Dynastic History 1099-1125, Occasional Publications UPR, 2000, pp. 193-194.
  3. ^ Société des antiquaires de la Morinie, Bulletin historique, vol. 8, 1892, p. 472 : 'Il était contemporain des événements : nostris diebus, dit-il, cela s'est passé de nos jours.' trad. 'He was contemporary with the events : nostris diebus he wrote, it happened nowadays.'
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Murray 2000, p. 194.
  5. ^ a b c Barber 2012, p. 91.
  6. ^ a b c Riley-Smith 1973, p. 33.
  7. ^ a b c d e Murray 2000, p. 193.
  8. ^ Barber 2012, pp. 91–92.
  9. ^ Barber 2012, p. 92.
  10. ^ Barber 2012, p. 93.
  11. ^ Barber 2012, p. 129.
  12. ^ Barber 2012, pp. 128–129.
  13. ^ Runciman 1989, pp. 161–162.
  14. ^ Runciman 1989, pp. 162–163.
  15. ^ a b Runciman 1989, p. 164.
  16. ^ a b Lock 2006, p. 37.
  17. ^ a b Runciman 1989, p. 166.
  18. ^ Barber 2012, p. 140.
  19. ^ William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea, Volume 1, Octagon Books, 1976, p. 541.
  20. ^ Runciman 1989, p. 85.
  21. ^ a b Barber 2012, p. 154.
  22. ^ Runciman 1989, p. 191.
  23. ^ Kennedy 1994, p. 128.
  24. ^ Lamonte, John L. (1947). "The Lords of Caesarea in the Period of the Crusades". Speculum. 22 (2): 158–59.
  25. ^ Medieval Lands LORDS of CAESARIA (GARNIER)

Sources

  • Barber, Malcolm (2012). The Crusader States. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11312-9.
  • Lock, Peter (2006). The Routledge Companion to the Crusades. Routledge. ISBN 9-78-0-415-39312-6.
  • Murray, Alan V. (2000). The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A Dynastic History, 1099–1125. Prosopographica et Geneologica. ISBN 978-1-9009-3403-9.
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan (1973). The Feudal Nobility and the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1174-1277. Macmillan.
  • Runciman, Steven (1989). A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East, 1100-1187. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-06163-6.
Preceded by
Hugh Caulis
Constable of Jerusalem
1123
Succeeded by
William I of Bures
Preceded by
none
Lord of Caesarea
aft. 1101–1123
Succeeded by
Walter I
Preceded by
none
Lord of Caesarea
1111–1123
Succeeded by
Eustace II
This page was last edited on 19 April 2021, at 19:20
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